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Introduction x 


The Navaho Origin Legend. 

I. The Story of the Emergence 63 

II. Early Events in the Fifth World 76 

III. The War Gods . . • 104 

IV. Growth of the Navaho Nation 135 

Nati'nesthani .160 

The Great Shell of Kintvel 




Bibliographic Notes .• 276 



Index 291 



I. Navaho Gods as represented in the dry-paintings . Frontispiece 

II. San Francisco Mountain, Arizona 63 

III. Distant view of San Mateo Mountain, New Mexico .... 76 

IV. Nayenezgani . . . 104 

V. El Cabezon 114 

VI. Lava flow in the valley of the San Josd, New Mexico . ■. . .118 

VII. 7b'bad«Istjfni 134 


i. Manuelito (portrait) 3 

2. Mariano (portrait) 4 

3. Jake the Silversmith (portrait) 5 

4. Tcinapa (portrait) 6 

5. H^dapa (portrait) 7 

6. Navaho man (portrait) . 9 

7. Navaho man (portrait) 10 

8. Navaho skull, flattened at occiput 11 

9. Navaho baby-case or cradle . . .12 

10. Conical lodge with storm-door 13 

11. Hut of logs ■. 14 

1 2. Hut built partly of stone 15 

13. Summer houses 16 

14. Medicine-lodge 16 

15. Sudatory 17 

16. Sacred basket 18 

17. Sacred basket 19 

18. Silver ornaments 20 

19. Woman spinning . . 21 

20. Ordinary loom 23 

21. Loom for weaving diagonal cloth .25 

22. The White House 36 

23. Talking kethawn . 39 

24. Circle kethawn 40 

25. Kethawns (sacrificial sticks and cigarettes) in basket . . . -43 

26. Mask of yucca . 46 

viii Illustrations. 

27. Mask of //astreyal/i 47 

28. Mask of yebaad or goddess 48 

29. Picture of ji/neole, a dry-painting of the night chant . . . .49 

30. Ah'li or show (" dance ") of the nahikai ....... 52 

31. //a/a/i Natloi (portrait) 57 

32. The shaman //a/a/i Nez (Tall Chanter) (portrait) .... 59 

33. Trail of Estsanatlehi (diagram) . . . . . . . . .148 

34. Trail of turkey approaching his master (diagram) . . . ... 171 

35. Trail of man and turkey (diagram) 173 

36. Ruin in the Chaco Canyon, probably Kfntye'l 195 

37. Circle of branches of the rite of the mountain chant .... 206 

38. Natural bridge, near Fort Defiance, Arizona 227 

39. Yucca baccata 228 

40. Drumstick made of yucca leaves 229 

41. Diagram of bow-symbol on left leg of the personator of Nayenezgani . 253 

42. Diagram of queue-symbol on left leg of the personator of 7b'bad.2istrini 253 

Map of the Navaho country 1 




to Miles 




i. The legends contained in this book are those of the Navaho 1 
Indians, a tribe living in the southwestern portion of the United 
States ; mostly in the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, but 
partly in the States of Colorado and Utah. A definite reservation of 
over 12,000 square miles has been set apart for them ; but in every 
direction, beyond the borders of this reservation, isolated families 
and small bands may be found dwelling, either temporarily or per- 
manently, in localities where there are springs, streams, pools, or 
artificial reservoirs of water. Some have taken up homesteads — or 
have otherwise acquired a legal title to lands beyond the borders of 
the reservation ; others are merely squatters. A brief description 
of these Indians — their arts, religion, ceremonies, etc. — is included 
in this introduction, in the belief that, if the reader possesses some 
knowledge of the Navaho before he begins to read the tales, he may 
have a better understanding of the latter. But much more informa- 
tion, of interest to the ethnographer, will be found in notes. Some 
items in the introduction could not properly have appeared in the 
notes, as there was nothing in the tales to suggest them. Other 
items might perhaps as well have been transferred to the notes ; the 
decision to put them in the introduction was often arbitrary. 

2. Title of Book. — In selecting a title for this book, the word 
Legends was chosen, rather than Myths, for the reason that the 
tales contained herein, though mostly mythical, are not altogether 
such. In the Origin Legend, the last chapter, " The Growth of the 
Navaho Nation," is in part traditional or historical, and it is even 
approximately correct in many of its dates, as has been shown by 
Frederick Webb Hodge in his paper on the " L\arly Navaho and 
Apache." 301 


3. The land which the Navahoes occupy is arid, though not an 
absolute desert. The precipitation at an altitude of 7,000 feet 

2 Introduction. 

amounts on an average to only 14. 10 inches during the year (at lower 
altitudes it is less, at higher altitudes greater), and this is gen- 
erally confined to two short seasons of moisture separated from 
one another by months of absolute drought, which, except in spe- 
cially favored localities, would destroy any of our ordinary field- 
crops. But there are small spots, far apart, where irrigation can 
be practised, and there are other places, apparently deserts, which 
no white man would think of cultivating, but where Indians raise 
meagre crops of corn, squashes, and melons. 

4. Soil. — He who stands on the brow of the mesa at the Indian 
pueblo of Walpi, in Arizona, may unravel one secret of Indian agri- 
culture in the arid region, and learn why ancient ruins may be found 
in the most desolate parts. Six hundred feet below him stretches 
a sandy plain which at most seasons of the year seems almost an 
absolute desert ; yet in summer it is green with rows of dwarf 
corn. Little rain falls on|it and there is no irrigation ; yet the corn 
grows and furnishes a return which repays an Indian, at least, for 
his labor. Through the plain runs a gully which at certain seasons 
drains the water from a high table-land beyond. The water does not 
all flow off, but in part settles under the sandy surface, and keeps 
the subsoil moist throughout the year. By planting deep, the Indian 
farmers reach this moist subsoil, and place their seeds where the 
long drought cannot destroy them. On the side of the mesa, peach- 
trees flourish, with hidden moisture that comes out between the 
rocky strata at the mesa's edge. Localities similar to those de- 
scribed are found in the Navaho land, and similarly used by the 
Navaho for farms and peach orchards. The myths make frequent 
allusions to such farms or gardens. 

5. A few fields have recently been made by white men in the 
high meadows of the Zufii Mountains at altitudes above 8,000 feet, 
where potatoes, oats, barley, and garden vegetables are raised with- 
out irrigation ; but farming at such altitudes was never tried by the 
Navahoes, and they knew nothing of cultivating the crops named 
above. Beside their aboriginal crops, they have for a long time 
raised a little wheat. Potatoes grow wild in the Navaho country. 

6. Mines. — Fortunately for the Navahoes, no mines of precious 
metals have yet been discovered on their reservation ; although for 
years past rumors of such discoveries have from time to time been 
circulated, and unwelcome prospectors have frequently invaded their 
territory. For many years previous to 1892 the principal attrac- 
tion lay in the Carrizo Mountains. 2 A legend of a mine called the 
Lost Adam, and of miners murdered in these mountains, had cir- 
culated long through Colorado mining camps. Troubles between 
intruders and Indians became so frequent and threatening in this 


region that General 
McCook, then com- 
manding the Depart- 
ment of Arizona, 
which included the 
Navahp reservation, 
determined to make 
an expedition and set- 
tle, if possible, the 
question of the exist- 
ence of valuable mines 
in the Carrizo Moun- 
tains. A commission, 
consisting of Gen. A. 
McD. McCook, U. S. 
A., ex-Gov. John L. 
Barstow of Vermont, 
and Prof. J. G. Allyn 
of New Mexico, was 
appointed. The com- 
mission entered the 
mountains with a 
mounted escort in 
May, 1 892, and invited 
prospectors who had 
previously visited the 
region to come and 
show where the min- 
eral lay. They came, 
and then it appeared 

they had staked off various claims and given them felicitous names 
such as the western miners know how to coin, — the "Lucky 
Bill," the " Boggy Snoggy," etc. Specimen ores were collected 
from every point where they were seen, and submitted to careful 
expert examination ; but all proved worthless. Some fine gold has 
been found in the sands of the San Juan River, 3 within the Navaho 
reservation ; but it has not been found profitable to work for it. 

7. Surface — Forests. — The surface of the country over which 
the Navahoes are scattered varies in altitude from 4)000 feet, or 
less, in the valley of the Colorado, to over 11,000 feet in the high 
peaks of Tsisnadei'ni, 52 San Mateo, 54 San Francisco, 56 and the San 
Juan M range, which traditionally border their land. In the central 
and more thickly inhabited portion the highest eminence is in the 
Tuincha Mountains, 9,575 feet. The average altitude is about 6,ooo 

Fig. 1. Manuelito. 

4 Introduction. 

feet. The country consists mostly of great plains and of plateaux 
or mesas. While the lower levels, except in the bottom-lands of 
the constantly flowing rivers, are destitute of trees, the mesas, at 
altitudes of from 6,000 to 7,000 feet, are well covered with low 
forests of pinon (Pinus edulis), red cedar (Juniperns virginianus) 
and juniper {Juniperns occidentalis). A* altitudes of 7,000 feet 

Fig. 2. Mariano. 

white pine (Pinus ponderosa) is sparingly found ; but at altitudes 
of 8,000 feet or more it grows abundantly and attains a good size. 
Spruce (Pseudotsuga taxifolid) is found in shaded valleys, and on 
northern hill-slopes above 7,000 feet, but it does not form an impor- 
tant part of the forest. It is an essential element in certain rites. 
Cottonwood (Populus monolifera and P. wislisenii), aspen (Popu- 
lus tirmuloides), oak (Quercus gambellii), oak-bark juniper (jFuni- 
perus pachyphlcea), and other trees grow less abundantly. 


■ : : ■■■■■■ ■■-■ ■■■■*' '■'■■'■ ■■■■■■■ 

8. Pasturage — Flocks and Herds. — While the Navaho Indians 
cultivate the soil, it is evident, from what has been said, that they 
do not do so to any great extent. Their crops furnish but a small 
part of their subsistence. But their sterile country is fairly well 
adapted to the raising of sheep and goats. These form their chief 
food supply, and the former their principal source of wealth. With 
the money received for their wool they purchase flour and other 
provisions from the white traders, as well as various articles of 
luxury and utility. They possess many ponies and ride a great 
deal. They raise a few neat cattle. 

9. As domesticated sheep and goats were unknown in America 
previous to the discovery by Columbus, and were unknown in New 
Mexico previous to the expedition of Coronado in a. d. 1540, it fol- 
lows that the Navahoes have not been shepherds for many cen- 
turies. It would appear from their legends that it is not many 
years since they have become - 

a prosperous and wealthy 
people (and such they now 
are, for savages) ; that in old 
days they were even poor 
hunters ; and that they lived 
largely on the seeds of wild 
plants and on small animals 
that they caught in fall-traps. 
How meagrely they were 
dressed and equipped the 
legends also tell us. (See 
pars. 382, 384, 391.) 


10. No exact census^of the 
tribe has ever been taken, 
and it would not now be an 
easy task to take one, because 
the Navahoes are scattered 
so widely and over such a 
wild and rugged territory 
Their low huts, built in tan- 
gled cedar-woods or in re- 
gions of scattered rocks, are 
often so obscurely hidden 
that one may ride through a 
cluster of a dozen inhabited 
houses thinking there is not 

Fig- 3- Jake the Silversmith. 


Fig. 4. 7anapa. 

an Indian within ten miles of him. When the Navahoes were 
held in captivity at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, from 1863 to 1867, 
they depended for subsistence mostly on rations supplied by the 
United States, and then these captives, at least, could be accu- 
rately counted. There were in 1867 7,300 in captivity. 298 Owing 
to desertions on the one hand, and additional surrenders on the 
other, the numbers varied from time to time. 

11. But while the majority of the tribe were prisoners of war, 
it is well known that all were not captured during General Car- 
son's invasion in 1863, but that many still roamed at large while 
their brethren were prisoners. The count of the prisoners, there- 
fore, does not show the strength of the tribe. 

Introduction. 7 

12. Perhaps the most accurate census ever taken was that of 
1869. "In November of 1869 a count was made of the tribe, in 
order to distribute among them 30,000 head of sheep and 2,000 
goats. Due notice was given months before, and the tribe was 
present. The Indians were all put in a large corral, and counted 
as they went in. A few herders, holding the small herds that they 

Fig. 5. Hadapa (from photograph by J. K. HHlers). 

had then bunched on the surrounding hills, were not in the corral. 
The result of this count showed that there were less than 9,000 
Navahoes all told, making a fair allowance for all who had failed to 
come in. At that time everything favored getting a full count ; 
rations were issued to them every four days ; they had but little 
stock, and, in addition to the issue of the sheep and goats, there 
were also two years' annuities to be given out. The season of the 

8 Introduction. 

year was favorable, the weather fine, and they were all anxious to 
get the sheep and goats and annuities." 268 

13. In 1890 a count of these Indians was made as a part of the 
Eleventh Census of the United States. 297 Before the count was 
begun, the writer was informed by one of the enumerators that the 
plan to be employed was this : The Navaho country was to be divided 
into a number of districts, and a special enumerator was to be sent to 
each district at the same time to visit each hut and take the number 
of each family. Whether this method was carried out, the report of 
the Eleventh Census does not tell us. But this plan, while probably 
the best that could be employed at the time with the means allotted, 
was very imperfect and admitted of numerous sources of error, of 
which two may be specified. Many huts might easily be passed 
unnoticed, for reasons already given, and this would make the enu- 
meration too low. Many families might easily have been counted in 
more than one district, for the Navaho frequently shifts his abode, 
and this would make the count too high. The result of this enu- 
meration was to give the tribe a population of 17,204 for that year. 
White men, living in the Navaho country at the time, generally con- 
sidered the estimate excessive. If the count of 1869 be approx- 
imately correct, that of 1890 is probably not. It is not reasonable 
to suppose that by natural increase alone — and no other source of 
increment is known — the tribe should have nearly doubled in 
twenty-one years. It would require birth-rates much higher and 
death-rates much lower than those commonly found in Indian tribes 
to double the population in that time. The Indian mother is not 

14. The Navahoes say that during their captivity they had much 
sickness and diminished in numbers ; but nothing has been found in 
official reports to corroborate such statements. All who have any 
intimate knowledge of the Navahoes agree that they have increased 
rapidly since they were restored to their ancient homes in 1869. 
During nearly fifteen years that the author has had opportunity to 
observe them, he has noticed no marked signs of physical degenera- 
tion among them. Their general health and their power of resisting 
disease appeared about as good in 1894 as in 1880. Consumption 
and scrofula, those greatest enemies of our reservation Indians, have 
not yet begun to trouble the Navahoes. The change from the rude 
hut to the close stone house, which is rapidly going on among 
this people, is likely to affect their health in the future, and prob- 
ably not for the better. Fortunately for them, they have little 
fancy for stoves, but prefer open fireplaces such as the Pueblos 
and Mexicans use. In the year 1888, while the writer was absent 
from New Mexico, they had an epidemic of throat disease, the 

Introduction. 9 

precise character of which has not been ascertained. They say 
that about 800 people died that winter. During the winter of 
1894-95 they suffered from scarcity of food, — an unusual experi- 
ence for them, and the government had to assist them. An in- 
creased mortality ensued, which undoubtedly would have been much 

Fig. 6. Navaho man (from photograph by J. K. Millers). 

greater had it not been for the prompt action of their agent, 
Maj. Constant Williams, U. S. A., in securing supplies for them. 



15. The Navahoes are usually regarded by ethnologists as be- 
ing, by blood as well as by language, of the Dene or Athapascan 
stock, and such, probably, they are in the main. But their Origin 
Legend represents them as a very mixed race, containing ele- 



Fig. 7. Navaho man (from photograph by Hillers). 

ments of Zunian and other Pueblo stocks, of Shoshonian and 
Yuman, and the appearance of the people seems to corroborate the 
legend. There is no such thing as a general or prevailing Navaho 
type. The people vary much in feature and stature. Every variety 
of Indian face and form may be seen among them, — tall men with 
aquiline noses and prominent features, such as we find among the 
Crows and Dakotas ; dwarfish men with subdued features, such as 
we see among the Pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona, and every 
intermediate variety. 

16. The countenances of the Navahoes are, as a rule, intelligent 
and expressive ; some are stern and angry, some pleasant and 
smiling, others calm and thoughtful ; but seldom are any seen 
that are dull and stupid. These characteristics are to be noted 
among the women as well as among the men. The social position 

Introduction. 1 1 

of the Navaho women is one of great independence ; much of the 
wealth of the nation belongs to them ; they are the managers of 
their own property, the owners of their own children, and their free- 
dom lends character to their physiognomies. 


17. Fig. 1 is a picture of Manuelito, who for many years was 
the most influential chief among the Navahoes. Latterly he lost 
much of his influence in consequence of his intemperate habits, 
though he was regarded as a sage counsellor till the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1893. When he was gone, an old In- 
dian, announcing his death to the writer, said : " We are now a 
people without eyes, without ears, without a mind." Fig. 2 repre- 
sents another chief of much influence named Mariano, who also 

Fig. 8. Navaho skull, flattened at occiput. Hyperbrachycephalic. 
Length-breadth index, 96.93. 

became addicted to drink in his old age and died in 1893. Fig. 
3 shows a very intelligent and trustworthy Indian, a silversmith, 
known as Jake among the whites, but called by the Navahoes 
Naltsos Nigehani, or Paper-carrier, because in his youth he was 
employed as a mail-carrier between Forts Wingate and Defiance. 
He it was who communicated to the author version B 30(i of the Ori- 
gin Legend. He practised a short medicine rite, was an adept in 
singing sacred songs, and often led in song in the great rites. His 



silver-work was in great demand, and he worked hard at his trade. 
In 1894 he accbmpanied a circus through the Eastern States, with 
his workshop as a side-show ; but the journey proved too much 
for him — he died of heart disease on his return to New Mexico. 
Fig. 4 is a portrait of a Navaho woman named Tanapa, who took 

her hair out of braid preparatory 
to standing before the camera. 
Fig. 5 is a woman named Hadapa, 
whose smiling face is introduced 
as a contrast to the stern brow of 
7anapa. Figs. 6 and 7 are Navaho 
men whose names have not been 
recorded. The expressions of their 
faces are in marked contrast. 


18. As a rule the crania of the 
Navahoes are brachycephalic, and 
very few are dolichocephalic. The 
shortening seems to be due to a 
flattening in the occipital region 
(fig. 8). The author is of opinion 
that this is caused by the use of 
the baby -case, with a hard, un- 
yielding wooden back (fig. 9), in 
which the Navaho women carry 
their infants. This flattening of 
the Navaho occiput has been the 
subject of some controversy. It 
is true that the cradle is padded to a slight extent ; but the padding 
consists of the bark of the cliff rose {Cowania mcxicaiia), called by 
the Navaho awetsal, or baby-bed, which forms a rather rigid pillow. 
True, again, when the baby is carried on the mother's back, its 
head often hangs forward and does not come in contact with the 
back of the cradle or the pillow ; but most of the time the child 
lies on its back, and its tender occiput is subjected to deforming 

Fig 9. Navaho baby-case or cradle 
(after Mason). 


19. The language of the Navaho undoubtedly belongs in the 
main to the Athapascan family. Hubert Howe Bancroft, in his 
" Native Races of the Pacific States " (vol. iii. p. 583), 292 tells us 
that the Athapascans or " Tkineh " are " a people whose diffusion 
is only equalled by that of the Aryan or Semitic nations of the 

Introduction. 1 3 

Old World. The dialects of the Tinneh language are by no means 
confined within the limits of the hyperborean division. Stretch- 
ing from the northern interior of Alaska down into Sonora and 
Chihuahua, we have here a linguistic line of more than four thou- 
sand miles in length, extending diagonally over forty-two degrees 
of latitude, like a great tree whose trunk is the Rocky Mountain 
range, whose roots encompass the deserts of Arizona and New Mex- 
ico, and whose branches touch the borders of Hudson Bay and of 
the Arctic and Pacific Oceans." But the Origin Legend declares 
it is a mixed language (par. 395), and it is but reasonable to sup- 
pose that such a composite race cannot possess a very pure Ian- 

Fig. 10. Conical lodge with storm-door (from photograph by James Mooney). 

guage. The various accessions to the tribe from other stocks have 
probably added many words of alien origin. What these additions 
are is not now known, and will not be known until all the languages 
of the Southwest have been thoroughly studied. 


20. The habitations of the Navahoes are usually of a very simple 
character. The most common form consists of a conical frame, 
made by setting up a number of sticks at an angle of about forty- 
five degrees. An opening is left on one side of the cone to 



answer as a doorway. The frame is covered with weeds, bark, or 
grass, and earth, except at the apex, where the smoke from the 
fire in the centre of the floor is allowed to escape. In the door- 
way an old blanket hangs, like a curtain, in place of a door. But 
the opening of the door is not a simple hiatus, as many descrip- 
tions would lead one to suppose. A cross-piece, forming a lintel, 
connects the jambs at a convenient height, and the triangular space 
between the lintel and the smoke-hole is filled in as shown in fig. 
10. A picture in Schoolcraft's extensive work 327 (vol. iii. plate 17) 
is intended to represent a Navaho lodge ; but it appears to have 
been drawn by Captain Eastman from an imperfect description. 
In this picture the doorway is shown as extended up and continuous 
with the smoke-hole, 

21. Some lodges are made of logs in a polygonal form, as shown 
in fig. 11. Again they are occasionally built partly of stone, as 
shown in fig. 12. In cold weather a small storm-door or portico 
is often erected in front of the door (fig. 10), and an outer and 
an inner curtain may be hung to more effectually keep out the wind. 

22. Shelters. — Contiguous to the hut, the Navaho usually con- 
structs a rude shelter of branches. Here, in fair weather, the family 

Fig. 1 1 . Hut of logs. 



Fig. 12. Hut built partly of stone. 

often cook and spend most of the day. Here, too, the women erect 
their looms and weave or set out their metates and grind corn, 
and some even choose to sleep here. Such a " corral " is shown in 
fig. 12. 

23. Summer Houses. — In summer they often occupy structures 
more simple than even the hut described above. Fig. 13 repre- 
sents a couple of summer houses in the Zufii Mountains. A struc- 
ture of this kind is built in a few hours. A couple of forked sticks 
are set upright in the ground ; slanting poles are laid against this 
in tht direction of the prevailing winds, so as to form a wind- 
break, half wall and half roof, and this is covered with grass, weeds, 
and earth. The ends may be similarly inclosed, or may be merely 
covered in with evergreen branches. One side of the house is 
completely open. In fig. 13 a loom is shown set up for work in 
one of these rude structures, the aboriginal appearance of which 
is somewhat marred by having a piece of old canvas lying on top. 

24. Medicine-lodges. — The medicine-lodges, when erected in re- 
gions where long poles may be cut, are usually built in the form of 
the ordinary hogans (huts), though of much greater size (fig. 14). 
When these large lodges are constructed at low altitudes, where only 
stunted trees grow, they are built on a rude frame with walls and 
roof separate, somewhat on the same plan as the lodges formerly 



■ Fig. 13. Summer houses. 

used by the Arickarees, Mandans, and other tribes on the Missouri, 
and seeming a connecting link between the Navaho hogan and the 
Mandan earth-lodge. 184 

25. Sweat-houses. — The sweat-house or sudatory is a diminutive 
form of the ordinary hogan or hut as described in par. 20, except that 
it has no smoke-hole (for fire is never kindled in it), neither has it a 
storm-door. It is sometimes sunk partly underground and is always 
thickly covered with earth. Stones are heated in a fire outside and 
carried, with an extemporized tongs of sticks, into the sudatory. 

Fig. 14. Medicine-lodge. 



Fig. 15 poorly represents one of these structures. When cere- 
monially used, the frame is constructed of different materials for 
different ceremonies, and the nouse is sometimes decorated with dry- 
paintings. 82 

26. Modern Houses. — During the past ten years, a few of the 
more progressive Navahoes have built themselves rectangular stone 
houses, with flat roofs, glazed windows, wooden doors, and regular 
chimneys, such as their neighbors, the Mexicans and Pueblo Indians, 
build. They have had before them, for centuries, examples of such 
houses, and they are an imitative and docile people. The reason they 

Fig. 15. Sudatory. 

have not copied at an earlier date is probably a superstitious reason. 
They believe a house haunted or accursed in which a human being 
dies. 91 They abandon it, never enter it again, and usually destroy it. 
With such a superstition prevailing, they hesitate to build permanent 
dwellings. Perhaps of late years the superstition is becoming weak- 
ened, or they have found some mystic way of averting the supposed 




27. The arts of the Navahoes are not numerous. They make a 
very rude and inartistic pottery, — vastly inferior to that of the 
neighboring Pueblo tribes, — and they make but little of it. Their 
bows and arrows are not equal to those of the northern Indians, 
and, since they have both money and opportunity to purchase 
modern firearms, bows and arrows are falling into disuse. They 
do not consider themselves very expert dressers of deerskin, and 
purchase their best buckskins from other tribes. The women do 
very little embroidery, either with beads or porcupine-quills, and 
this little is unskilfully^dpne. The legends indicate that in former 
days they stole or purchased embroideries from the Utes. 

28. Basketry. — They make excellent baskets, but very few of 
them, and have a very limited range of forms and patterns. In 
developing their blanket-making to the highest point of Indian art, 
the women of this tribe have neglected other labors. The much 
ruder but allied Apaches, who know nothing of weaving woollen 
fabrics, make more baskets than the Navahoes, and make them in 
much greater variety of form, color, and quality. The Navahoes 
buy most of their baskets and wicker water-jars from other tribes. 

Fig. 16. Sacred basket. 



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^*feY ■ ''--' ;*-'■" ■'::'" '."■ 'VitftfS^ 

^^^^Wtetesste-'i^"'*"'* 1 ''' 

Fig. 17. Sacred basket. 

They would possibly lose tne art of basketry altogether if they 
did not require certain kinds to be used in the rites, and only 
women of the tribe understand the special requirements of the 
rites. Figs. 16 and 17 show the patterns of baskets almost exclu- 
sively made. These are used in ceremonies, and are called by the 
author sacred baskets. A further description of them is given in a 
note. 5 

29. Silver-work. — There are a few silversmiths in the tribe, whose 
work, considering the rudeness of their tools and processes, is very 
artistic. It is much sought after by white people, who admire its 
rude beauty. Probably the art of the smith has not existed long 
among the Navahoes. In a treatise entitled " Navajo Silver- 
smiths," 307 the author described the art as it existed in 1881 ; but 
the work has improved since that time with the introduction of 
better tools. Then the smith built his forge on the ground and 
squatted to do his work ; now he builds it on an elevated frame 
(fig. 10), and sits on a stool or chair to work. Fig. 18 represents 
silver ornaments made by Jake in 1881. 

30. Weaving. — It is in the art of weaving that the Navahoes 



excel all other Indians within the borders of the United States. 
In durability, fineness of finish, beauty of design, and variety of 
pattern, the Navaho blanket has no equal among the works of our 
aborigines. The author has written a treatise on " Navajo Wea- 
vers," 309 in which he describes their art as it existed some thirteen 
years ago. But since that treatise was written the art has changed. 
It has improved in one respect : an important new invention has 
been made or introduced, — a way of weaving blankets with dif- 
ferent designs on opposite sides. It has deteriorated in another 
respect : fugitive aniline dyes, purchased from the traders, have 
taken the place of the.permanent native dyes formerly used. In 
the finer blankets, yarn obtained from white traders has supplanted 
the yarn laboriously twilled on the old distaff. Navaho blankets 
are represented in figs, i, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 12. 



» • .-y , ^™™ ~ , * ™ *vfmiwi®mtmwwr*m ™y*r *, \ -,..■.■'*,;. ..-, ' ' ,*''<.' 

Fig. 18. Silver ornaments. Powder-chargers, hollow beads, buttons, bracelets. 

31. The Navahoes weave diagonal cloth and diamond-shaped 
diagonals, and to do this a change is made in the mechanism of 
their simple looms. They weave belts or sashes, garters and saddle- 
girths, and these articles, too, require changes in the arrangement 
of the looms and in the methods of weaving. Fig. 20 represents 
an ordinary loom, with one set of healds. Fig. 21 represents a 
loom arranged for weaving diagonal cloth with two sets of healds. 
Fig. 4 shows a woman wearing a belt of native manufacture. The 
women depicted in figs. 5 and 21 wear dresses of Navaho cloth. 



Fig. 19. Woman spinning. 

32. It is not only for gain that the Navaho woman weaves her 
blanket. Having worn it for a time, until it has lost its novelty, 
she may sell it for a price that scarcely pays her for the yarn. 
One who possesses large herds, and is wealthy for an Indian, will 
weave as assiduously as her poorest neighbor. At best, the labor 
brings low wages. The work is done, to no small extent, for artistic 
recreation, just as the females of our own race embroider and do 
•'fancy work " for mere pastime. 

33. Knitting. — They knit stockings with four needles, but these 
stockings are devoid of heels and toes. As the needles now used 
are of wire and obtained from the whites, it might be thought that 
the art of knitting was learned from our people ; but knitted leg- 
gings, made of human hair, and wooden knitting-needles, have been 
found in the Navaho land, in cliff-dwellings which, there is reason 
to believe, were abandoned before the arrival of the Spaniards. 

22 Introduction. 


34. It cannot be said of the Navaho men, as it is often said of 
the men of other Indian tribes, that they are either too proud or 
too lazy to perform manual labor. They are, and apparently always 
have been, willing to do any remunerative work. When the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Railroad was constructed near their reservation, in 
1 88 1, much of the grading was done by Navaho laborers. The 
white men who worked with them, and who had the strongest 
antipathy to Chinese laborers, said that they liked the Indians 
because they were good\Comrades on the work and kept up prices. 
A stalwart man is not ashamed to wash and iron clothes for wages, 
which he may want only to spend in gambling. They have been 
employed at Fort Wingate to dig cellars and make adobes, and at 
the latter work proved themselves more expert than the more expe- 
rienced men of Zuni. 

35. Begging, which among other tribes is so often annoying to the 
white man, is little practised by the Navahoes. The few who have 
ever begged from the author persuaded themselves that they had 
some claim on him. On the whole, they are a self-supporting peo- 
ple, and add to the wealth of the community at large. But little 
government aid has been given them since they were released from 
captivity and supplied with stock in return for that slaughtered by 
our troops when their land was invaded. 


36. For many years the most trusted account of the Navaho 
Indians of New Mexico and Arizona was to be found in a letter 
written by Dr. Jonathan Letherman, 303 of the army, and published 
in the Smithsonian report for 1855. Dr. Letherman had lived three 
years at Fort Defiance, in the heart of the Navaho country, when 
he wrote this letter, and he acknowledges his indebtedness, for 
assistance in preparing it, to Major Kendrick, who long com- 
manded Fort Defiance. Both the doctor and the major were men 
of unusual ability. The former (having changed the spelling of 
his name to Letterman) afterwards distinguished himself as medi- 
cal director of the Army of the Potomac, and the latter was, for 
many years, professor of chemistiy at the National Military Acad- 

37. From this letter the following statement concerning the Nava- 
hoes is extracted : " Of their religion little or nothing is known, 
as, indeed, all inquiries tend to show that they have none." "The 
lack of tradition is a source of surprise. They have no knowledge 
of their origin or of the history of the tribe." "They have fre- 

Introduction. 23 

quent gatherings for dancing." "Their singing is but a succession 
of grunts, and is anything but agreeable." 

38. The evidence of these gentlemen, one would think, might 
be taken as conclusive. Yet, fifteen years ago, when the author 
first found himself among the Navahoes, he was not influenced in 
the least by the authority of this letter. Previous experience with 
the Indians nad taught him of how little value such negative evi- 
dence might be, and he began at once to investigate the religion, 

• Fig. 20. Ordinary loom. 

traditions, and poetic literature, of which, he was assured, the Nava- 
hoes were devoid. 

39. He had not been many weeks in New Mexico when he dis- 
covered that the dances to which Dr. Letherman refers were reli- 
gious ceremonials, and later he found that these ceremonials might 
vie in allegory, symbolism, and intricacy of ritual with the cere- 
monies of any people, ancient or modern. He found, erelong, 
that these heathens, pronounced godless and legendless, possessed 
lengthy myths and traditions — so numerous that one can never hope 
to collect them all, a pantheon as well stocked with gods and heroes 
as that of the ancient Greeks, and prayers which, for length and 
vain repetition, might put a Pharisee to the blush. 

40. But what did the study of appalling " succession of grunts " 
reveal ? It revealed that besides improvised songs, in which the 
Navahoes are adepts, they have knowledge of thousands of signifi- 

24 Introduction. 

cant songs — or poems, as they might be called — which have been 
composed with care and handed down, for centuries perhaps, from 
teacher to pupil, from father to son, as a precious heritage, through- 
out the wide Navaho nation. They have songs of travelling, appro- 
priate to every stage of the journey, from the time the wanderer 
leaves his home until he returns. They have farming songs, which 
refer to every stage of their simple agriculture, from the first view 
of the planting ground in the spring to the "harvest home." They 
have building songs, 6 which celebrate every act in the structure of 
the hut, from " thinking about it" to moving into it and lighting the 
first fire. They have songs for hunting, for war, for gambling, in 
short for every important occasion in life, from birth to death, not 
to speak of prenatal and post-mortem songs. And these songs are 
composed according to established (often rigid) rules, and abound 
in poetic figures of speech. 

41. Sacred Songs. — Perhaps the most interesting of their metri- 
cal compositions are those connected with their sacred rites, — their 
religious songs. These rites are very numerous, many of them of 
nine days' duration, and with each is associated a number of appro- 
priate songs. Sometimes, pertaining to a single rite, there are two 
hundred songs or more which may not be sung at other rites. 

42. The songs must be known to the priest of the rite and his 
assistants in a most exact manner, for an error made in singing a 
song may be fatal to the efficacy of a ceremony. In no case is an 
important mistake tolerated, and in some cases the error of a single 
syllable works an irreparable injury. A noteworthy instance of this 
rule is a song sung at the beginning of work on the last night of the 
great ceremony of the night chant. The rite is one which may cost 
the patron from two hundred to three hundred dollars. It has lasted 
eight days and nights, when four singers, after long and careful 
instruction by the priest, come forth painted, adorned, and masked 
as gods to sing this song of the atsa'/ei. Several hundred people — 
many from the farthest confines of the Navaho land — have come 
to sit up all night and witness the public ceremonies. The song is 
long, and is mostly made up of meaningless or obsolete expressions 
which convey no idea to the mind of the singer, yet not a single 
vocable may be omitted, mispronounced, or misplaced. A score or 
more of critics who know the song by heart are listening with 
strained attention. If the slightest error is made it is at once pro- 
claimed, the fruitless ceremony terminates abruptly, and the disap- 
pointed multitude disperses. 

43. The songs all contain significant words ; but these, for poetic 
requirements, are often greatly distorted, and the distortions must 
be kept in mind. In speaking thus, scant justice is done to the 



Navaho poets. Similar distortions found in an Aryan tongue with 
a written literature are spoken of as figures of orthography and 
etymology, and, although there is yet no standard of spelling for 
the Navaho language, we would perhaps do well to apply the same 
terms in speaking of the Navaho compositions. The distortions are 
not always left to the whim of the composer. They are made sys- 
tematically, as a rule. If the language were reduced to a standard 
spelling, we should find that the Navaho poets have as many figures 
of these classes as the English poets have, and perhaps more. 

44. Some of the words, too, are archaic, — they mean nothing in 
modern Navaho ; but the priests assign traditional meanings to them, 
and this adds to the task of memorizing. But, in addition to the 
significant words, there are (as instanced above) numerous mean- 
ingless vocables in all songs, and these must be recited with a care 
at least equal to that bestowed on the rest of the composition. 

Fig. 21. Loom for weaving diagonal cloth. 

These meaningless sounds are commonly introduced in the pre- 
ludes and refrains of the stanzas and in the verse endings, but 
they may occur anywhere in the song. 

45. The preludes and refrains here referred to are found, with 
rare exceptions, in every stanza and in every song. Although they 
are all either totally meaningless or only partly significant, they 
are the most characteristic parts of the poems and the singer cons 
the preludes over when he wishes to call to mind any particular 
composition, just as we often remember a poem or song by means 
of the first line. They are rarely or never quite alike in any 

26 Introduction. 

two songs, and great ingenuity is often displayed in giving them 

46. There is yet another burden laid on the memory of the 
singer of sacred songs, and this is the order of their arrangement. 
The songs of each ceremony are divided into groups which must 
follow one another in an established order, and each song has, in 
the group to which it belongs, a place that must not be changed 
under penalty of divine displeasure. To sing, during the progress 
of a rite, the sixth Song of the Whirling Sticks before the fifth 
song is sung, would be a sacrilege as great as to chant the sylla- 
bles ohohoho, in place of ehehehe. To remember this exact order 
of sequence in a set of two hundred or three hundred songs is no 
easy task. 322 

47. But it may be said : " Perhaps things were different with the 
Navahoes in Dr. Letherman's day. May they not have learned 
from other tribes, or have themselves invented all this ceremony 
and song since he knew them ? " The reply to this is, that it is 
absurd to suppose that such an elaborate system of rites and songs 
could have grown up among an illiterate people in the twenty-five 
years that elapsed between Dr. Letherman's departure from the 
Navaho country and the author's arrival there. Besides, the latter 
obtained his information from men of advanced age — from sixty 
to eighty years old — who practised these rites and sang these 
songs in their youth, and who in turn learned them from men of 
a departed generation. The shamans who conduct these ceremo- 
nies, tell these tales, and sing these songs are scattered widely 
over the Navaho country. Men who are scarcely acquainted with 
one another, and who learned from different preceptors, will sing 
the same sacred songs and to exactly the same tune. All the lore 
of the Navaho priesthood was undoubtedly extant in Dr. Lether- 
man's time and for ages before. 

48. Songless Women. — It is remarkable that, while the Navaho 
men are such fruitful composers of song and such ardent singers, 
the women, as a rule, do not sing. Among the wild hunting tribes 
of the North, as the author knew them thirty years ago, the women 
not only had songs of their own, but they took part in the cere- 
monial songs of the men. The Pueblo Indian women of New 
Mexico, neighbors of the Navahoes, have many fine songs, the 
song of the corn-grinders, often heard in Zuni, being especially 
wild and musical. But usually the Navaho woman is songless. 
The writer tried a long time to find a woman who could sing, 
and offered good pecuniary inducements before he got one. She 
came from a distance of thirty miles. She knew no songs peculiar 
to her sex, but her father was a medicine-man, who frequently 

Introduction. 27 

repeated his songs at home in order to familiarize himself with them, 
and she gradually picked up several of them. She sang in a mu- 
sical soprano with much spirit, and was one of the most pleasing 
singers heard in the tribe. 

49. Figures of Speech. — It is probable that all rhetorical figures 
of speech known to our poets may be found in these simple com- 
positions of the Navahoes. But in many cases the allusions are 
to such recondite matters of symbolism, or incidents in their 
myths, that they could be made plain, if at all, only by a tedious 
recital. Thus it would not be easy to make clear in a few words 
why, when the goddess Estsanatlehi, in one of the songs to her 
honor, is spoken of as climbing a wand of turquoise, we know the 
poet means to say she is ascending San Mateo Mountain, in New 
Mexico, or why, when he speaks of her as climbing a wand of 
haliotis shell, he is endeavoring to tell us that she is ascending 
the peak of San Francisco in Arizona. Yet we may gain some 
idea of the meaning by referring to the myth (par. 193). 

50. But some of the metaphors and similes are not so hard to 
understand. Here is a translation of the Dove Song, one of the 
gambling songs sung in the game of kesitre : — 

Woj War picks them up (seeds), 
War Woj picks them up, 
Glossy Locks picks them up, 
Red Moccasin picks them up, 
Woj Woj picks them up.' 273 " 1,i 

Here Woj Woj (W5sh Wosh) is an onomatope for the dove, equiva- 
lent to our " coo coo " ; but it is used as a noun. Glossy Locks and 
Red Moccasin are figurative expressions for the dove, of obvious 
significance. Metaphor and synecdoche are here combined. 

51. Antithesis is not an uncommon figure with the Navaho poet. 
Here is an instance of it in a song belonging to the mountain chant, 
one of the great nine-day ceremonies of the shamans : — 

The voice that beautifies the land ! 

The voice above, 

The voice of the thunder, 

Among the dark clouds 

Again and again it sounds, 

The voice that beautifies the land. 

The voice that beautifies the land ! 

The voice below, 

The voice of the grasshopper, 

Among the flowers and grasses 

Again and again it sounds, 

The voice that beautifies the land. 

28 Introduction. 

Here the great voice of the thunder above is contrasted with the 
feeble voice of the grasshopper below, yet both are voices that make 
the world beautiful. 

52. Many instances of climax have been noted. One here pre- 
sented is from the mountain chant. It has but two steps to the 

ladder : — 

Maid Who Becomes a Beai 

Sought the gods and found them, 
On the summits of the mountains 

Sought the gods and found them, 
Truly with my sacrifice 

Sought the\gods and found them. 
Somebody dojubts it, so I have heard. 

Holy Young Woman 

Sought the gods and found them, 
On the summits of the clouds 

Sought the gods and found them, 
Truly with my sacrifice 

Sought the gods and found them. 
Somebody doubts it, so I have heard. 

Maid Who Becomes a Bear (Tjike Sas Natlehi) M is an important 
character in Navaho mythology. The last line in each stanza is an 
instance of irony. 

53. It will be seen from the instances given that they understand 
the value of repetition in poetry. The refrain is a favorite form of 
expression ; but they know of other means of giving verbal melody 
to their songs, as may be seen in the following original text of the 
Bluebird (Sialia arcticd) Song : — 

Tsi^ayilkde d6\a. anf, 
Ayar dotW'zi blza hold, 
Blza /zo-s-dnigo, bTza hold, 
Blza holdnigo hwihe fnli 
Z?61a am. Z?61a anf. 

To appreciate this a translation is not necessary, but it is given, as 
the reader may wish to know it : — 

Just at daylight Sialia calls. 

The bluebird has a voice, 

He has a voice, his voice melodious, 

His voice melodious that flows in gladness. 

Sialia calls. Sialia calls. 

The regular Navaho name for the bluebird " do\\ " (changed here to 
"<3?61a" for poetic reasons) is translated Sialia, to distinguish it from 
the descriptive term "ayay dolli'si," which means literally bluebird. 

54. Rhyme. — They are not ignorant of the value of rhyme in 
poetry, but they more often produce this by the repetition of signifi- 

Introduction. 29 

cant or meaningless syllables than by selecting different words with 
similar endings. Still we often find this, the more difficult means, 
resorted to as in the above song of the bluebird. 

55. Music. — To the casual listener it may appear that there is 
much sameness in the music of their songs ; but a more careful 
study will reveal the fact that the variety is great. It is remarkable 
how, with such rude instruments (an inverted basket for a drum, and 
a gourd rattle) to accompany them, they succeed, in a series of two 
hundred or more songs, in producing so many musical changes. In 
their sacred songs of sequence, where four or more songs of similar 
import follow one another, as is often the case, the music may be 
nearly alike (but never quite alike) in all ; but when the theme of 
the poetry changes, the music also takes a decided change. 

56. For further information on the subject of music the reader is 
referred to note 272, which contains remarks by Prof. John Comfort 
Fillmore, formerly of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, but now of Claremont, 
California. Over two years ago the writer sent a number of phono- 
graphic records of Navaho songs to Professor Fillmore, who has 
diligently studied them and has written many of them in musical 
notation. Some of the musical scores are appended to the note. 


57. Gentes. — The version of the Origin Legend by Tall Chan- 
ter, here given, accounts for only thirty-eight gentes among the 
Navahoes ; but this informant was able to name, in all, forty-three 
gentes, two of which, he said, were extinct. Lists of the Navaho 
gentes have been obtained from various sources, and no single 
authority has been found to give a greater number than this. But 
no two lists are quite alike ; they differ with regard to small or 
extinct gentes, and one list may supply a name which another has 
omitted. There would be at least fifty-one gentes extant and extinct 
in the tribe if each name so far obtained represented a different 
organization. But we find in the Legend instances of a gens having 
two names (pars. 386, 405, 428, 445)- 

58. On the other hand, it is possible that none of the lists may 
be complete. Gentes derived from women of alien races, added to 
the tribe since it has grown numerous and widely scattered, may 
exist in one part of the Navaho country unknown to the best in- 
formed persons in another part. Extinct gentes may be forgotten 
by one informant and remembered by another. 

59. The following is a list of the forty-three gentes named by Tall 
Chanter : — 

1. Tse'cbrlnkl'm, House of the Black Cliffs (pars. 378-381). 

2. Tse'thini, Bend in a Canon (par. 382). 



3. Dsl7nao/r7ni, 

4. //askan^atso (/farkan^atsd*/Yne 

5. NaAopani, 

6. TsYnada-Y'ni, 

7. 7%a'neza' (7%a'nezd'ni), 

8. DsY/tla'ni, 

9. TM'paha (77^'paha^Yne') 

10. Tsa'yYskI'*/ni, 

11. Tse^In^iaf, 

12. Kldgi (Kldgi^Ine'), 

13. To'/ian], 

14. 7%4'tyini, 

15. Kai (KrfitftneO 

16. Kln/Ytri (KYn/Yt-riaTYne*, 

17. Z?ejtrfni, 

18. TIastrfni, 

19. No/a (No/a^Yne'), 

20. Nakai (Nakauftne*), 

21. Tb'yeth'ni, 

22. //altso (7/altso^Yne'), 

23. 7b'dYtn'ni, 

24. 'Mai/d' (MaiVdV/Yne'), 

25. Hastt'zm (HasNzdltit% 

26. To*dok6nzi, 

27. Br/d'ni, 

28. TsYnsakaVni, 

29. Pi«bY/d< (Pi«bY/dWYne*), 

30. Tse'nahapY'/ni, 

31. /fonagd'ni, 

32. Ki«ad'ni, 

33. To'baznaAz ( 7b'ba£na&?i), 

34. Nanay/e'^i«, 

35. Z7ildj?e'hi, 

36. Aslhi (As'ihidine*), 

37. MaideskVz (MaidferkY'-sni), 

38. Tse'yana/d'ni (extinct), 

39. 7o'tsoni, 

40. BY/ani or DsY//ani, 

41. Tse'yike'he (Tse'yike'he*/ Yne'), 

42. TlYzi&ni, 

43. To'tra/si/aya (extinct), 

Encircled Mountain (par. 385). 
'), Much Yucca (par. 386). 

Brown Streak; Horizontal on the Ground 

(par. 387). 
Black Horizontal Forest (par. 390). 
Among the Scattered (Hills) (par. 392). 
Base of the Mountain (par. 393). 
Among the Waters (par. 394 et seq.). 
Sage-brush Hill (par. 399). 
Trap Dyke (par. 401). 
(Name of an old pueblo) (par. 403). 
Beside the Water (par. 404). 
Among the Red (Waters or Banks) (par. 

Willows (par. 405). 
Red House (of Stone) (par. 406). 
Red Streak (par. 408). 
Red Flat (par. 408). 
Ute (par. 409). 

White Stranger (Mexican) (par. 410). 
Junction of the Rivers (par. 411). 
Yellow Bodies (par. 412). 
Bitter Water (par. 427). 
Coyote Spring (par. 428). 
Mud (par. 429). 

Saline Water (par. 430, note 17 1). 
Folded Arms (par. 431). 
Lone Tree (par. 441). 
Deer Spring (par. 442). 
Overhanging Rocks (par. 445). 
Place of Walking (pars. 447, 448). 
High Standing House (par. 458). 
Two Come for Water (par. 449). 
Black Horizontal Stripe Aliens (Zufii) (par. 

(Not translated) (par. 453). 
Salt (par. 454). 

Coyote Pass (Jemez) (par. 455). 
Horizontal Water under Cliffs (par. 457). 
Great Water (par. 459). 
Brow of Mountain. 
Rocks Standing near One Another. 
Many Goats (par. 407). 
Water under the Sitting Frog. 

60. The following are eight names obtained from other sources, 
and not mentioned by Tall Chanter : — 

44. Aatsdsni Narrow Gorge. 

45. Naa'f (Naa'u/Yne'), Monocline. 

46. Ydo, Beads. 

47. Ka'mSni, Living Arrows. 

48. Tse7/*dni, Among the Kocks. 

Introduction. 31 

49. L6ka (Z-dkarflne 4 ) Reeds (Phragmites). 

50. TseV/ej-kl'^ni, Rocky Pass. 

51. //ogan/ani, Many Huts. 

61. More than one translation of a gentile name has often been 
noted ; but in the above lists only one translation is given, — that 
which the author regards with the most favor. Often, too, different 
narrators account differently for the origin of the gentile names. 
Some of the translations are very liberal, and others, again, very brief ; 
but in the paragraphs and notes to which the reader is referred he 
will find fuller explanations. The Navahoes sometimes, but not 
invariably, add (as shown in the above lists) a suffix (ctine 1 , ni, or i), 
signifying people ; but in the above translations, to simplify the 
study, the word "people" is omitted. 

62. There are reasons, which the author has set forth in a pre- 
vious essay 318 and will not now repeat, for believing that most of the 
Navaho gentes were originally local exogamous groups, and not true 
gentes according to Morgan's definition. 325 There is little doubt 
that, in the majority of cases if not in all, the names of Navaho 
gentes, which are not the names of tribes, are simply designations 
of localities, even where the Legend states to the contrary ; as, for 
instance, when it tells us that certain gentes of the Western immi- 
grants were named from words that women uttered when they first 
tasted of the magic fountains (pars. 427, 429, 430). 

63. On the other hand, there are passages in the Legend which 
indicate that a few of the Navaho gentes were once totemic, although 
no evidence of clan totems is known to exist among the Navahoes at 
the present time, and it is not improbable that a few of the gentile 
names may be of totemic origin, although they are now accounted 
for in other ways in the Origin Legend. The passage (par. 419) 
which tells us that Estsanatlehi gave certain pets to the wanderers 
from the West, and that these pets accompanied the people on their 
journey, refers in all probability to the former use of totemic clan 
symbols, and possibly to a custom of keeping live totemic animals in 
captivity, — a custom prevalent among the ancient Mexicans and the 
modern Pueblos, though not among the modern Navahoes. Other 
indications of a former totemism may be found in the story of the 
Deer Spring People (par. 442, note 195 ; see, also, note 173). 

64. In reading the fourth chapter of the Origin Legend — 
" Growth of the Navaho Nation " — one is impressed with the dif- 
ferent degrees of willingness, on both sides, with which new gentes 
are adopted into the nation. In some instances two parties, meet- 
ing for the first time, embrace one another and become friends at 
once (par. 382). The clans from the Pacific coast — the Western 
immigrants, as they are here called — learn of the existence of kin- 

32 Introduction. 

dred tribes far to the east, take a long and dangerous journey to join 
them, and, when their march is done, they are received by the Nava- 
hoes at once as brethren. On the other hand, the legend tells us 
of bands that camp long in the neighborhood of the Navahoes before 
they become incorporated with the latter (par. 394) ; of other clans 
descended from captives (pars. 406, 454, 455) ; and of others that 
seek refuge among the Navahoes only to escape starvation or perse- 
cution at home (pars. 403, 452). On the basis of their mode of adop- 
tion, the clans may be divided into the ready and the reluctant. The 
cause of this is probably one of language. Bands which we know 
to have been allied in language to the Navahoes — such as those 
derived from the Apaches — will be found among the ready; while 
bands which we know to have spoken languages very different to 
the Navaho — such as those derived from the Utes, from Zuni, and 
Jemez — will be found among the reluctant. It is not unreasonable 
to conclude that the same rule applies to clans of whose original 
language we know nothing. 

65. Phratries. — The gentes of the Navahoes are divided into a 
number of groups, each of which may be called a phratry. Au- 
thorities in the tribe differ as to the number of the phratries, and as 
to the gentes that compose them. Some make but eight phratries. 
Captain Bourke 294 has obtained a list of eleven, with three independ- 
ent gentes. Some of the Navahoes say there are twelve phratries, 
and suggest that they have some relation to the twelve tribes who 
dwelt in the first world. But the Navaho phratry seems not to be a 
homogeneous organization. A case is mentioned in the Legend 
where a gens has changed its phratral affinities (par. 451). Inquiry, 
too, has revealed that there are sub-groups. There may be closer 
bonds of alliance among some gentes in a group than there are 
among others in the same group. Authorities, then, may differ 
without invalidating each other's testimony. 

66. These groups are indicated in the Legend when it says that 
one gens has become closely related or affiliated with another (pars. 
385, 399, 403 et <?/.), or when it says that two gentes cannot inter- 
marry (pars. 393, 401, 406). If the Navahoes have a term equiva- 
lent to "phratry," it has not been discovered. They have no special 
names for the different phratries ; they often, but not always, speak 
of a phratry by the name of the most important gens in it. 

67. If the Legend is to be taken as evidence, phratries have 
developed among the Navahoes both by segmentation of gentes and 
by the addition of new gentes from without ; not by either method 
exclusively. But legendary evidence is not needed to show that 
gentes which bear to-day the names of alien tribes have been addi- 
tions to the phratry. 

Introduction. 33 

68. Forbidden Degrees of Kindred. — A Navaho belongs to the 
gens of his mother and takes the name of that gens. Cases have 
been noted where a Navaho has been known by his gentile name 
and not by any other. No man may marry one of his own gens ; 
neither may he marry one of his own phratry, though some excep- 
tions seem to be made in the latter case where the limits of the 
phratry are not well defined. Where this descent in the female line 
exists among other tribes, it is held by some ethnographers that the 
man does not regard his father or his father's people as his relations, 
and may contract a marriage with a woman of his father's gens. 
Such is certainly not the case among the Navahoes. The gens and 
the phratry of the father are as much forbidden kindred as those of 
the mother. 


69. Sources of Information. — That the Navahoes have a religion 
— an elaborate pagan cult — has already been intimated. There is 
little to be gained by asking a Navaho direct questions about this. 
Learned controversialists and theologians, capable of analyzing and 
discussing their faith, have not arisen among them, or, if they have, 
they cannot easily communicate their philosophy to us. But the 
civilized scholar has abundant material from which to study their 
religion, and he must do the analyzing himself. In the great dry- 
paintings shown on the floors of the medicine-lodges, during their 
long ceremonies, may be seen pictures of many of the gods, with 
their hieratic belongings. In the ceremonies, or so-called dances, 
men are masked to represent gods. In the myths the acts and 
deeds of the divine ones are described, and we learn their thoughts 
and feelings, — kind, like Indians, to their kindred ; usually cruel, 
yet often merciful and magnanimous, to their foes. In the count- 
less songs of the rites may be found the poetic side of the divine 
characters, and in the long prayers we may learn their potency, and 
discover how man hopes to commune with them and gain their 

70. No Supreme God. — The religion of this people reflects their 
social condition. Their government is democratic. There is no 
highest chief of the tribe, and all their chiefs are men of tempo- 
rary and ill-defined authority, whose power depends largely on their 
personal influence, their oratory, and their reputation for wisdom. 
It is difficult for such a people to conceive of a Supreme God. 
Their gods, like their men, stand much on a level of equality. 

71. Sun God. — In the version of the Origin Legend here given, 
the Sun God would seem to have some precedence over the others, 
but in the beginning he was only one of the people ; he never 
figures conspicuously as a Creator, and is far from omnipotent. 

34 Introduction. 

Other gods, less potent or less respected, lived before the time of 
man, and were powerful before the sun was made. 

72. Creation. — The Legend begins with an already created world ; 
there is no original creation and no Creator of all. If the Navahoes 
have a story of the beginning of all things, the author has not 
learned it. To a god called Bekotriii 78 is given the credit of hav- 
ing made all animals whose creation is not otherwise accounted 
for in the myths, especially domestic animals. Some of the In- 
dians who have heard vaguely of our Creator are of the opinion 
that Bekot.nd?i is the God of the Americans. 

73. Estsdnatlehi. — But it is generally acknowledged by the Nava- 
hoes that their most revered deity- is Estsanatlehi, 95 the Woman 
Who Changes (or rejuvenates herself). Much is said of her in the 
legends, but something more is to be obtained by conversation 
with the shamans. The name Estsanatlehi is derived by syncopa- 
tion from estsan, woman, and natlehi, to change or transform. She 
is so called because, it is supposed, she never remains in one con- 
dition, but that she grows to be an old woman, and in the course 
of time becomes a young girl again, and so passes through an 
endless course of lives, changing but never dying. It is probable 
that she is an apotheosis of Nature, or of the changing year. 

74. The deity of fruitful Nature is properly a female and a be- 
neficent goddess. She is properly, too, as the legends tell us, the 
wife of the Sun, to whom Nature owes her fertility. Her home is 
said to be in the west, probably for the reason that in the Navaho 
country, which lies mostly on the Pacific slope, the rain comes 
usually from the west, and from that direction, too, come the thaw- 
ing breezes in the spring. 

75. Yolkai Estsdn. — A divinity called Yo/kaf Estsan, 96 or White 
Shell Woman, created (or found, as some versions say) at the same 
time as Estsanatlehi, is called the younger sister of the latter. The 
two goddesses are associated in the myths, but White Shell Woman 
always, acts the subordinate part, and to-day is honored with a less 
degree of worship than her sister. Estsanatlehi, made of an earthly 
jewel, turquoise, is related to the land. Yo/kai Estsan, made of 
white shell from the ocean, is related to the waters. 

76. War Gods. — Next in importance to Estsanatlehi, the sacred 
brethren, Nayenezgani (or Nagenezgani) and 7b'bad.d(st.n'ni, 127 seem 
to stand. The writer designates these as the War Gods, but the 
Navahoes do not call them thus. According to the version of the 
Origin Legend here given, one of these was the child of Estsanatlehi 
and the Sun ; the other the child of Yo/kai Estsan and the Water, and 
this is the version most consistent in all respects. Other versions 
make both the brothers children of Estsdnatlehi. Some say they 

Introduction. 35 

were born twins. Accepting any of these versions, they would prop- 
erly be called brothers, according to the Indian system of relation- 
ship, and such they are called in the legends. Their chief mission 
was to destroy the alien gods ; but they still help the warriors in bat- 
tle, and aid the sick who suffer from witchcraft. The longest chapter 
in the Origin Legend is devoted to recounting their genesis and 
history. In reading the chapter, it will be apparent to the compara- 
tive mythologist that these characters have their counterparts, which 
need not now be mentioned, in the myths of many races in both 
hemispheres. From their mythic associations it would appear that 
Nayenezgani is a god of light, with its associated heat, while Tb'ba- 
d-dstymi is a god of darkness, with its associated moisture ; yet, 
apparently in contradiction to this, the representative of the former 
is painted black and wears a black mask in the ceremonies (plate 
IV.), while the representative of the latter is painted red and wears 
a red mask (plate VII.). 

77. Nayenezgani, whose name signifies Slayer of the Alien 
Gods, 127 is spoken of as the elder brother in the legends and always 
plays the more important part. Zb'bad.s'istrini, or Child of the 
Water, 127 is called the younger brother and always appears as a 
subordinate character. In the ceremonies, the masquerader who 
personates Nayenezgani always walks in front, while he who person- 
ates 7b'bad.3Tfstrfni comes behind. The two gods are always asso- 
ciated in prayer and sacrifice, but here, again, Nayenezgani takes 
precedence. In all the sacrea songs where they are mentioned, 
the superiority of Nayenezgani is indicated. Antithesis, as has 
been said, is a favorite figure with the Navaho poets, and they 
often employ it when speaking of these gods. The " Song of the 
Approach " of the War Gods in the ceremony of kledsi ^a/a/ 
will serve, as well as many other compositions, to show how they 
treat this subject. It may be freely translated thus : — 

He advances ! He advances ! 
Now Slayer of the Alien Gods advances, 
Above, among the mountain peaks, he advances, 
In danger he advances. 

He advances ! He advances ! 
Now Child of the Water advances 
Below, among the foothills, he advances, 
In danger he advances. 

Thus both the gods come to the aid of the supplicant ; but while 
the elder strides proudly on the summits of the mountains, the 
younger walks humbly among the foothills. 

78. Yei. — There are a number of divinities in the Navaho pan- 



Fig. 22. The White House. One of the houses of the yei (from photograph by Hillers). 

theon known as yei (in compound words often pronounced ye or 
ge), which is* translated "god " or "genius." What distinction exists 
between the yei and other gods is not easy to determine definitely. 
The Zunians have a class of gods called by the same name, or, 
more correctly, " yeyi," as Mr. Cushing pronounces it. Certain 
chiefs or important personages among these gods are called by 
names which begin with the syllables //astre — as Hastseyalti 73 
(Talking God), //astre/fo^an 74 (House God). It is believed that 
this, if spelled etymologically, would appear as /^astye, but it is 
not so pronounced, /fast is a prefix denoting age, especially ven- 
erable age. We have it in the word /tastin, which means a worthy 
or respected old man. //astye would mean a venerable yei or god. 
The yei seem to be deities of minor importance to those previously 
mentioned and to be more numerous. Thus, while there is but 
one Estsanatlehi, but one Nayenezgani, and but one Tb'bads'Istrini 
there are several Hastse/iogan and several //a.ytseyal/i, who are 
chiefs of the yei. The yei are supposed to abide in certain locali- 
ties, and in prayers in their honor the home is mentioned of the 
yei to whom appeal is specially made. A place called Tse'natn, 
or Red Horizontal Rock, somewhere north of the San Juan River, 
Tse'gfhi, another place north of the San Juan, and the White 
House (fig. 22), in the Chelly Canyon, are important homes of 
the yei. 266 Each of the sacred mountains has its group of yei. In 

Introduction. 37 

the myths of klecbi //a/a/, more than a score of places are named 
where yei dwell. There are some reasons for believing that the 
cult of the yei is derived from the Cliff-dwellers, or from the Pueblos ; 
but there are arguments, too, against this theory. The subject will 
not be further considered here. The yei are supposed to be mar- 
ried and have families. The males are called yebaka ; the females, 
yebaad. 200 7/ast.resIni, 212 the god of fire, and Zfestyeolfoi, 206 the divine 
huntress, or goddess of the chase, belong" as their names indicate, 
to the yei ; while Ga«askfc/i, 207 the harvest god, and 7b'nenili 98 
Water Sprinkler, are associated with them in the legends. 

79. Dtgini. — Digi'n means sacred, divine, mysterious, or holy. It 
is not quite synonymous with the Dakota wakan or the Hidatsa 
hopa. It is not applied to the treatment of disease ; it is not ap- 
plied in a general way to religious ceremonial ; it has not been 
heard applied to the anaye, or other things of evil : for this reason it 
is often translated "holy." Digini, derived from digi'n, means holy 
people, gods, divinities. It is a name applied to the highest and 
lowest divinities, including the yei (see notes 92 and 93). 

80. Alien Gods. — Such are the gods that are friendly to the human 
race ; but man has his enemies, too, among the mysterious powers. 
Chief among the latter are the anaye," the alien gods or inimical 
genii. These, being analogous to the giants and ogres of European 
folk-lore, are sometimes called giants in this work. They are usually 
represented as creatures of great size. Many of them are described 
in the Origin Legend. The worst have been slain, as the story 
relates ; but others, being not unmixed evils, still remain to torment 
man. °The legend, in accounting for their continued existence, 
shows the philosophic endeavor of our race to reconcile itself to the 
unwelcome inevitable. 

81. Water God. — The position of Tieholtsodi, 8 the water monster, 
is one of transferred allegiance. He was once the enemy of our 
race, but now has become friendly to it in certain ways, though it 
is probable that he is still thought to be responsible for cases of 
drowning. Other gods, who were once inimical to man but are now 
his friends, are mentioned in the legends (par. 354). But we are not 
without evidence that the Navaho fears to offend his most beneficent 
gods lest the latter may directly punish him, or at least withhold 
their succor in his hour of need. 

82. Devils. — Besides the alien gods, there are evil spirits haunt- 
ing the earth which men dread ; these are the tri'ndi, whose name 
cannot be better translated than by calling them devils. The Nava- 
hoes frequently speak of the tri'ndi (Englished, chindee), and they 
often use the term as an angry exclamation, just as the profane 
among ourselves say, " Oh the Devil ! " or " You devil ! " (see pars. 

38 Introduction. 

257, 260), yet they dislike to discuss its character or appearance. 
They believe there is a devil associated with every corpse, and that 
it has something of the appearance of a partly decayed corpse. The 
spirit of the dead man goes to the lower world, which was the former 
home of the race, yet a demon remains with the dead body. Other 
Indians believe in a similar corpse spirit, yet the author has never 
known any who have such dread as the Navahoes of human mor- 
tuary remains. (See par. 188 and note 91.) 

83. Zoolatry. — The legend tells us that there is a First Man and 
a First Woman (see pars. 160-165), who came into being in the 
fourth world as the result of a special act of creation : but they have 
not died like Adam and Eve ; they stiH live in some form ; they are 
potent ; they are immortal ; they are divine. But it is not man only 
that has his divine ancestral prototype : every animal on the face 
of the earth has its also, and many, if not all, of these are objects of 
worship. A share of reverence, too, in some cases, as in that of the 
bear, is bestowed on their mortal descendants. In the rite of the 
mountain chant 314 many of the sacrifices are sacred to the animals 
of the mountains. In short, zoolatry is an important element in 
'Navaho worship. 

84. Local Gods. — Some of the gods mentioned are also local 
divinities ; thus the War Gods are local divinities at 7Vye'tli (par. 
374), and the yei are local divinities at Tse'natxi. But, in addition to 
these, there are other gods of places so numerous that a complete list 
of them will probably never be obtained. In the Origin Legend it is 
shown that each of the sacred mountains of the Navaho land (seven 
in number according to Tall Chanter) has its divine pair of indwell- 
ing guardians, and these seem to receive more honor than any others 
which are gods of places only ; but the genii of other mountains and 
of different rocks and canyons have their prayers and sacrifices in 
some of the rites. 

85. Fanciful legends of places are common in all lands and among 
all races, but no people are more ingenious in composing such tales 
than our American Indians. The Navaho has unusual sources of 
inspiration in this direction, and he fails not to profit by them. His 
land abounds in wonderful geologic formations, in rocks strangely 
sculptured by rain and by Nature's sand-blast, in vast volcanic peaks 
and fields of lava ; and it abounds also, as might be expected, in 
myths accounting for these features, and in the genii which belong 
to the myths. A few of these myths are incorporated in the tales 
told in this work, but they are very few compared with the total of 
such legendary lore. 

86. The strength of their belief in these local divinities may be 
illustrated by the following incident : The writer once made a jour- 



ney, accompanied by two Navahoes, to T^u^kai 9 (Chusca Knoll), 
which is supposed to be the home of the T^ike Say Natlehi, or 
Maidens who Become Bears. When the party got to the top of the 
ridge from which the knoll rises, and about three hundred yards from 
the base of the knoll, the Indians refused to go farther, saying they 
feared the divine ones who dwelt in the 
knoll. The writer proceeded alone, and 
had much difficulty in riding up the path- 
less hill, among loose rocks and fallen trees. 
On the summit he found a little hollow 
among the rocks full of sand, and, scraping 
into this, he discovered a number of hand- 
wrought stone and shell beads, which had 
been put there as sacrifices. When he 
descended from the knoll, he found the 
Indians awaiting him where he had left 
them, and all set out together to retrace 
the rough mountain trail down to Red 
Lake. In a little while, his horse becom- 
ing very lame, the writer was obliged to 
dismount. " What has made your horse 
lame?" asked the Indians. "He must 
have struck his leg against some of the 
fallen trees when he was climbing the 
knoll," was the answer. " Think not thus, 
foolish American," they said. " It was not 
the fallen trees that wounded your horse. 
The dXgxxix of the mountain have stricken 
him because you went where you had no 
right to go. You are lucky if nothing 
worse happens to you." Of course In- 
dians had been up to the top of the knoll, or 
the beads could not have been put there ; 
but they went only after preparatory 
prayer and only to deposit sacrifices. 

87. Demonolatry. — There are writers 
who say that the Indians " worship the Devil " and other malevolent 
powers ; but it is not only learned authors who speak thus. Jesus 
Alviso, a Mexican captive reared among the Navahoes, said to the 
author in 1 880: "Los Indios hacen figuras de todos sus diablos, 
senor " (■" The Indians make figures of all their devils, sir)," and 
it was this hint which led to the discovery of their dry-paintings. 
He called them devils ; in this work they are called gods. Per- 
haps other tribes worship personifications of evil, but certainly the 

Fig. 23. Talking kethawn. 



Navahoes do not. The gods who are supposed to love and help 
men the most receive the greatest honor. The evil spirits are not 
worshipped except, rumor says, by the witches. It would appear, 
moreover, from the Origin Legend, that the worst of evil powers — 
the alien gods — were long ago destroyed, and that only demons 
of minor influence remain. The chief of witches, Estsan Na/a.^, or 
Woman Chief, has her home beneath the earth, in one of the lower 


88. A great number of ceremonies ar^ practised by the Navaho 
priests. Many of these are of nine days' duration ; there are others 
that last but a single day or a few hours. To learn one of the great 

Fig. 24. Circle kethawn. 

rites so as tojbecome its /rata/i (chanter, singer), 16 or priest, is the 
work of many years, and no one knows more than one such rite 
perfectly. The older priests know something of other rites, may 
assist at them and sing songs at them, but are not competent to 
conduct them. A priest of a great rite may know some of the 
lesser rites. 

89. All the great ceremonies which the writer has witnessed 
among the Navahoes are primarily for the healing of the sick ; but 
the occasion is always used to ask the gods for various temporal 

Introduction. 41 

blessings, not only for the sick person but for all, — the shaman, the 
relations of the sick, and for the people in general. The invalid, for 
whose benefit the rite is performed, defrays all the expenses of the 
ceremony, which often amount in value to the sum of two hundred 
or three hundred dollars. The Navahoes being a scattered and 
to some extent a wandering people who do not build towns, they 
lack the organization to have rites of a more public character, such 
as the village Indians have. 184 Hence these healing ceremonies, in 
which the sick man and his relations become hosts, are used as occa- 
sions for prayer for the common weal, and as occasions in which 
large numbers may assemble to witness interesting exhibitions and 
have the social enjoyments which attend the gathering of a crowd. 

90. Minor Ceremonies. — Among the minor ceremonies, besides 
those for healing the sick, are those of planting, harvesting, build- 
ing, war, nubility, marriage, travel, and many other occasions in 
life. In addition to these, there are ceremonies for special occa- 
sions, as for bringing rain. During an unusually dry season a 
number of Navahoes may subscribe together and raise a good fee 
for a priest to sing, pray, sacrifice, and conduct a ceremony to bring 

91. Origin of Ceremonies. — The late Mr. A. M. Stephen of Ari- 
zona, who for many years studied the rites and myths of both Mokis 
and Navahoes, has often called the attention of the writer to the 
many resemblances between the cults of these two tribes, who dif- 
fer so much in other respects, and he has suggested that the Na- 
vahoes may have borrowed from the Mokis. This may be the case, 
for the Navahoes have, probably, people of Moki descent among 
them, and they have had intercourse with the Mokis, both peaceful 
and warlike, for a long time. But, throughout all the Navaho 
legends so far collected, it is strongly indicated that the Navaho 
cultus, where borrowed, came from clifif-dwellers, from inhabitants 
of pueblos now deserted, and from wild tribes. The Mokis figure 
but little in the Navaho rite-myths. The author is inclined to 
believe that the Navahoes have not borrowed much directly from 
the Mokis, but that both tribes have taken inspiration from com- 
mon sources. In radical points of symbolism, such as the sacred 
colors and the ceremonial circuit, the Navaho and Moki rites differ 

92. Elements of Ceremonies. — In the ceremonies there are nu- 
merous minor acts of such diverse character that they cannot be 
classified and are not described in this work. They can be dis- 
cussed better in connection with the rites to which they belong. 
There are other acts of minor importance, such as the ceremonial 
bath 10 82 and the administration of pollen, 11 which are considered in 

42 Introduction- 

the notes. But there are six elements of the worship which con- 
stitute such important parts in all the great rites that brief descrip- 
tions of them are presented in this introduction. These six are : 
Sacrifice, painting, masquerade, dance, prayer, and song. The last 
has been already discussed (par. 41 et seq.). 

93. Sacrifices. — The sacrifices of the Navahoes are innocent and 
bloodless. Their kindly gods are easily propitiated. Like their 
worshippers, they are all fond of tobacco, and they prize a few fea- 
thers and beads. Even the chief war god demands no smoking 
hearts or blood of captives ; a little painted cigarette is all he asks 
in return for his favors. An extensive chapter might be written 
about the sacrificial cigarettes and sticks which the Navahoes call 
ke/an (Englished, kethawn), but a short description of them must 
suffice here. (See note 12.) 

94. Cigarettes. — The cigarettes are usually made of the hollow 
joints of the common reed {Phragmitcs communis), but other plants 
are sometimes used. To form a cigarette, a piece of the reed is cut 
off with a stone knife, the node being excluded ; it is rubbed with 
sandstone, so that the paint may adhere ; it is painted with some 
symbolical device ; a wad of feathers is inserted into it to keep the 
tobacco from falling out ; it is filled with some kind of native 
tobacco, 223 usually the Nicotiana attemcata, or dsi'/na/o of the Nava- 
hoes ; it is sealed with moistened pollen and symbolically lighted 
with a rock crystal, which is held up to the sky and touched to the 
tip of the cigarette. After it has been prayed over it is taken out 
and left for — i. e., sacrificed to — the god for whom it is intended. 
The god, they say, recognizes it by its symbolic painting and by the 
place where it is sacrificed. He picks it up, smells and examines it. 
If he is satisfied that it is properly made and that it is for him, he 
takes it and bestows on the supplicant the favors asked. 

95. Sacrificial Sticks. — Besides the cigarettes, small sticks are 
used as sacrifices to the gods. These are made from a variety of 
woods, — different gods and different occasions requiring woods of 
different sorts, — and they are painted in a variety of ways for the 
same reasons. They are usually made in pairs, one for the male 
and the other for the female. Celibacy is not practised by the 
Navaho gods ; every deity has its mate, and she must be propitiated 
as well as he. The female is distinguished in some way from the 
male, and this is usually done by cutting a small facet at the tip end 
of the female stick (see fig. 23), to represent the square mask worn 
by _ one who masquerades as a goddess in the ceremonies. He who 
appears as a god wears a round cap-like mask (fig. 27), and the round 
cut end of the stick sufficiently represents this. 

96. Often the feathers of different kinds of birds are sacrificed 




25. Kethawns (sacnticiai sticks and cigarettes) in sacred 
basket, ready for sacrifice. 

with the kethawns, either attached to the latter or separate ; also 
beads of stone or shell and various kinds of powdered vegetable and 
mineral substances, including pollen, 11 which is the most sacred sub- 
stance employed by the Navaho priests. 

97. Disposal of Kethazvns. — The different ways in which ke- 
thawns are deposited or sacrificed are as numerous as are their forms, 
materials, and decorations, and each way has its special symbolism. 
Some are laid in the branches of a tree, others among rocks, others 
at the base of a cliff, others, again, at the root of a tree, and others 
on level ground ; a few are thrown away almost at random, but most 
of them are laid down with care and with rigorous ceremonial form. 
All that are laid with care are placed with their tips away from the 
lodge, and each is destined to go toward some particular point of the 
compass. When the bearer of the sacrifice leaves the lodge, he pro- 
ceeds in the direction of the place selected for the sacrifice ; when 
he has deposited it he turns to the right and takes a sunwise direc- 
tion in returning. He does not cross his outgoing trail ; he must 
not walk through an ant-hill ; he must run both going and coming. 12 

98. Ceremonial Pictures. — The pictures accompanying the Navaho 
rites are among the most transitory in the history of art. In pre- 
vious essays the author has called them dry-paintings. Similar 

44 Introduction. 

works have been observed among other tribes, both nomadic and 
sedentary, and the observers have designated them as " sand-paint- 
ings," " sand-altars," etc. They are drawn in all the great rites, and 
even in some of the lesser rites — those of only one day's duration 

— small but handsome dry-paintings are sometimes made. They 
vary in size from four to twelve feet in diameter. Sometimes the 
fire in the centre of the medicine-lodge must be removed in order to 
accommodate them. The groundwork is sand, which is conveyed in 
blankets into the medicine-lodge, and spread out over the floor to 
the depth of about three inches. It is smoothed with the broad 
oaken battens used in weaving. 

99. Before the sand is brought in, the pigments are ground to 
powder and put on broad pieces of pine bark, which serve as trays 

— or palettes, shall we say ? The pigments are five in number, — 
white, red, yellow, black, and gray. The white, red, and yellow 
are made of sandstone. The black is made of powdered charcoal, 
with which a little sandstone is mixed to facilitate the grinding 
and give weight to the powder. The gray, made of black and 
white mixed in suitable proportions, is intended to represent blue, 
is called blue by the Navahoes, and, combined with the other colors, 
has the effect of blue in the paintings. It will be spoken of as 
blue in the subsequent descriptions. The Navahoes use indigo and 
a native bluish mineral pigment to paint masks, kethawns, and 
other small objects; but for the dry-paintings such a large quan- 
tity is needed that these would be too expensive. To apply the 
colored powder, a pinch of it is taken up between the thumb and 
first two fingers and allowed to fall slowly on the sand, while the 
thumb is moved over the fingers. 

100. To paint one of these large pictures may require the labor 
of several men — a dozen sometimes — working from early morn- 
ing till late in the afternoon. The picture must be finished before 
dark, for it is impracticable to work on it with such artificial lights 
as the Indians can command. While the work is in progress the 
priest who conducts the ceremonies does little more than direct 
and criticise. The operators have received a certain initiation. 
They have seen the picture painted before and are familiar with its 
details. If an error is made the faulty part is not erased ; sand is 
spread on it to obliterate it, and the corrected drawing is made on 
the new deposit of sand. The pictures are drawn according to exact 
and established rules. Some parts are measured by palms and 
spans, and not a line of the sacred designs may be varied in them. 
In drawing straight lines the colored powder is poured over a tight- 
ened cord. But in a few cases the artist is allowed to indulge his 
fancy, thus-, in drawing the embroidered pouches which the gods 

Introduction. 45 

wear suspended at the waist (plate I.), the limner may, within certain 
limits, give his god as handsome a pouch as he wishes and embroider 
it to suit his notion. The naked forms of the mythical characters 
are drawn first and then the clothing and ornaments are laid on. 

101. When the picture is finished a number of ceremonies (differ- 
ing somewhat in different rites) are performed over it. Pollen or 
corn -meal may be placed on certain parts of the sacred figures, and 
one of these substances may be scattered over it. Water or medi- 
cinal infusions may be applied to it. At length the patient is brought 
in and placed sitting on the picture. Moistening his palms, the 
shaman or an assistant takes the colored dust from various parts of 
the divine figures and applies it to similar parts of the subject's 
body. Medicine is then usually administered in four draughts. When 
the patient leaves, others in the lodge who are ill, or fancy them- 
selves ill, take dust on their palms from the picture and apply it to 
their own persons. He who has headache takes dust from the head 
in the picture and applies it to his own head. He who has sore feet 
takes dust from the pictured feet. When all are done the picture is 
badly marred ; it is then totally obliterated, — the method and cere- 
mony of obliteration differing in different rites, — and the sand on 
which it was drawn is taken out of the lodge and thrown away. The 
floor on the lodge is swept, and the uninitiated, entering a moment 
later, has no evidence of what has taken place. 

102. Plate I. shows pictures of five different gods as they appear 
separately in the dry-paintings. Figure 29 represents, in black, a 
complete painting (the original of which was done in five different 
colors) from the rite of the kled^-i ha.ta.1, or the night chant. It will 
be observed that some of the gods or yei of plate I. are to be seen in 
fig. 29. 

103. The medicine-men declare that these pictures have been 
transmitted from teacher to pupil, unchanged in all the years since 
they were revealed to the prophets of the rites. There are good 
reasons for believing that this is not strictly true : the majority of 
the great ceremonies may be performedonly during the coldest part 
of the year, — the months when the snakes are dormant. No perma- 
nent copies of the pictures were ever preserved until the author 
painted them ; they were carried from season to season in the 
memories of men, and there was no final authority in the tribe to 
settle questions of correctness. But it is probable that changes, if 
they occurred, were unintentional and wrought slowly. After the 
writer made copies of these pictures, and it became known to the 
medicine-men that he had copies in his possession, it was not 
uncommon for the shamans, pending the performance of a ceremony, 
to bring young men who were to assist in the lodge, ask to see the 

4 6 


Fig. 26. Mask of yucca. 

paintings, and lecture on them to their pupils, pointing out the 
various important points, and thus, no doubt, saving mistakes and 
corrections in the medicine-lodge. The water-color copies were 
always (as the shamans knew) kept hidden at the forbidden season, 
and never shown to the uninitiated of the tribe. 

104. Masquerade. — In the rites, men appear representing gods 
or other mythic characters. Sometimes such representations are 
effected by means of paint and equipment only, as in the case of 
the akaninili, or messenger of the mountain chant, 314 who is dressed 
to represent the prophet Dsi'lyi Neyani as he appeared after the 
Butterfly Goddess had transformed him ; but on other occasions 
masks are added to the dress, as in the rites of the night chant. 
In this there are twenty-one masks, 267 made of sacred buckskin, 13 
for representatives of the gods to wear, besides a mask of yucca 
leaves 14 trimmed with spruce twigs (fig. 26), which the patient 
wears on one occasion. The buckskin masks, without plumes or 
collars, are kept in a sack by the shaman, and he carries them on 
horseback to the place where the rites are to be performed ; there 



they are freshly painted, and the collars and plumes are added just 
before they are to be used in the ceremony. 

105. Plates IV. and VII. show the masks as they are actually 
worn, and exhibit men as they are dressed and painted to repre- 
sent the War Gods. In plate I. we get representations of these 
masks as they are depicted in the dry-paintings. Fig. 27 shows 
the mask of //astyeyal/i, the Talking God, as it appears when all 
is ready for the dance, with plume and collar of fresh spruce twigs 
applied. Fig. 28 depicts the mask of a yebaad, or female yei. The 
female masks cover only the face, leaving the hair free. The male 
masks (fig. 27) cover the entire head, concealing the hair. 

106. When a man is dressed in his godly costume he does not 
speak ; he only makes motions and utters a peculiar cry, — each god 
has his own special cry, — and he may perform acts on the patient 
with his special weapon or talisman. The masquerader, they say, 
is, for the time being, no longer a Navaho, but a god, and a prayer to 
him is a prayer to a god. When he enters the lodge and sits down 
before the sick man, the latter hands him his sacrifice and prays to 
him devoutly, well knowing that it may be his own uncle or cousin, 
disguised in the panoply of divinity, who receives the sacrifice. 

Fig. 27. Mask ot /festreyalri. 

4 8 


107. Dance. — It has been customary with travellers to speak of 
Indian ceremonials as dances. This is chiefly for the reason that 
the dance most attracts the attention of white men, and the other 
portions of the work are likely to pass unheeded. Dancing is 
rarely the most important element of an Indian ceremonial, and 
among the Navahoes it is always a minor element. In some of 
the lesser rites it does not occur at all. In the nine days' cere- 
mony of the mountain chant 
it occurs only on the last 
night, and then forms but 
a part of the show, — rude 
dramatic performances and 
feats of legerdemain (see 
fig. 30) occupying about an 
equal time until the enter- 
tainment ends, soon after 
dawn. In the nine days' 
ceremony of the night chant, 
dancing as a part of the 
ceremony is confined to the 
last night, although undress 
rehearsals of the dance take 
place after sunset for a few 
days before. 

1 08. These dances of the 
Navaho, although accom- 
panied with religious sym- 
bolism, and performed often 
by men wearing sacred cos- 
tumes, are undoubtedly in- 
tended largely to entertain 
the spectators. While but 
a few people may be present 
during the first eight or nine 
days of a great ceremony, 
a large crowd always gathers 
to witness the performances of the last night, and many people stay 
up all night to do this. On the last night of the mountain chant the 
dances are picturesque and various. Many of them are borrowed from 
other rites. They have been described by the author in a previous 
work. On the last night of the night chant the dance and song vary 
but little, and to the ordinary observer may seem not to vary at all. 
Yet the spectators who come to the mountain chant are not more 
wakeful and watchful than those who come to the night chant. The 

Fig. 28. Mask of yebaad or goddess. 



Fig. 29. Picture of .ri/neole, a dry-painting of the night chant. 

dancing is always rhythmical and well-timed. Figures are often intro- 
duced like those of our quadrilles ; but no round dances, like our 
waltz or polka, have been observed — the rough ground is not suited 
for such. The dancers and the drummers practise long in private 
before coming to the public exhibition. 

109. Prayer. — In a paper entitled "The Prayer of a Navaho 
Shaman," 315 the author has published a long composition, called a 
prayer by the man from whom he received it, which is a simple nar- 
rative and does not contain a word of supplication. This is the only 
prayer of such character obtained from a Navaho. Many other long 
prayers have been recorded, all of which are formed on a common 
plan. The name of a god is mentioned, and some flattering attri- 
butes are given to him. If it is a god such as i/astreyal/i, of which 
there are more than one of the same name, his residence is men- 
tioned. He is informed that sacrifices have been prepared for him. 
He is asked to remove the spell of disease. Immediately he is 
assured that it is removed. Then he is asked to bestow various 
blessings on the supplicant and all his kindred and people. The 

50 Introduction. 

prayer is given out, one sentence at a time, by the shaman, and the 
patient repeats it after him, sentence by sentence. 

no. These prayers, repeated by two voices, sound much like lita- 
nies, and all end with an expression (hozona. Ztastle) analogous to the 
amen of Christian prayers, four times repeated ; yet the Navaho 
prayers show in their spirit no indication of the influence of 
Christian teaching. They are purely pagan compositions. The 
only evidence of any modern influence they present is the occa- 
sional inclusion of a request for increase of wealth in the shape 
of horses and sheep. A typical Navaho prayer from the rites of 
kled^i hditil is given in note 288. 

in. Besides these long prayers, repeated by two persons, the 
shamans have many monologue prayers ; there are prayers silent 
and vocal, formulated and extempore, used by both priest and lay- 
man ; and there are short devotional sayings, which may be classed 
as benedictions and ejaculations. 


112. Of the many lengthy myths and legends obtained by the 
author from the Navahoes, three have been selected for publication 
in this volume. The first is the Origin Legend of the tribe ; the 
other two are incomplete rite-myths, i. e., rite-myths told by men 
who were not priests of the associated rites. 

113. Versions. — As might be expected among an unlettered 
people, thinly scattered over a wide territory, the legends of the 
Navahoes have many variants. No two men will tell the same tale 
exactly alike, and each story-teller will probably maintain that his 
own version is the only reliable one. Variations of the Origin 
Legend, which is- the property of the tribe at large, and, unlike the 
rite-myths, is not in the keeping of any especial order or priesthood, 
are particularly numerous ; but even in the rite-myths, as told by 
priests of the rites, versions may be found. Notwithstanding these 
varieties,' the tale-tellers agree substantially in the more important 
matters. Of the two rite-myths given in this work, only one version 
of each was procured ; but several versions of the Origin Legend, 
complete or partial, were recorded. The one here published was 
selected as being the most complete, extensive, and consistent of all. 
Other versions often supplement it. The narrators sometimes ac- 
knowledged that they had forgotten episodes which others had 
remembered and detailed. The learned old shaman, //a/a/i Nez, 
forgot to tell how the stars were made ; while a 'younger and less 
erudite person, Jake the silversmith, related a fair version of this 
episode, which came also from other sources to the writer. Jake's 
version of the Legend, which has already been published, is desig- 

Introduction. 5 1 

nated in the notes as Version B ; 306 that of old Torlino, a priest of 
the hozorA /tatai, is designated as Version A. Other versions are 
alluded to, but not designated by letter or number. Some fragmen- 
tary versions by other authors 291 300 have been published, but these 
are not quoted in the notes. 

1 14. Origin Legend. — The Origin Legend divides itself into four 
very distinct parts or chapters, which are named : I. The Story of 
the Emergence ; II. Early Events in the Fifth World ; III. The 
War Gods ; IV. The Growth of the Navaho Nation. The name of 
the first part is that given to it by the Navaho story-tellers. The 
names of the other parts are supplied by the author. The first part, 
The Story of the Emergence, ends when it is related that the people 
came out from the fourth world to the surface of this, the fifth 
world. 15 

1 1 5. Rite-myths. — By a rite-myth is meant a myth which ac- 
counts for the work of a ceremony, for its origin, for its introduction 
among the Navahoes, or for all these things combined. The Nava- 
hoes celebrate long and costly ceremonies, many of which are of 
nine days' duration. Each ceremony has connected with it one or 
more myths, or legends which may not be altogether mythical. 

116. When a rite-myth is told by a priest of the rite to which 
the myth belongs, minute and often tedious particulars concern- 
ing the rite, its work, symbolism, and sacrifices are introduced into 
the tale. When such a myth is told by one who is not a priest 
of the rite (although he may be a priest of some other rite), these 
esoteric parts are altogether omitted, or only briefly alluded to. To 
the latter class belong the two rite-myths given in this book. They 
are here published because they are among the most interesting 
and ingenious that have been collected among the Navahoes. The 
attention of the reader is directed, in the notes, to a few places 
where esoteric or ceremonial matters are thought to be referred to. 
Tales containing ceremonial allusions in full are reserved for future 
publication, along with a description of the rites to which they per- 
tain, as such is considered the more appropriate place for their 

117. In one version of the Origin Legend (Version A) a portion 
of this story is used as a rite-myth. It is embellished with prayers 
and songs, and interspersed with allusions to ceremonial work which 
the version of Hatali Nez does not contain ; but in other respects it 
is inferior to the latter. Thus embellished it contributes a share to 
the myth of the ceremony of Aoxroni katat, or chant of terrestrial 
beauty. Even in the version of Hatali Nez, the songs seem intro- 
duced from some rite-myth, and scarcely to belong to the original 



1 1 8. Whenever an opportunity has occurred of studying a rite 
with its associated myth, it has been found that the myth never 
explains all the symbolism of the rite, although it may account for 
all the more important acts. A primitive and underlying symbolism, 
which probably existed previous to the establishment of the rite, 
remains unexplained by the myth, as though its existence were 
taken as a matter of course, and required no explanation. Some 
explanation of this foundation symbolism may be found in the Origin 
Legend, or in other early legends of the tribe ; but something re- 
mains which even these do not explain. 

119. Myths of thd Whirling Logs. — In the ceremony of kled^i 

Fig. 30. Alili or show (" dance ") of the nahikai in the rue of the mountain chant. 

/za/a/ there is drawn upon the floor of the medicine-lodge a large 
dry-painting which is very imperfectly represented in fig. 29. The 
original was wrought in five colors and was about 12 feet in diame- 
ter. It depicts a vision of the prophet Bela/zazlni, who established 
the rites of kled^i /za/a/. On one occasion, says the tale, he was led, 
in the San Juan valley, to a lake on the borders of which grew four 
stalks of sacred corn, each of a different color. In the centre of the 
lake lay two logs crossing one another at right angles. Near both 
ends of each log sat a pair of yei, or genii, male and female, making 
eight in all. On the shore of the lake stood four more yei, three of 
whom had staves, by means of which they kept the crossed logs 
away from the shore and whirling in the waters. The rainbow god- 
dess, the anthropomorphic rainbow of the Navahoes, surrounded the 
lake. All the circumstances of this strange scene are duly symbol- 
ized in the painting. 

Introduction. 53 

120. It was in his efforts to get a further explanation of this 
extraordinary picture that the author came upon the story of Natf'- 
nesMani. It is not the story that explains the picture, although cer- 
tain passages in it (pars. 481, 488) might seem to explain it. The 
story to which the picture belongs is that of Bela/*atfni, which may 
some day be published in connection with a description of the cere- 
mony of kledsi fata./, or the night chant. The prophet Bela^a/ini, 
according to the tale, floated down the San Juan River in a hollow 
log, until he came to the whirling lake, where he saw the vision 
depicted in the dry-painting. But when the shaman had finished 
telling the story of Bela/za/ini he said : " There is another story of 
a man who floated down the San Juan River in a hollow log. It is a 
story belonging to a different rite, the atsosid^e hatal. Would you 
like to hear it ? " It was thus that the story of Na^i'nes^/zani came 
to be told. The narrator of the two tales was a priest of the kledsi 
hz.ti.1, but not of the atsosid^e hatal; hence one tale is crowded with 
allusions to acts in the ceremony, while the other, as here pub- 
lished, has few such allusions. 

121. The Great Shell of Kintye'l. — The story of the Great Shell 
of Klntyel, as here given, is a fragment of a rite-myth, — the myth 
of the yoid^e hatal, or yoi hatal 2 ™ (bead chant), a nine days' healing 
ceremony. It conveys a moral often found in Navaho tales, which 
is, that we must not despise the poor and humble. They may be 
favored by the gods and prove themselves, to-morrow, more potent 
than those who yesterday despised and mocked them. It also sig- 
nalizes the triumph of a poor Navaho over wealthy Pueblos. 

122. Translation of Legends. — In rendering the Navaho tales 
into English, the author has not confined himself to a close literal 
translation. Such translation would often be difficult to understand, 
and, more often still, be uninteresting reading. He has believed it 
to be his duty to make a readable translation, giving the spirit of 
the original rather than the exact words. The tales were told in 
fluent Navaho, easy of comprehension, and of such literary perfec- 
tion as to hold the hearer's attention. They should be translated 
into English of a similar character, even if words have to be added 
to make the sense clear. Such privileges are taken by the transla- 
tors of the Bible and of the classic authors. Still the writer has 
taken pains never to exceed the metaphor or descriptive force of the 
original, and never to add a single thought of his own. If he has 
erred in rendering the spirit of the savage authors, it has been by 
diminishing rather than by exaggerating. He has erred on the side 
of safety. He has endeavored to " tune the sitar " rather low than 
high. 15 " Again, the original was often embellished with pantomime 
and vocal modulation which expressed more than the mere words, 

54 Introduction. 

and which the writer is unable to represent, and it contained extem- 
porized onomatopes which no letters can express. 

123. Texts. — The men who narrated to the author the tales con- 
tained in this book were not men of unlimited leisure, as many sup- 
pose the Indians to be ; they were popular shamans, or medicine- 
men, who had numerous engagements to conduct ceremonies during 
the winter months, and it was only during the winter months that 
they permitted themselves to tell the tales. It was usually with 
difficulty that arrangements were made with one of these shamans 
to devote a period of two or three weeks to the service ot the author. 
Then, too, they had farms and stock which demanded their care. 
Neither was the author a man of unbounded leisure. Rarely could 
he devote more than two or three hours out of twenty-four to the 
work of ethnography. It has happened more than once that he has 
been obliged to break an engagement made with a shaman, at a cost 
of considerable trouble and money, in order to go on detached service 
away from his proper station. For these reasons it was not prac- 
ticable to record the original Indian texts of all the stories. The 
author had to choose between copious texts and copious tales. He 
chose the latter. But some texts have been recorded. In order that 
the reader may judge how closely the liberal translation here offered 
follows the original, the Navaho text of the opening passages — ten 
paragraphs — of the Origin Legend, with interlinear translations, 
are given in the notes. The texts of songs, prayers, and interesting 
passages may also be found in the notes. 


124. Ever since the present alphabet" of the Bureau of Ethnology 
was established (in 1880), it has been the author's custom to use it 
in spelling Indian words. But heretofore he has written mostly 
for the scientific world, for ethnologists and philologists who either 
were familiar with the alphabet, or were willing to constantly refer 
to it. in reading. As the present work is designed to reach a wider 
circle of readers, the propriety of using the alphabet of the Bureau 
becomes doubtful. Many of the author's friends have begged him 
not to use it in this collection of tales, believing that its unusual 
characters would embarrass the average reader and detract from the 
interest of the work. Another system has, therefore, been devised, 
according to which consonants printed in Roman letters have the 
ordinary English sounds, while those printed in Italics have sounds 
analogous to the English but not identical with them. The vowels, 
when unmarked, have the continental sounds. When these sounds 
are modified, diacritical marks are added in accordance with the 
latest edition of Webster's Dictionary. The sound of English a in 

Introduction. 55 

what is indicated by a. The only diphthong is ai, which has the 
sound of English i in pine. One mark not employed in Webster's 
orthoepy is used in this book, viz., the inverted comma after a 
vowel to show that it is aspirated. 

125. According to this arrangement, the casual reader will find 
the Indian words easily legible. If he takes the trouble to consult 
this and the preceding paragraph he may pronounce the words 
almost exactly as a Navaho would ; if not he may, at least, pronounce 
them in a way that few Navahoes would fail to comprehend. At all 
events, to the majority of readers, a perfect pronunciation of the 
Indian words is immaterial. Many white men, living within the 
borders of the Navaho land, converse with these Indians in a jargon 
or debased language which might be spelled in English characters 
with their ordinary English values. For example, let us take the 
word for hut or house. This is properly pronounced hogixv ; but the 
whites in New Mexico generally call it hogan, and the Navahoes 
never fail to understand the word as thus pronounced. In this form 
it is an adopted English word in the Southwest. The following are 
the values of the consonants when printed in Italics : — 

d has the sound of English th in this. 

g has a sound unknown in English, gh imperfectly represents it. 
It is the g of the Dakota, or the Arabic ghain. 

h has the sound of German ch in machen. 

/ is an aspirated 1 unknown in English, hi imperfectly represents 
it. It is formed with the side rather than with the tip of the tongue. 

s has the sound of English sh in shot. 

t has the sound of English th in thing. 

z has the sound of English z in azure. 

c, j, q, r, and x are not used. The sound' of English ch in church 
is represented by ts ; that of English j in jug, by ds. 


126. In the many papers about the Navahoes which the author has 
previously written he has spelled the name of the tribe according to 
the Spanish system " Navajo," with the plural also in Spanish form, 
" Navajos." In the present work he spells it, according to English 
orthography, "Navaho," with an English plural, "Navahoes," and 
he thus intends to spell it in the future. This he does because the 
Spanish spelling is misleading to the majority of English readers. 
It may properly be asked why he should adopt an English orthogra- 
phy for Navaho, a name of Spanish origin, while he retains the mis- 
leading Spanish orthography of San Juan. It is not sufficient, in 
reply, to say that the territory of the Navaho has been in the pos- 
session of the United States since 1848, and that we have thus 

56 Introduction. 

acquired the right to spell this name in our own way ; for a thou- 
sand other names of Spanish origin have marked our map as long, 
which we never ventured to change, either in spelling or pronuncia- 
tion. Perhaps the best defence to be made of our course is that the 
name Navaho exists nowhere but within our borders. If we change 
the spelling here, we do not conflict with the spelling elsewhere. 
But there are scores of San Juans in Spanish America. We could 
not change the spelling of our San Juan without confusion. It were 
better that we should follow the example of Lord Byron and pro- 
nounce it Jew'an ; but this the people of the Southwest will probably 
never do. They will speak of the stream as the " San Won " or the 
" San Whon " for all time. Furthermore, the English spelling of 
Navaho is not a new thing with the writer. Many have already 
adopted it. 


126. In preparing the notes the author has usually limited himself 
to such matters as he believes he only can explain, or such as, at 
least, he can explain better than any one else. In a few cases he 
has given information on subjects not generally known and not 
easily to be investigated. The temptation to wander into the seduc- 
tive paths of comparative mythology, and to speculate on the more 
recondite significance of the myths, had to be resisted if the work 
were to be kept within the limits of one volume. Resemblances 
between the tales of the Navahoes and those of other peoples, civil- 
ized and savage, ancient and modern, are numerous and marked ; 
but space devoted to them would be lost to more important subjects. 
Again, many of the readers of this book may be prepared, better 
than the author, to note these resemblances. 

SHAMANS. 16 * 

127. So much has been said against the medicine-men of the 
Indians by various writers, who accuse them of being reactionaries, 
mischief-makers, and arrant deceivers, that the writer feels con- 
strained to give some testimony in their favor, — in favor, at least, 
of those he has met among the Navahoes ; he will not speak now for 
other tribes. 

128. There are, among the Navahoes, charlatans and cheats who 
treat disease ; men who pretend to suck disease out of the patient 
and then draw from their own mouths pebbles, pieces of charcoal, or 
bodies of insects, claiming that these are the disease which they 
have extracted. But the priests of the great rites are not to be 
classed with such. All of these with whom the writer is acquainted 
are above such trickery. They perform their ceremonies in the firm 
conviction that they are invoking divine aid, and their calling lends 



Fig. 31. Hat&Tx Natl6i. 

dignity to their character. They interfere little with the political 
affairs of the tribe. 

129. Smiling Chanter. — It is a source of great regret that a bet- 
ter likeness cannot be presented of H2iti.l'\ Natloi than that' shown 
in fig. 31. It is reproduced from a painting which was copied from 
a dim kodak photograph. His name may be translated Smiling 
Chanter, or Smiling Doctor ; an angry or unpleasant expression is 
never seen on his face. He is also called 7/a/a/i Pa/zosxSni, which 
may be translated Happy or Good-natured Chanter. He is a priest 
of the kled^ri h2.ti.l, or night chant. He would be considered a man 
of high character in any community. He is dignified, courteous, 
kind, honest, truthful, and self-respecting. But his dignity is not of 
the pompous kind. He has a keen sense of humor, makes an excel- 
lent joke, and is a good mimic ; but, for all his fun, he is neither 

58 Introduction. 

vulgar nor unkind. He never begged from the author, and never 
made a bargain with him in advance for his services, or named a 
price for them when he was done. He always took the greatest 
pains to explain everything, and, after the writer had been duly 
initiated into the mysteries of his order, he withheld nothing. To 
him we are indebted for the story of Na/i'nes//*ani. 

130. Tall Chanter. — Figure 32 represents an aged priest named NSz, or Tall Chanter. He was the first who could be per- 
suaded to explain to the author the ceremonies or relate the rite- 
myths ; but when he set the example, others were found to follow. 
He also is a priest of the night chant. Of late years he has become 
unpopular as a shaman, owing to an increasing irritability of tem- 
per ; but he exhibits no envy of his more popular rivals. He per- 
haps has a better knowledge of the legends than any other man in 
the tribe. Before he would confide any of his secrets to the author 
he said : " The chanters among the Navahoes are all brothers. If 
you would learn our secrets you must be one of us. You must for- 
ever be a brother to me. Do you promise this ? " He has ever 
since addressed the author as Sitsi'li, " My younger brother," and 
has in turn been called Sinai, " My elder brother." 

131. Ethics. — Among themselves, these men have a code of ethics 
which is, in general, more honestly upheld than the code of our own 
medical profession. They exhibit no jealousy of one another. They 
boast not of the excellence of the particular rite they practise. They 
assist and counsel one another. If a medicine-man, in performing a 
rite, finds that his supply of some sacred article is exhausted, he 
sends to the nearest medicine-man for it. If the latter has it, he is 
obliged to give, and is not allowed to receive payment in return. 

132. Torlino. — They are as willing as any other Indians to learn 
the white man's philosophy. Old Torlino, a priest of hozor\\ hatal, 
sent a son to school at Carlisle, and when the young man returned 
he no doubt imparted to his father much that he had learned there. 
The writer sent for the old man to get from him the myth of hosom 
//a/a/. Torlino began : " I know the white men say~the world is 
round, and that it floats in the air. My tale says the world is flat, 
and that there are five worlds, one above another. You will not 
believe my tale, then, and perhaps you do not want to hear it." 
Being assured that the tale was earnestly desired, despite of all white 
men's theories, he proceeded. " I shall tell you the truth, then. I 
shall tell you all that I heard from the old men who taught me, as 
well as I can now remember. Why should I lie to you ? " And then 
he made the interesting asseveration which is here literally trans- 
lated : " I am ashamed before the earth ; I am ashamed before the 
heavens ; I am ashamed before the dawn ; I am ashamed before the 



evening twilight ; I am ashamed before the blue sky ; I am ashamed 
before the darkness ; I am ashamed before the sun ; I am ashamed 
before that standing within me which speaks with me (my con- 
science !). 274 Some of these things are always looking at me. I am 
never out of sight. Therefore I must tell the truth. That is why I 
always tell the truth. I hold my word tight to my breast." 

133. Medical Practice. — Often have the shamans come to the 
author for treatment for themselves and their friends, and they 

Fig. 32. The Shaman //aiali Nez"(Tall Chanter). 

never made any secret of this, but asked for medicine in the pres- 
ence of the laity of their own tribe. They do not pretend to deal in 
panaceas. On the other hand, in cases where the author has failed 
to give prompt relief to a sick Indian, they have come in all sincerity 
and politeness and said, " I know a remedy for that difficulty. Will 
you let me try it ? " They do not confine themselves to the practice 
of their shamanistic rites. They use various plants in the treatment 
of disease, and these, in simple, acute cases, they administer without 
prayer, sacrifice, or incantation. 


134. It is possible that poets, novelists, travellers, and compilers 
will search this humble volume and cull from it facts and fancies, 

60 Introduction. 

which, clothed in fairer diction, may add interest to their pages. 
The author does not ask that such writers shall acknowledge the 
source of their inspiration. This is more than he has a right to 
expect. Our greatest poets have borrowed from sources as obscure 
and never named their creditors. The author has often, ere now, 
experienced the pleasure of seeing his thoughts and discoveries 
blazoned in print over other names. But he ventures to make a few 
requests of the literary borrower. He begs that the latter will not 
garble or distort what is here written, — that he will not put alien 
thoughts into the minds of these pagan heroes ; that he will not arm 
them with the weapons nor clothe them in the habiliments of an 
alien race ; that he will not make them act incongruous parts. 

135. Stephen Powers, in his "Tribes of California" 326 (page 38), 
gives, in simple and direct language, the story of how fire came to 
the Karok nation. A few years after he wrote, some one worked his 
story into a " poem," which appeared, most artistically illustrated, in 
one of our leading magazines. In this poem the Coyote, in a quan- 
dary, is represented as " stroking his goatee." Coyotes have no 
goatees ; Indians have no goatees. The act of stroking the goatee, 
in thought or perplexity, is the special mannerism of a nervous 
American. No allusion could be more out of place in an Indian 
legend. Should the poet referred to ever select any of the tales in 
this book to be tortured into a poem, I beg that he will not, even for 
the sake of making a faulty rhyme, put a beard on the chin of the 
Navaho Coyote God. 


1262 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 
May 1 st, 1896. 


(The sacred mountain of the West.) 



136. At To'bl/AaskVdi (in the middle of the first world), white 
arose in the east, and they 17 regarded it as day there, they say ; blue 
rose in the south, and still it was day to them, and they moved 
around ; yellow rose in the west and showed that evening had come ; 
then dark arose in the north, and they lay down and slept. 18 

137. At 7b'bi//zaskrVi water flowed out (from a central source) 
in different directions ; one stream flowed to the east, another to the 
south, and another to the west. There were dwelling-places on the 
border of the stream that flowed to the east, on that which flowed to 
the south, and on that which flowed to the west also. 

138. To the east there was a place called Ta« (Corn), to the 
south a place called Nahoafoola, and to the west a place called 
Zokatsosaka^ (Standing Reed). Again, to the east there was a 
place called Essa/ai (One Pot), to the south a place called To'^adsM/ 
(They Come Often for Water), and to the west a place called 
Dsi/Zitj-fbe^o^an (House Made of the Red Mountain). Then, again, 
to the east there was a place called Zeya^o^an (Under-ground House), 
to the south a place called TsiltsVntfta. (Among Aromatic Sumac), 
and to the west a place called Tse'/itribe^ogan (House Made of Red 

139. Holatn Di/yi7e (dark ants) lived there. Holatn Litsi (red 
ants) lived there. Tanilai (dragon flies) lived there. T^alt^a (yel- 
low beetles) lived there. Wointli'zi (hard beetles) lived there. 
Tse'yoa/i (stone-carrier beetles) lived there. Kin/i'^in (black beetles) 
lived there. Mait^an (coyote-dung beetles) lived there. T^apani 
(bats) lived there. Tbtso' (white-faced beetles) lived there. 
WonistrM (locusts) lived there. Wonistnafikai (white locusts) lived 
there. These twelve people started in life there. 19 

140. To the east extended an ocean, to the south an ocean, to 
the west an ocean, and to the north an ocean. In the ocean to 
the east lay Tieholtsodi ; he was chief of the people there. In 
the ocean to the south lived T^altla/^ale (Blue Heron), who was 

64 Navaho Legends. 

chief of the people there. In the ocean to the west lay Tral 
(Frog), who was chief of the people there. In the ocean to the 
north was Idhi'dsi/kaf (White Mountain Thunder), and he was chief 
of the people there. 20 

141. The people quarrelled among themselves, and this is the 
way it happened. They committed adultery, one people with 
another. Many of the women were guilty. They tried to stop it, 
but they could not. Tieholtsodi, the chief in the east, said : " What 
shall we do with them? They like not the land they dwell in." 
In the south Blue Heron spoke to them, and in the west Frog 
said : " No longer shall you dwell here, I say. I am chief here." 
To the north White Mountain Lightning said : " Go elsewhere at 
once. Depart from here ! " 

142. When again they sinned and again they quarrelled, Tiehol- 
tsodi, in the east, would not speak to them ; Blue Heron, in the 
south, would not speak to them ; Frog, in the west, would say 
nothing ; and White Mountain Thunder, in the north, would not 
speak to them. 

143. Again, at the end of four nights, the same thing happened. 
Those who dwelt at the south again committed crime, and again 
they had contentions. One woman and one man sought to enter 
in the east (to complain to the chief), but they were driven out. 
In the south they sought to go in where Blue Heron lay, but 
again they were driven out. In the west, where Frog was the 
chief, again they tried to enter ; but again they were driven out. 
To the north again they were driven out. (The chief) said : " None 
of you (shall enter here). Go elsewhere and keep on going." That 
night at Naho^oola they held a council, but they arrived at no 
decision. At dawn Tieholtsodi began to talk. " You pay no atten- 
tion to my words. Everywhere you disobey me ; you must go to 
some other place. Not upon this earth shall you remain." Thus 
he spoke to them. 

144. Among the women, for four nights they talked about it. 
At the end of the fourth night, in the morning, as they were rising, 
something white appeared in the east. It appeared also in the 
south, the west, and the north. It looked like a chain of moun- 
tains, without a break, stretching around them. It was water that 
surrounded them. Water impassable, water insurmountable, flowed 
all around. All at once they started. 

145. They went in circles upward till they reached the sky. It 
was smooth. They looked down ; but there the water had risen, 
and there was nothing else but water there. While they were 
flying around, one having a blue head thrust out his head from 
the sky and called to them, saying : " In here, to the eastward, 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 65 

there is a hole." They entered the hole and went thiough it up 
to the surface (of the second world). 

146. The blue one belonged to the //ajtrojidine', or Swallow 
People. 21 The Swallow People lived there. A great many of their 
houses, rough and lumpy, lay scattered all around. Each tapered 
toward the top, and at that part there was a hole for entrance. A 
great many people approached and gathered around 275 the strangers, 
but they said nothing. 

147. The first world was red in color; the second world, into 
which the people had now entered, was blue. 22 They sent out two 
couriers, a Locust and a White Locust, to the east, to explore the 
land and see if there were in it any people like themselves. At 
the end of two days the couriers returned, and said that in one day's 
travel they had reached the edge of the world — the top of a great 
cliff that arose from an abyss whose bottom they could not see ; but 
that they found in all their journey no people, no animals of any 
kind, no trees, no grass, no sage-brush, no mountains, nothing but 
bare, level ground. The same couriers were then dispatched in 
turn to the south, to the west, and to the north. They were 
gone on each journey two days, and when they returned related, 
as before, that they had reached the edge of the world, and 
discovered nothing but an uninhabited waste. Here, then, the 
strangers found themselves in the centre of a vast barren plain, 
where there was neither food nor a kindred people. When the 
couriers had returned from the north, the Swallows visited the camp 
of the newly arrived people, and asked them why they had sent out 
the couriers to the east. "We sent them out," was the reply, "to 
see what was in the land, and to see if there were any people like 
ourselves here." " And what did your couriers tell you ? " asked 
the Swallows. " They told us that they came to the edge of the 
world, yet found no plant and no living thing in all the land." (The 
same questions were asked and the same answers given for the other 
points of the compass.) "They spoke the truth," said the Swallow 
People. " Had you asked us in the beginning what the land con- 
tained, we would have told you and saved you all your trouble. 
Until you came, no one has ever dwelt in all this land but our- 
selves." The people then said to the Swallows : " You understand 
our language and are much like us. You have legs, feet, bodies, 
heads, and wings, as we have : why cannot your people and our people 
become friends ? " " Let it be as you wish,", said the Swallows, and 
both parties began at once to treat each other as members of one 
tribe ; they mingled one among the other, and addressed one another 
by the terms of relationship, as, my brother, my sister, my father, 
my son, etc. 23 

66 Navaho Legends. 

148. They all lived together pleasantly and happily for twenty- 
three days ; but on the twenty-fourth night one of the strangers 
made too free with the wife of the Swallow chief, and next morning, 
when the latter found out what had happened, he said to the 
strangers : " We have treated you as friends, and thus you return our 
kindness. We doubt not that for such crimes you were driven from 
the lower world, and now you must leave this. This is our land and 
we will have you here no longer. Besides, this is a bad land. Peo- 
ple are dying here every day, and, even if we spare you, you cannot 
live here long." The Locusts took the lead on hearing this; they 
soared upwards ; the others followed, and all soared and circled till 
they reached the sky. 

149. W T hen they reached the sky they found it, like the sky of the 
first world, smooth and hard with no opening ; but while they were 
circling round under it, they saw a white face peering out at them, 
— it was the face of Ni'ltri, the Wind. He called to them and told 
them if they would fly to the south they would find a hole through 
which they could pass ; so off they flew, as bidden, and soon they 
discovered a slit in the sky which slanted upwards toward the south ; 
through this slit they flew, and soon entered the third world in the 

1 50. The color of the third world was yellow. 22 Here they found 
nothing but the Grasshopper People. The latter gathered around 
the wanderers in great numbers, but said nothing. They lived in 
holes in the ground along the banks of a great river which flowed 
through their land to the east. The wanderers sent out the same 
Locust messengers that they had sent out in the second world to 
explore the land to the east, to the south, to the west, to the north, 
to find out what the land contained, and to see if there were any 
kindred people in it ; but the messengers returned from each jour- 
ney after an absence of two days, saying they had reached the end 
of the world, and that they had found a barren land with no people 
in it save the Grasshoppers. 24 

151. When the couriers returned from their fourth journey, the 
two great chiefs of the Grasshoppers visited the strangers and asked 
them why they had sent out the explorers, and the strangers an- 
swered that they had sent them out to see what grew in the land, 
and to find if there were any people like themselves in it. "And 
what did your couriers find ? " said the Grasshopper chiefs. " They 
found nothing save the bare land and the river, and no people but 
yourselves." "There is nothing else in the land," said the chiefs. 
" Long we have lived here, but we have seen no other people but 
ourselves until you came." 

152. The strangers then spoke to the Grasshoppers, as they had 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 67 

spoken to the Swallows in the second world, and begged that they 
might join them and become one people with them. The Grasshop- 
pers consented, and the two peoples at once mingled among one 
another and embraced one another, and called one another by the 
endearing terms of relationship, as if they were all of the same tribe. 

153. As before, all went well for twenty-three days ; but on the 
twenty-fourth one of the strangers served a chief of the Grass- 
hoppers as the chief of the Swallows had been served in the lower 
world. In the morning, when the wrong was discovered, the chief 
reviled the strangers and bade them depart. " For such crimes," he 
said, " I suppose you were chased from the world below : you shall 
drink no more of our water, you shall breathe no more of our air. 
Begone ! " 

1 54. Up they all flew again, and circled round and round until they 
came to the sky above them, and they found it smooth and hard as 
before. When they had circled round for some time, looking in vain 
for an entrance, they saw a red head stuck out of the sky, and they 
heard a voice which told them to fly to the west. It was the head 
of Red Wind which they saw, and it was his voice that spoke to 
them. The passage which they found in the west was twisted round 
like the tendril of a vine ; it had thus been made by the wind. They 
flew up in circles through it and came out in the fourth world. Four 
of the Grasshoppers came with them ; one was white, one blue, one 
yellow, and one black. We have grasshoppers of these four colors 
with us to this day. 25 

155. The surface of the fourth world was mixed black and white. 
The colors in the sky were the same as in the lower worlds, but 
they differed in their" duration. In the first world, the white, the 
blue, the yellow, and the black all lasted about an equal length of 
time every day. In the second world the blue and the black lasted 
a little longer than the other two colors. In the third world they 
lasted still longer. In the fourth world there was but little of the 
white and yellow ; the blue and the black lasted most of the time. 
As yet there was neither sun, moon, nor star. 

1 56. When they arrived on the surface of the fourth world they 
saw no living thing ; but they observed four great snow-covered 
peaks sticking up at the horizon — one at the east, one at the south, 
one at the west, and one at the north. 

157. They sent two couriers to the east. These returned at the 
end of two days. They related that they had not been able to reach 
the eastern mountain, and that, though they had travelled far, they 
had seen no track or trail or sign of life. Two couriers were then 
sent to the south. When they returned, at the end of two days, 
they related that they had reached a low range of mountains this 

68 Navaho Legends. 

side of. the great peak ; that they had seen no living creature, but 
had seen two different kinds of tracks, such as they had never seen 
before, and they described such as the deer and the turkey make 
now. Two couriers were next sent to the west. In two days these 
returned, having failed to reach the great peak in the west, and hav- 
ing seen no living thing and no sign of life. At last two couriers 
were sent to the north. When these got back to their kindred they 
said they had found a race of strange men, who cut their hair square 
in front, who lived in houses in the ground and cultivated fields. 
These people, who were engaged in gathering their harvest, the 
couriers said, treated them very kindly and gave them food to eat. 
It was now evident to the wanderers that the fourth world was 
larger than any of the worlds below. 

158. The day following the return of the couriers who went to the 
north, two of the newly discovered race — Kisani (Pueblos) they were 
called — entered the camp of the exiles and guided the latter to a 
stream of water. The water was red, and the Kisani told the wan- 
derers they must not walk through the stream, for if they did the 
water would injure their feet. The Kisani showed them a square 
raft made of four logs, — a white pine, a blue spruce, and yellow pine, 
and a black spruce, — on which they might cross ; so they went over 
the stream and visited the homes of the Kisani. 

1 59. The Kisani gave the wanderers corn and pumpkins to eat, 
and the latter lived for some time on the food given to them daily 
by their new friends. They held a council among themselves, in 
which they resolved to mend their manners for the future and do 
nothing to make the Kisani angry. The land of the Kisani had 
neither rain nor snow ; the crops were raised by irrigation. 

160. Late in the autumn they heard in the east the distant sound 
of a great voice calling. They listened and waited, and soon heard 
the voice nearer and louder. They listened still and heard the voice 
a third time, nearer and louder than before. Once more they listened, 
and soon they heard the voice louder still, and clear like the voice of 
one near at hand. A moment later four mysterious beings appeared 
to them. 26 These were : Bitsi's Zakai, or White Body, a being like 
the god of this world whom the Navahoes call //astyeyal/i ; Bltsfs 
DotW'z, or Blue Body, who was like the present Navaho god 
T'o'nenili, or Water Sprinkler ; Bitsi's Z-Ttsoi, or Yellow Body ; and 
Bitsi's Zizi'n, or Black Body, who was the same as the present 
Navaho god of fire, //ast-re^ini. 

161. These beings, without speaking, made many signs to the 
people, as if instructing them ; but the latter did not understand 
them. When the gods had gone, the people long discussed the 
mysterious visit, and tried to make out what the gods meant by the 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 69 

signs they had made. Thus the gods visited four days in succession. 
On the fourth day, when the other three had departed, Black Body 
remained behind and spoke to the people in their own language. 
He said : " You do not seem to understand the signs that these 
gods make you, so I must tell you what they mean. They want to 
make more people, but in form like themselves. You have bodies 
like theirs ; but you have the teeth, the feet, and the claws of beasts 
and insects. The new creatures are to have hands and feet like 
ours. But you are uncleanly, you smell badly. Have yourselves 
well cleansed when we return ; we will come back in twelve days." 

162. On the morning of the twelfth day the people washed them- 
selves well. The women dried themselves with yellow corn-meal ; 
the men with white corn-meal. 27 Soon after the ablutions were 
completed they heard the distant call of the approaching gods. It 
was shouted, as before, four times, — nearer and louder at each repe- 
tition, — and, after the fourth call, the gods appeared. Blue Body 
and Black Body each carried a sacred buckskin. White Body car- 
ried two ears of corn, one yellow, one white, each covered at the 
end completely with grains. 28 

163. The gods laid one buckskin on the ground with the head 
to the west ; on this they placed the two ears of corn, with their 
tips to the east, and over the corn they spread the other'buckskin 
with its head to the east ; under the white ear they put the feather 
of a white eagle, under the yellow ear the feather of a yellow 
eagle. Then they told the people to stand at a distance and allow 
the wind to enter. The white wind blew from the east, and the 
yellow wind blew from the west, between the skins. While the 
wind was blowing, eight of the Mirage People came and walked 
around the objects on the ground four times, and as they walked 
the eagle feathers, whose tips protruded from between the buck- 
skins, were seen to move. When the Mirage People had finished 
their walk the upper buckskin was lifted, — the ears of corn had 
disappeared ; a man and a woman lay there in their stead. 

164. The white ear of corn had been changed into a man, the 
yellow ear into a woman. It was the wind that gave them life. 
It is the wind that comes out of our mouths now that gives us 
life. When this ceases to blow we die. In the skin at the tips 
of- our fingers we see the trail of the wind ; it shows us where the 
wind blew when our ancestors were created. 

165. The pair thus created were First Man and First Woman 
(Atse ffastiu and Atse Estsan). The gods directed the people to 
build an inclosure of brushwood for the pair. When the inclosure 
was finished, First Man and First Woman entered it, and the gods 
said to them : "Live together now as husband and wife." At the 

yo Navaho Legends. 

end of four days hermaphrodite ffl twins were born, and at the end 
of four days more a boy and a girl were born, who in four days grew 
to maturity and lived with one another as husband and wife. The 
primal pair had in all five pairs of twins, the first of which only was 
barren, being hermaphrodites. 

1 66. In four days after the last pair of twins was born, the gods 
came again and took First Man and First Woman away to the east- 
ern mountain where the gods dwelt, and kept them there for four 
days. When they returned all their children were taken to the east- 
ern mountain and kept there for four days. Soon after they all 
returned it was observed that they occasionally wore masks, such as 
//astreyal/i and HzsXshhogxn. wear now, and that when they wore 
these masks they prayed for all good things, — for abundant rain 
and abundant crops. It is thought, too, that during their visit to 
the eastern mountain they learned the awful secrets of witchcraft, 
for the anti'hi (witches, wizards) always keep such masks with them 
and marry those too nearly related to them. 

167. When they returned from the eastern mountain the brothers 
and sisters separated ; and, keeping the fact of their former unlaw- 
ful marriages secret, the brothers married women of the Mirage 
People and the sisters married men of the Mirage People. They 
kept secret, too, all the mysteries they had learned in the eastern 
mountain. The women thus married bore children every four days, 
and the children grew to maturity in four days, were married, and 
in their turn had children every four days. This numerous offspring 
married among the Kisani, and among those who had come from the 
lower world, and soon there was a multitude of people in the land. 

168. These descendants of First Man and First Woman made a 
great farm. They built a dam and dug a wide irrigating ditch. But 
they feared the Kisani might injure their dam or their crops ; so 
they put one of the hermaphrodites to watch the dam and the other 
to watch the lower end of the field. The hermaphrodite who 
watched at the dam invented pottery. He made first a plate, a 
bowl, and a dipper, which were greatly admired by the people. The 
hermaphrodite who lived at the lower end of the farm invented the 
wicker water-bottle. 30 Others made, from thin split boards of cotton- 
wood, implements which they shoved before them to clear the weeds 
out of the land. They made also hoes from shoulder-blades of deer 
and axes of stone. They got their seeds from the Kisani. 

169. Once they killed a little deer, and some one among them 
thought that perhaps they might make, from the skin of the head, a 
mask, by means of which they could approach other deer and kill 
them. They tried to make such a mask but failed ; they could not 
make it fit. They debated over the invention and considered it for 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 7 1 

four days, but did not succeed. On the morning of the fifth day 
they heard the gods shouting in the distance. As on a previous 
occasion, they shouted four times, and after the fourth call they 
made their appearance. They brought with them heads of deer and 
of antelope. They showed the people how the masks were made 
and fitted, how the eye-holes were cut, how the motions of the deer 
were to be imitated, and explained to them all the other mysteries 
of the deer-hunt 31 Next day hunters went out and several deer 
were killed ; from these more masks were made, and with these 
masks more men went out to hunt ; atter that time the camp had 
abundance of meat. The people dressed the deerskins and made 
garments out of them. 

170. The people from the third world had been in the fourth world 
eight years when the following incident occurred : One day they 
saw the sky stooping down and the earth rising up to meet it. For 
a moment they came in contact, and then there sprang out of the 
earth, at the point of contact, the Coyote and the Badger. We think 
now that the Coyote and the Badger are children of the sky. The 
Coyote rose first, and for this reason we think he is the elder 
brother of the Badger. At once the Coyote came over to the camp 
and skulked round among the people, while the Badger went down 
into the hole that led to the lower world. 

171. First Man told the people the names of the four mountains 
which rose in the distance. They were named the same as the four 
mountains that now bound the Navaho land. There was Tsisnad^i'ni 
in the east, TsotsT/ in the south, Dokoslid in the west, and Ztepe'ntsa 
in the north, and he told them that a different race of people lived in 
each mountain. 

172. First Man was the chief of all these people in the fourth 
world, except the Kisani. He was a great hunter, and his wife, First 
Woman, was very corpulent. One day he brought home from the 
hunt a fine fat deer. The woman boiled some of it and they had a 
hearty meal. When they were done the woman wiped her greasy 
hands on her dress, and made a remark which greatly enraged her 
husband ; they had a quarrel about this, which First Man ended by 
jumping across the fire and remaining by himself in silence for the 
rest of the night. 32 

173. Next morning First Man went out early and called aloud to 
the people : " Come hither, all ye men," he said ; " I wish to speak 
to you, but let all the women stay behind ; I do not wish to see 
them." Soon all the males gathered, and he told them what his wife 
had said the night before. " They believe," he said, " that they can 
live without us. Let us see if they can hunt game and till the fields 
without our help. Let us see what sort of a living they can make 

72 Navaho Legends. 

by themselves. Let us leave them and persuade the Kisani to come 
with us. We will cross the stream, and when we are gone over we 
will keep the raft on the other side." He sent for the hermaphro- 
dites. They came, covered with meal, for they had been grinding 
corn. " What have you that you have made yourselves ? " he asked. 
" We have each two mealing-stones, and we have cups and bowls and 
baskets and many other things," they answered. " Then take these 
all along with you," he ordered, "and join us to cross the stream." 
Then all the men and the hermaphrodites assembled at the river 
and crossed to the north side on the raft, and they took over with 
them their stone axes and farm implements and everything they 
had made. When they had all crossed they sent the raft down to 
the Kisani for them to cross. The latter came over, — six gentes of 
them, — but they took their women with them. While some of the 
young men were crossing the stream they cried at parting with their 
wives ; still they went at the bidding of their chief. The men left 
the women everything the latter had helped to make or raise. 

174. As soon as they had crossed the river some of the men went 
out hunting, for the young boys needed food, and some set to work 
to chop down willows and build huts. They had themselves all 
sheltered in four days. 

175. That winter the women had abundance of food, and they 
feasted, sang, and had a merry time. They often came down to the 
bank of the river and called across to the men and taunted and 
reviled them. Next year the men prepared a few small fields and 
raised a little corn ; but they did not have much corn to eat, and 
lived a good deal by hunting. The women planted all of the old 
farm, but they did not work it very well ; so in the winter they had a 
small crop, and they did not sing and make merry as in the previous 
winter. In the second spring the women planted less, while the 
men planted more, cleared more land, and increased the size of their 
farm. Each year the fields and crops of the men increased, while 
those of the women diminished and they began to suffer for want of 
food. Some went out and gathered the seeds of wild plants to eat. 
In the autumn of the third year of separation many women jumped 
into the river and tried to swim over ; but they were carried under 
the surface of the water and were never seen again. In the fourth 
year the men had more food than they could eat ; corn and pump- 
kins lay untouched in the fields, while the women were starving. 

176. First Man at length began to think what the effect of his 
course might be. He saw that if he continued to keep the men and 
the women apart the race might die out, so he called the men and 
spoke his thoughts to them. Some said, " Surely our race will per- 
ish," and others said, "What good is our abundance to us? We 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 73 

think so much of our poor women starving in our sight that we can- 
not eat." Then he sent a man to the shore to call across the stream 
to find if First Woman were still there, and to bid her come down to 
the bank if she were. She came to the bank, and First Man called 
to her and asked if she still thought she could live alone. " No," 
she replied, "we cannot live without our husbands." The men and 
the women were then told to assemble at the shores of the stream ; 
the raft was sent over and the women were ferried across. They 
were made to bathe their bodies and dry them with meal. They 
were put in a corral and kept there until night, when they were let 
out to join the men in their feasts. 33 

177. When they were let out of the corral it was found that three 
were missing. After dark, voices were heard calling from the other 
side of the river; they were the voices of the missing ones, — a 
mother and her two daughters. They begged to be ferried over, but 
the men told them it was too dark, that they must wait until morn- 
ing. Hearing this, they jumped into the stream and tried to swim 
over. The mother succeeded in reaching the opposite bank and 
finding her husband. The daughters were seized by Tieholtsodi, 
the water monster, and dragged down under the water. 

178. For three nights and three days the people heard nothing 
about the young women and supposed them lost forever. On the 
morning of the fourth day the call of the gods was heard, — four 
times as usual, — and after the fourth call White Body made his 
appearance, holding up two fingers and pointing to the river. The 
people supposed that these signs had reference to the lost girls. 
Some of the men crossed the stream on the raft and looked for the 
tracks of the lost ones ; they traced the tracks to the edge of 
the water, but no farther. White Body went away, but soon re- 
turned, accompanied by Blue Body. White Body carried a large 
bowl of white shell, and Blue Body a large bowl of blue shell. 
They asked for a man and a woman to accompany them, and they 
went down to the river. They put both the bowls on the surface of 
the water and caused them to spin around. Beneath the spinning 
bowls the water opened, for it was hollow, and gave entrance to a 
large house of four rooms. The room in the east was made of the 
dark waters, the room in the south of the blue waters, the room in 
the west of the yellow waters, and the room in the north of waters 
of all colors. 36 

179. The man and the woman descended and Coyote followed 
them. They went first into the east room, but there they found 
nothing ; then they went into the south room, but there they found 
nothing ; next they went into the west room, where again they found 
nothing ; at last they went into the north room, and there they 

74 Navaho Legends. 

beheld the water monster Tieholtsodi, with the two girls he had 
stolen and two children of his own. The man and the woman 
demanded the children, and as he said nothing in reply they took 
them and walked away. But as they went out Coyote, unperceived 
by all, took the two children of Tieholtsodi and carried them off 
under his robe. Coyote always wore his robe folded close around 
him and always slept with it thus folded, so no one was surprised to 
see that he still wore his robe in this way when he came up from 
the waters, and no one suspected that he had stolen the children of 

1 80. Next day the people were surprised to see deer, turkey, and 
antelope running past from east to west, and to see animals of six 
different kinds (two kinds of Hawks, two kinds of Squirrels, the 
Hummingbird, and the Bat) come into their camp as if for refuge. 
The game animals ran past in increasing numbers during the three 
days following. On the morning of the fourth day, when the white 
light rose, the people observed in the east a strange white gleam 
along the horizon, and they sent out the Locust couriers to see what 
caused this unusual appearance. The Locusts returned before sun- 
set, and told the people that a vast flood of waters was fast ap- 
proaching from the east. On hearing this the people all assembled 
together, the Kisani with the others, in a great multitude, and they 
wailed and wept over the approaching catastrophe. They wept and 
moaned all night and could not sleep. 

181. When the white light arose in the east, next morning, the 
waters were seen high as mountains encircling the whole horizon, 
except in the west, and rolling on rapidly. The people packed up 
all their goods as fast as they could, and ran up on a high hill near 
by, for temporary safety. Here they held a council. Some one 
suggested that perhaps the two Squirrels (Zfazaitso and Zfazaistozi) 
might help them. " We will try what we can do," said the Squir- 
rels. One planted a pinon seed, the other a juniper seed, and they 
grew so very fast that the people hoped that they would soon grow 
so tall that the flood could not reach their tops, and that all might 
find shelter there. But after the trees grew a little way they began 
to branch out and grew no higher. Then the frightened people 
called on the Weasels (Glo'dst/kai and Glo'dsl/^I'ni). One of these 
planted a spruce seed and one a pine seed. The trees sprouted at 
once and grew fast, and again the people began to hope ; but soon 
the trees commenced to branch, and they dwindled to slender points 
at the top and ceased to grow higher. Now they were in the depths 
of despair, for the waters were coming nearer every moment, when 
they saw two men approaching the hill on which they were gathered. 

182. One of the approaching men was old and grayhaired ; the 

The Navako Origin Legend. 75 

other, who was young, walked in advance. They ascended the hill 
and passed through the crowd, speaking to no one. The young man 
sat down on the summit, the old man sat down behind him, and the 
Locust sat down behind the old man, — all facing the east. The 
elder took out seven bags from under his robe and opened them. 
Each contained a small quantity of earth. He told the people that 
in these bags he had earth from the seven sacred mountains. There 
were in the fourth world seven sacred mountains, named and placed 
like the sacred mountains of the present Navaho land. " Ah ! Per- 
haps our father can do something for us," said the people. " I can- 
not, but my son may be able to help you," said the old man. Then 
they bade the son to help them, and he said he would if they all 
moved away from where he stood, faced to the west, and looked not 
around until he called them ; for no one should see him at his work. 
They did as he desired, and in a few moments he called them to 
come to him. When they came, they saw that he had spread the 
sacred earth on the ground and planted in it thirty-two reeds, each 
of which had thirty-two joints. As they gazed they beheld the roots 
of the reeds striking out into the soil and growing rapidly downward. 
A moment later all the reeds joined together and became one reed 
of great size, with a hole in its eastern side. He bade them enter 
the hollow of the reed through this hole. When they were all safely 
inside, the opening closed, and none too soon, for scarcely had it 
closed when they heard the loud noise of the surging waters outside, 
saying, "Yi/z, yi«, yi«." 37 

183. The waters rose fast, but the reed grew faster, and soon it 
grew so high that it began to sway, and the people inside were in 
great fear lest, with their weight, it might break and topple over 
into the water. White Body, Blue Body, and Black Body were 
along. Black Body blew a great breath out through a hole in the 
top of the reed ; a heavy dark cloud formed around the reed and 
kept it steady. But the reed grew higher and higher ; again it 
began to sway, and again the people within were in great fear, 
whereat he blew and made another cloud to steady the reed. By 
sunset it had grown up close to the sky, but it swayed and waved 
so much that they could not secure it to the sky until Black Body, 
who was uppermost, took the plume out of his head-band and stuck 
it out through the top of the cane against the sky, and this is why 
the reed {Phragmites communis) always carries a plume on its head 
now. 38 

184. Seeing no hole in the sky, they sent up the Great Hawk,, 
Ginftso, to see what he could do. He flew up and began to scratch 
in the sky with his claws, and he scratched and scratched till he 
was lost to sight. After a while he came back, and said that he 

76 Navaho Legends. 

scratched to where he could see light, but that he did not get 
through the sky. Next they sent up a Locust. 39 He was gone a 
long time, and when he came back he had this story to tell : He 
had gotten through to the upper world, and came out on a little 
island in the centre of a lake. When he got out he saw approach- 
ing him from the east a black Grebe, and from the west a yellow 
Grebe. 40 One of them said to him : " Who are you and whence come 
you ? " But he made no reply. The other then said : " We own 
half of this world, — I in the east, my brother in the west. We 
give you a challenge. If you can do as we do, we shall give you 
one half of the world ; if you cannot, you must die." Each had an 
arrow made of the black wind. He passed the arrow from side 
to side through his heart and flung it down to Wonistridft, the 
Locust. 41 The latter picked up one of the arrows, ran it from side 
to side through his heart, as he had seen the Grebes do, and threw 
it down. 42 The Grebes swam away, one to the east and one to the 
west, and troubled him no more. When they had gone, two more 
Grebes appeared, a blue one from the south and a shining one from 
the north. They spoke to him as the other Grebes had spoken, and 
gave him the same challenge. Again he passed the arrow through 
his heart and the Grebes departed, leaving the land to the locust. 
To this day we see in every locust's sides the holes made by the 
arrows. But the hole the Locust made in ascending was too small 
for many of the people, so they sent Badger up to make it larger. 
When Badger came back his legs were stained black with the mud, 
and the legs of all badgers have been black ever since. Then First 
Man and First Woman led the way and all the others followed 
them, and they climbed up through the hole to the surface of this 

— the fifth — world. 



185. The lake 43 was bounded by high cliffs, from the top of which 
stretched a great plain. There are mountains around it now, but 
these have been created since the time of the emergence. Finding 
no way to get out of the lake, they called on Blue Body to help 
them. He had brought with him from the lower world four stones ; 
he threw one of these towards each of the four cardinal points 
against the cliffs, breaking holes, through which the waters flowed 
away in four different directions. 44 The lake did not altogether 
drain out by this means ; but the bottom became bare in one place, 
connecting the island with the mainland. But the mud was so deep 
in this place that they still hesitated to cross, and they prayed to 
Ni'ltri ZMkohi, Smooth Wind, to come to their aid. 46 Nl'ltri Z>Ilk6hi 

iH o 

f||| u 

H * 

m w 



a 5 

^ s 

t-i ° 

z OT 

o £ 

s ° 


O '« 

W fi 

^ s 

z s 

< £ 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 77 

blew a strong wind, and in one day dried up the mud so that the peo- 
ple could easily walk over. While they were waiting for the ground 
to dry, the Kisani camped on the east side of the island and built a 
stone wall (which stands to this day), to lean against and to shelter 
them from the wind. 46 The other people set up a shelter of brush- 
wood. The women erected four poles, on which they stretched a 
deerskin, and under the shelter of this they played the game of 
three-sticks, 47 tsmatt', one of the four games which they brought 
with them from the lower world. 

186. When they reached the mainland they sought to divine 
their fate. To do this some one threw a hide-scraper into the water, 
saying: "If it sinks we perish, if it floats we live." It floated, and 
all rejoiced. But Coyote said : " Let me divine your fate." He 
picked up a stone, and saying, " If it sinks we perish ; if it floats 
we live," he threw it into the water. It sank, of course, and all 
were angry with him and reviled him ; but he answered them say- 
ing : " If we all live, and continue to increase as we have done, the 
earth will soon be too small to hold us, and there will be no room 
for the cornfields. It is better that each of us should live but a 
time on this earth and then leave and make room for our children." 
They saw the wisdom of his words and were silent. The day they 
arrived at the shore they had two visitors, — Puma and Wolf. " We 
have heard," said these, " that some new people had come up out of 
the ground, and we have come over to see them." Puma took a 
bride from among the new people. 

187. On the fourth day of the emergence some one went to look 
at the hole through which they had come out, and he noticed water 
welling up there ; already it was nearly on a level with the top of the 
hole, and every moment it rose higher. In haste he ran back to his 
people and told them what he had seen. A council was called at 
once to consider the new danger that threatened them. First Man, 
who rose to speak, said, pointing to Coyote : " Yonder is a rascal, and 
there is something wrong about him. He never takes off his robe, 
even when he lies down. I have watched him for a long time, and 
have suspected that he carries some stolen property under his robe. 
Let us search him." 48 They tore the robe from Coyote's shoulders, 
and two strange little objects dropped out that looked something 
like buffalo calves, but were spotted all over in various colors ; they 
were the young of Tieholtsodi. At once the people threw them into 
the hole through which the waters were pouring ; in an instant the 
waters subsided, and rushed away with a deafening noise to the 
lower world. 49 

188. On the fifth night one of the twin hermaphrodites ceased to 
breathe. They left her alone all that night, and, when morning 

j8 . Navaho Legends. 

came, Coyote proposed to lay her at rest among the rocks. This 
they did ; but they all wondered what had become of her breath. 
They went in various directions to seek for its trail, but could find 
it nowhere. While they were hunting, two men went near the 
hole through which they had come from the lower world. It oc- 
curred to one of them to look down into the hole. He did so, and 
he saw the dead one seated by the side of the river, in the fourth 
world, combing her hair. He called to his companion and the lat- 
ter came and looked down, too. They returned to their people and 
related what they had seen ; but in four days both these men died, 
and ever since the Navahoes have feared to look upon the dead, or 
to behold a ghost, lest they die themselves. 60 

189. After this it was told around that the Kisani, who were in 
camp at a little distance from the others, had brought with them 
from the lower world an ear of corn for seed. Some of the unruly 
ones proposed to go to the camp of the Kisani and take the corn away 
from them ; but others, of better counsel, said that this would be 
wrong, that the Kisani had had as much trouble as the rest, and if 
they had more foresight they had a right to profit by it. In spite of 
these words, some of the young men went and demanded the corn of 
the Kisani. The latter said, after some angry talk on both sides, 
" We will break the ear in two and give you whichever half you 
choose." The young men agreed to this bargain, and the woman 
who owned the ear broke it in the middle and laid the pieces down 
for the others to choose. The young men looked at the pieces, and 
were considering which they would take, when Coyote, getting impa- 
tient, picked up the tip end of the ear and made off with it. The 
Kisani kept the butt, and this is the reason the Pueblo Indians have 
to-day better crops of corn than the Navahoes. But the Pueblos 
had become alarmed at the threats and angry language of their 
neighbors and moved away from them, and this is why the Navahoes 
and Pueblos now live apart from one another. 

190. After the Kisani moved away, First Man and First Woman, 
Black Body and Blue Body, set out to build the seven sacred moun- 
tains of the present Navaho land. They made them all of earth 
which they had brought from similar mountains in the fourth world. 
The mountains they made were Tsisnadsi'ni in the east, Tsotsi/ 
(Taylor, San Mateo) in the south, ZtokosliV (San Francisco) in the 
west, Ztepe'ntsa (San Juan) in the north, with Dsi/nao*i/, Trolihi, 
and AkWanas/ani (Hosta Butte) in the middle of the land. 61 

191. Through Tsisnad^i'ni, 62 in the east, they ran a bolt of light- 
ning to fasten it to the earth. They decorated it with white shells, 
white lightning, white corn, dark clouds and he-rain. They set a 
big dish or bowl of shell on its summit, and in it they put two eggs 

Tke Navaho Origin Legend. 79 

of the Pigeon to make feathers for the mountain. The eggs they 
covered with a sacred buckskin to make them hatch (there are 
many wild pigeons in this mountain now). All these things they 
covered with a sheet of daylight, and they put the Rock Crystal 
Boy and the Rock Crystal Girl K into the mountain to dwell. 

192. Tsotsi/, 54 the mountain of the south, they fastened to the 
earth with a great stone knife, thrust through from top to bottom. 
They adorned it with turquoise, with dark mist, she-rain, and all dif- 
ferent kinds of wild animals. On its summit they placed a dish of 
turquoise ; in this they put two eggs of the Bluebird, which they 
covered with sacred buckskin (there are many bluebirds in Tsotsi/ 
now), and over all they spread a covering of blue sky. The Boy who 
Carries One Turquoise and the Girl who Carries One Grain of 
Corn a were put into the mountain to dwell. 

193. ZtokosliV, 56 the mountain of the west, they fastened to the 
earth with a sunbeam. They adorned it with haliotis shell, with 
black clouds, he-rain, yellow corn, and all sorts of wild animals. 
They placed a dish of haliotis shell on the top, and laid in this two 
eggs of the Yellow Warbler, covering them with sacred buckskins. 
There are many yellow warblers now in Dokoslid. Over all they 
spread a yellow cloud, and they sent White Corn Boy and Yellow 
Corn Girl 57 to dwell there. 

194. Ztepe'ntsa, the mountain in the north, they fastened with a 
rainbow. They adorned it with black beads (pas^ini), with the dark 
mist, with different kinds of plants, and many kinds of wild animals. 
On its top they put a dish of pas^ini ; in this they placed two eggs 
of the Blackbird, over which they laid a sacred buckskin. Over all 
they spread a covering of darkness. Lastly they put the Pollen Boy 
and Grasshopper Girl 69 in the mountain, to dwell there. 

195. Dsi/nao/1/, 60 was fastened with a sunbeam. They decorated 
it with goods of all kinds, with the dark cloud, and the male rain. 
They put nothing on top of it ; they left its summit free, in order 
that warriors might fight there ; but they put Boy Who Produces 
Goods and Girl Who Produces Goods 61 there to live. 

196. The mountain of T-rolihi 62 they fastened to the earth with 
ni'ltsatlo/ (the streak or cord of rain). They decorated it with pol- 
len, the dark mist, and the female rain. They placed on top of it a 
live bird named T-ro^ga/i, 63 — such birds abound there now, — and 
they put in the mountain to dwell Boy Who Produces Jewels and 
Girl Who Produces Jewels. 64 

197. The mountain of Aku/anas/ani 65 they fastened to the earth 
with a sacred stone called tseV/a^a/zonige, or mirage-stone. They 
decorated it with black clouds, the he-rain, and all sorts of plants. 
They placed a live Grasshopper on its summit, and they put the 
Mirage-stone Boy and the Carnelian Girl there to dwell. 66 

80 Navaho Legends. 

198. They still had the three lights and the darkness, as in the 
lower worlds. But First Man and First Woman thought they might 
form some lights which would make the world brighter. After 
much study and debate they planned to make the sun and moon. 
For the sun they made a round flat object, like a dish, out of a clear 
stone called tse^tsagi. They set turquoises around the edge, and 
outside of these they put rays of red rain, lightning, and snakes of 
many kinds. At first they thought of putting four points on it, as 
they afterwards did on the stars, but they changed their minds and 
made it round. They made the moon of tse'tson (star-rock, a kind 
of crystal) ; they bordered it with white shells and they put on its 
face JiadilkYs (sheet lightning), and /o'/anast-si (all kinds of water). 67 

199. Then they counseled as to what they should do with the sun ; 
where they should make it rise first. The Wind of the East begged 
that it might be brought to his land, so they dragged it off to the 
edge of the world where he dwelt ; there they gave it to the man 
who planted the great cane in the lower world, and appointed him to 
carry it. To an old gray-haired man, who had joined them in the 
lower world, the moon was given to carry. These men had no 
names before, but now the former received the name of Trohanoai, 
or Tj-f«hanoai, and the latter the name of Klehanoai. When they 
were about to depart, in order to begin their labors, the people 
were sorry, for they were beloved by all. But First Man said 
to the sorrowing people : " Mourn not for them, for you will see 
them in the heavens, and all that die will be theirs in return for 
their labors. 68 (See notes 69 and 70 for additions to the legend.) 

200. Then the people (Dine', Navahoes) began to travel. They 
journeyed towards the east, and after one day's march they reached 
Ni^a/zokaf (White Spot on the Earth) and camped for the night. 
Here a woman brought, forth, but her offspring was not like a 
child ; it was round, misshapen, and had no head. The people coun- 
selled, and determined that it should be thrown into a gully. So 
they threw it away ; but it lived and grew up and became the 
monster TeelgeV, 131 who afterwards destroyed so many of the people. 

201. Next day they wandered farther to the east, and camped at 
night at TseVaiska (Rock Bending Back). Here was born another 
misshapen creature, which had something like feathers on both its 
shoulders. It looked like nothing that was ever seen before, so 
the people concluded to throw this away also. They took it to an 
alkali bed close by and cast it away there. But it lived and grew 
and became the terrible Tse'na'hale, 135 of whom I shall have much 
to tell later. 

202. The next night, travelling still to the east, they camped at 
Tse'bina^otyel, a broad high cliff like a wall, and here a woman 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 81 

bore another strange creature. It had no head, but had a long 
pointed end where the head ought to be. This object was depos 
ited in the cliff, in a hole which was afterwards sealed up with a 
stone. They left it there to die, but it grew up and became the 
destroyer Tse7a^oUIl/d'/i, 142 of whom we shall tell hereafter. Be- 
cause he was closed into the rock, his hair grew into it and he 
could not fall. 

203. The next night, when they stopped at Tse'a/zaLs-I'ni (Rock 
with Black Hole), twins were born. They were both roundish with 
one end tapering to a point. There were no signs of limbs or 
head, but there were depressions which had somewhat the appear- 
ance of eyes. The people laid them on the ground, and next day, 
when they moved camp, abandoned them. Tse'a//alsl'ni is shaped 
like a Navaho hut, with a door in the east. It is supposed that, 
when they were abandoned to die, the twin monsters went into 
this natural hut to dwell. They grew up, however, and became 
the Binaye A^ani, who slew with their eyes, and of whom we shall 
have more to tell. 

204. All these monsters were the fruit of the transgressions of 
the women in the fourth world, when they were separated from 
the men. Other monsters were born on the march, and others, 
again, sprang from the blood which had been shed during the birth 
of the first monsters, 71 and all these grew up to become enemies 
and destroyers of the people. 

205. When they left Tse'a^alsi'ni they turned toward the west, 
and journeyed until they came to a place called Tb'Intsosoko (Water 
in a Narrow Gully), and here they remained for thirteen years, mak- 
ing farms and planting corn, beans, and pumpkins every spring. 

206. In those days the four-footed beasts, the birds, and the 
snakes were people also, like ourselves, and built houses and lived 
near our people close to Ztepe'ntsa. They increased and became 
the cliff-dwellers. It must have been the flying creatures who 
built the dwellings high on the cliffs, for if they had not wings 
how could they reach their houses ? 

207. From 7b c Ints6soko they moved to Tse'/akaiia (Standing 
White Rock), and here they sojourned again for thirteen years. 
From the latter place they moved to Tse'pa/zalkaf (White on Face of 
Cliff), and here, once more, they remained for a period of thirteen 
years. During this time the monsters began to devour the people. 

208. From Tse'pa/zalkai they moved to the neighborhood of 
KTntyel 72 (Broad House), in the Chaco Canyon, where the ruins 
of the great pueblo still stand. When the wanderers arrived the 
pueblo was in process of building, but was not finished. The way 
it came to be built you shall now hear : — 

82 Navaho Legends. 

209. Some time before, there had descended among the Pueblos, 
from the heavens, a divine gambler, or gambling - god, named 
No^oi'lpi, or He Who Wins Men (at play) ; his talisman was a great 
piece of turquoise. When he came he challenged the people to all 
sorts of games and contests, and in all of these he was successful. 
He won from them, first, their property, then their women and chil- 
dren, and finally some of the men themselves. Then he told them 
he would give them part of their property back in payment if they 
would build a great house ; so when the Navahoes came, the Pueblos 
were busy building in order that they might release their enthralled 
relatives and their property. They were also busy making a race- 
track, and preparing for all kinds of games of chance and skill. 

210. When all was ready, and four days' notice had been given, 
twelve men came from the neighboring pueblo of YLl'ndotWz, Blue 
House, to compete with the great gambler. They bet their own 
persons, and after a brief contest they lost themselves to No/zoi'lpi. 
Again a notice of four days was given, and again twelve men of 
YL.\'ndot\\z — relatives of the former twelve — came to play, and these 
also lost themselves. For the third time an announcement, four 
days in advance of a game, was given ; this time some women were 
among the twelve contestants, and they, too, lost themselves. All 
were put to work on the building of Kintyel as soon as they forfeited 
their liberty. At the end of another four days the children of > these 
men and women came to try to win back their parents, but they 
succeeded only in adding themselves to the number of the gambler's 
slaves. On a fifth trial, after four days' warning, twelve leading 
men of Blue House were lost, among them the chief of the pueblo. 
On a sixth duly announced gambling day, twelve more men, all 
important persons, staked their liberty and lost it. Up to this time 
the Navahoes had kept count of the winnings of No//oi'lpi, but after- 
wards people from other pueblos came in such numbers to play and 
lose that they could keep count no longer. In addition to their own 
persons the later victims brought in beads, shells, turquoise, and all 
sorts of valuables, and gambled them away. With the labor of all 
these slaves it was not long until the great Kintyel was finished. 

211. But all this time the Navahoes had been merely spectators, 
and had taken no part in the games. One day the voice of the 
beneficent god, //astreyal/i, 73 was heard faintly in the distance cry- 
ing his usual call, " Wu'hu'hu'hu." His voice was heard, as it is 
always heard, four times, each time nearer and nearer, and imme- 
diately after the last call, which was loud and clear, //asUeyal/i 
appeared at the door of a hut where dwelt a young couple who had 
no children, and with them he communicated by means of signs. 
He told them that the people of Ki'ndo/lte had lost at game with 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 8$ 

No//oflpi two great shells, the greatest treasures of the pueblo ; that 
the Sun had coveted these shells and had begged them from the 
gambler ; that the latter had refused the request of the Sun and the 
Sun was angry. In consequence of all this, as i/astfeyalri related, 
in twelve days from his visit certain divine personages would meet 
in the mountains, in a place which he designated, to hold a great 
ceremony. He invited the young man to be present at the cere- 
mony and disappeared. 

212. The Navaho kept count of the passing days ; on the twelfth 
day he repaired to the appointed place, and there he found a great 
assemblage of the gods. There were Hastseyalti, Hastse/iogan 7 * 
and his son, Nfltri 75 (Wind), Tsafye/ (Darkness), Trapani (Bat), 
Listso (Great Snake), Tsilka/i (a little bird), Nasi'zi (Gopher), and 
many others. Besides these there were present a number of pets 
or domesticated animals belonging to the gambler, who were dis- 
satisfied with their lot, were anxious to be free, and would gladly 
obtain their share of the spoils in case their master was ruined. 
Ni'ltri (Wind) had spoken to them, and they had come to enter into 
the plot against No/zoi'lpi. All night the gods danced and sang and 
performed their mystic rites for the purpose of giving to the son 
of Hastse/iogan powers, as a gambler, equal to those of No/zoflpi. 
When the morning came they washed the young neophyte all over, 
dried him with meal, dressed him in clothes exactly like those the 
gambler wore, and in every way made him look as much like the 
gambler as possible, and then they counselled as to what other 
means they should take to outwit No//oi'lpi. 

213. In the first place, they desired to find out how he felt about 
having refused to his father, the Sun, the two great shells. " I will 
do this," said Ni'ltri (Wind), "for I can penetrate everywhere, and 
no one can see me ; " but the others said : " No ; you can go every- 
where, but you cannot travel without making a noise and disturbing 
people. Let Tsalyel (Darkness) go on this errand, for he also goes 
wherever he wills, yet he makes no noise." So Tsa/yel went to the 
gambler's house, entered his room, went all through his body while 
he slept, and searched well his mind, and he came back saying, 
" No/joi'lpi is sorry for what he has done." Nfltri, however, did not 
believe this ; so, although his services had been before refused, he 
repaired to the chamber where the gambler slept, and went all 
through his body and searched well his mind ; but he, too, came 
back saying No/^oi'lpi was sorry that he had refused to give the great 
shells to his father. 

214. One of the games they proposed to play is called taka.-tha.d- 
sata, or the thirteen chips. (It is played with thirteen thin flat pieces 
of wood, which are colored red on one side and left white or un colored 

84 Navaho Legends. 

on the other side. Success depends on the number of chips which, 
being thrown upwards, fall with their white sides up.) " Leave the 
game to me," said the Bat ; " I have made thirteen chips that are 
white on both sides. I will hide myself in the ceiling, and when 
our champion throws up his chips I will grasp them and throw down 
my chips instead." 

215. Another game they were to play is called nans-os. 76 (It is 
played with two long sticks or poles, of peculiar shape and construc- 
tion, one marked with red and the other with black, and a single 
hoop. A long, many-tailed string, called the " turkey-claw," is 
secured to the end of each pole.) " Leave nances to me," said Great 
Snake ; " I will hide myself in the hoop and make it fall where I 

216. Another game was one called tsi'nbetsi/, or push-on-the-wood. 
(In this the contestants push against a tree until it is torn from its 
roots and falls.) " I will see that this game is won," said Nasi'zi, 
the Gopher ; " I will gnaw the roots of the tree, so that he who 
shoves it may easily make it fall." 

217. In the game tool, or ball, the object was to hit the ball so 
that it would fall beyond a certain line. " I will win this game for 
you," said the little bird TsTlka/i, "for I will hide within the ball, 
and fly with it wherever I want to go. Do not hit the ball hard ; 
give it only a light tap, and depend on me to carry it." 

218. The pets of the gambler begged the Wind to blow hard, so 
that they might have an excuse to give their master for not keeping 
due watch when he was in danger, and in the morning the Wind 
blew for them a strong gale. At dawn the whole party of conspira- 
tors left the mountain, and came down to the brow of the canyon to 
watch until sunrise. 

219. No/fcoflpi had two wives, who were the prettiest women in 
the whole land. Wherever she went, each carried in her hand a 
stick with something tied on the end of it, as a sign that she was the 
wife of the great gambler. 

220. It was their custom for one of them to go every morning at 
sunrise to a neighboring spring to get water. So at sunrise the 
watchers on the brow of the cliff saw one of the wives coming out 
of the gambler's house with a water-jar on her head, whereupon the 
son of //astre/zo^-an descended into the canyon and followed her to 
the spring. She was not aware of his presence until she had filled 
her water-jar ; then she supposed it to be her own husband, whom 
the youth was dressed and adorned to represent, and she allowed 
him to approach her. She soon discovered her error, however, but, 
deeming it prudent to say nothing, she suffered him to follow her 
into the house. As he entered, he observed that many of the slaves 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 85 

had already assembled ; perhaps they were aware that some trouble 
was in store for their master. The latter looked up with an angry 
face ; he felt jealous when he saw the stranger entering immediately 
after his wife. He said nothing of this, however, but asked at once 
the important question, "Have you come to gamble with me?" 
This he repeated four times, and each time the young H2&X.s&hog2&. 
said " No." Thinking the stranger feared to play with him, No/ztoflpi 
went on challenging him recklessly. " I '11 bet myself against your- 
self;" "I'll bet my feet against your feet;" "I'll bet my legs 
against your legs ; " and so on he offered to bet every and any part 
of his body against the same part of his adversary, ending by men- 
tioning his hair. 

221. In the mean time the party of divine ones, who had been 
watching from above, came down, and people from the neighboring 
pueblos came in, and among these were two boys, who were dressed 
in costumes similar to those worn by the wives of the gambler. 
The young HasXshhogzxi pointed to these and said, " I will bet my 
wives against your wives." The great gambler accepted the wager, 
and the four persons, two women and two mock-women, were placed 
sitting in a row near the wall. First they played the game of thir- 
teen chips. The Bat assisted, as he had promised the son of i/astfe- 
hogan, and the latter soon won the game, and with it the wives of 

222. This was the only game played inside the house ; then all 
went out of doors, and games of various kinds were played. First 
they tried nansusr. The track already prepared lay east and west, 
but, prompted by the Wind God, the stranger insisted on having a 
track made from north, to south, and again, at the bidding of Wind, 
he chose the red stick. The son of HasXshhogaxi threw the wheel ; 
at first it seemed about to fall on the gambler's pole, in the " turkey- 
claw " of which it was entangled ; but to the great surprise of the 
gambler it extricated itself, rolled farther on, and fell on the pole of 
his opponent. The latter ran to pick up the ring, lest No^oi'lpi in 
doing so might hurt the snake inside ; but the gambler was so angry 
that he threw his stick away and gave up the game, hoping to do 
better in the next contest, which was that of pushing down trees. 

223. For this the great gambler pointed out two small trees, but his 
opponent insisted that larger trees must be found. After some 
search they agreed-upon two of good size, which grew close together, 
and of these the Wind told the youth which one he must select. 
The gambler strained with all his might at his tree, but could not 
move it, while his opponent, when his turn came, shoved the other 
tree prostrate with little effort, for its roots had all been severed 
by Gopher. 

86 Navaho Legends. 

224. Then followed a variety of games, on which No/«oflpi staked 
his wealth in shells and precious stones, his houses, and many of his 
slaves, and lost all. 

225. The last game was that of the ball. On the line over which 
the ball was to be knocked all the people were assembled ; on one 
side were those who still remained slaves ; on the other side were 
the freedmen and those who had come to wager themselves, hoping 
to rescue their kinsmen. No//oilpi bet on this game the last of his 
slaves and his own person. The ^gambler struck his ball a heavy 
blow, but it did not reach the line ; the stranger gave his but a light 
tap, and the bird within it flew with it far beyond the line, whereat 
the released captives jumped over the line and joined their people. 

226. The victor ordered all the shells, beads, and precious stones, 
and the great shells, to be brought forth. He gave the beads and 
shells to //astreyal/i, that they might be distributed among the gods ; 
the two great shells were given to the Sun. 77 

227. In the mean time No/zoilpi sat to one side saying bitter things, 
bemoaning his fate, and cursing and threatening his enemies. " I 
will kill you all with the lightning. I will send war and disease 
among you. May the cold freeze you! May the fire burn you! 
May the waters drown you ! " he cried. " He has cursed enough," 
whispered Ni'ltri to the son of Ha.s\.sekogzii. " Put an end to his 
angry words." So the young victor called No/zoilpi to him and said : 
" You have bet yourself and have lost ; you are now my slave and 
must do my bidding. You are not a god, for my power has prevailed 
against yours." The victor had a bow of magic power named E/I'n 
Dilyx'I, or the Bow of Darkness ; he bent this upwards, and placing 
the string on the ground he bade his slave stand on the string; 
then he shot No/zoilpi up into the sky as if he had been an arrow. 
Up and up he went, growing smaller and smaller to the sight till 
he faded to a mere speck and finally disappeared altogether. As he 
flew upwards he was heard to mutter in the angry tones of abuse 
and imprecation, until he was too far away to be heard ; but no one 
could distinguish anything he said as he ascended. 

228. He flew up in the sky until he came to the home of Beko- 
tru/i, 78 the god who carries the moon, and who is supposed by the 
Navahoes to be identical with the God of the Americans. He is 
very old, and dwells in a long row of stone houses. When No/zoilpi 
arrived at the house of BekotjM he related to the latter all his mis- 
adventures in the lower world and said, " Now I am poor, and this is 
why I have come to see you." " You need be poor no longer," said 
B6kotrfd5 ; " I will provide for you." So he made for the gambler 
pets or domestic animals of new kinds, different to those which he 
had in the Chaco valley ; he made for him sheep, asses, horses, 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 87 

swine, goats, and fowls. He also gave him bayeta,™ and other cloths 
of bright colors, more beautiful than those woven by his slaves at 
Kintyel. He made, too, a new people, the Mexicans, for the gam- 
bler to rule over, and then he sent him back to this world again, but 
he descended far to the south of his former abode, and reached the 
earth in old Mexico. 

229. No^oilpi's people increased greatly in Mexico, and after a 
while they began to move towards the north, and build towns along 
the Rio Grande. No^oflpi came with them until they arrived at a 
place north of Santa Fe. There they ceased building, and he re- 
turned to old Mexico, where he still lives, and where he is now the 
Nakai Z>igi'ni, or God of the Mexicans. 

230. The Navaho who went at the bidding of the Sun to the tryst 
of the gods stayed with them till the gambler was shot into the sky. 
Then he returned to his people and told all he had seen. The young 
stranger went back to Tse'gihi, the home of the y&. 

231. The wanderers were not long at Kintyel, but while they were 
they met some of the Daylight People. From Kintyel they moved 
to 7bTnafotsos, and here Mai, 80 the Coyote, married a Navaho woman. 
He remained in the Navaho camp nine days, and then he went to 
visit Z>asani, the Porcupine. The latter took a piece of bark, 
scratched his nose with it till the blood flowed freely out over it, 
put it on the fire, and there roasted it slowly until it turned into a 
piece of fine meat. Porcupine then spread some clean herbs on tfie 
ground, laid the roasted meat on these, and invited his visitor to 
partake. Coyote was delighted ; he had never had a nicer meal, 
and when he was leaving he invited his host to return the visit in 
two days. At the appointed time Porcupine presented himself at 
the hut of Coyote. The latter greeted his guest, bade him be 
seated, and rushed out of the house. In a few minutes he returned 
with a piece of bark. With this he scratched his nose, as he had 
seen Porcupine doing, and allowed the blood to flow. He placed 
the bloody bark over the fire, where in a moment it burst into flames 
and was soon reduced to ashes. Coyote hung his head in shame 
and Porcupine went home hungry. 

232. Soon after this Coyote visited Mai'tso, 80 the Wolf. The lat- 
ter took down, from among the rafters of his hut, two of the old- 
fashioned reed arrows with wooden heads, such as the Navahoes 
used in the ancierit days ; he pulled out the wooden points, rolled 
them on his thigh, moistened them in his mouth, and buried them 
in the hot ashes beside the fire. After waiting a little while and 
talking to his guest, he raked out from the ashes, where he had 
buried the arrow points, two fine cooked puddings of minced meat ;~ 
these he laid on a mat of fresh herbs and told Coyote to help him- 

88 Navaho Legends. 

self. Coyote again enjoyed his meal greatly, and soon after, when 
he rose to leave, he invited Wolf to pay him a visit in two days. 
Wolf went in due time to the house of Coyote, and when he had 
seated himself the host took two arrow-heads, as Wolf had done, 
rolled them on his thigh, put them in his mouth, and buried them in 
the hot ashes. After waiting a while, he raked the ashes and found 
nothing but two pieces of charred wood where he had placed the 
arrow-heads. This time he gave no evidence of his disappointment, 
but sat and talked with his guest just as if nothing had happened, 
until Wolf, seeing no sign of dinner and becoming very hungry, got 
up and went home. 

233. In those days the Chicken-hawks and the Hummingbirds 
were known as great hunters. They were friendly to one another 
and dwelt together in one camp. 

234. Coyote went to pay them a visit, and when he arrived at the 
camp he entered one of the huts of the Hummingbirds. He found 
therein two beautiful Hummingbird maidens, gayly dressed, with 
rows of deer-hoof pendants on their skirts and shoulders. He lay 
down in the lodge and said to the maidens : " Where is everybody 
to-day ? I heard there were many people camped here, but the 
camp seems deserted." The maidens replied : " There are many 
people camped here, but to-day the men are all out hunting." 

235. Now, Coyote was a dandy ; he was always beautifully dressed ; 
he had a nice otter-skin quiver and his face was painted in spots. 
The maidens, when they had looked well at him, bent their heads 
together and whispered to one another, " He is a handsome young 
man. He is beautifully dressed. He must be a person of some 
importance." He spent the day gossipping with the maidens and 
telling them wonderful tales about himself. "Would you know who 
I am ? " he said. " I am the God of Tsisnad^I'ni Mountain. I have 
no need to hunt. All I have to do is to will the death of an animal 
and it dies. Your people have no need to wear themselves out 
hunting for game. I can kill all they want without labor." 

236. At nightfall, when the hunters returned, the maidens left the 
lodge, went to where their friends were assembled, and told them all 
about the visitor. When the maidens had finished their story, the 
chief directed one of the young men to go over to the hut, peep in 
over the curtain in the doorway, and see what the stranger looked 
like. The young man did as he was bidden, making no noise, and 
looked into the lodge unobserved by Coyote. When he returned to 
the chief he said : "The stranger is a fine-looking man and is beau- 
tifully dressed. Perhaps he is indeed a god." The chief then said : 
"It may be that all is true which he has told the maidens. We have 
to travel far in all sorts of weather and to work hard to secure food. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 89 

He may know some way to save us from labor, so let us be kind to 
him. Go, one of you maidens, back to the lodge to serve him." 
Hearing these words, the younger of the two young women returned 
to the lodge. Her clothing was ornamented with many pendants of 
bone and hoof that rattled with every movement she made, and for 
this reason Coyote named her Trike Nazi'li, or Young Woman Who 

237. In the morning she went to the lodge where her people were, 
and where a good breakfast was already prepared, and she brought a 
large dishful of the food for Coyote to eat. As she was about to 
depart with the food her people charged her to tell Coyote nothing 
of certain bad neighbors of theirs, lest he might visit them and work 
wonders for their benefit. But their injunctions came too late. 
Already Xrike Nazi'li had told him all about these bad neighbors, 
and he had made up his mind to visit them. 

238. When breakfast was over she said : " Now the hunters are 
going out." He replied : " I will go with them." So he joined the 
party, and they travelled together till they got to the brow of a high 
hill which overlooked an extensive country. Here Coyote told his com- 
panions to remain concealed while he went into the plain and drove 
the game toward them. When he got out of sight, he tied to his 
tail a long fagot of shredded cedar-bark, which he set on fire, and 
then he ran over the country in a wide circle as fast as he could go. 
Everywhere the fagot touched it set fire to the grass, and raised a 
long line of flame and smoke which drove the antelope up to where 
the hunters were concealed. A great quantity of game was killed ; 
the hunters returned laden with meat, and their faith in Coyote was 

239. Next morning they all went out once more to hunt. Again 
the hunters concealed themselves on the brow of a hill, and again 
Coyote tied the blazing fagot to his tail and ran. The people on the 
hilltop watched the line of fire advancing over the plain ; but when 
it turned around as if to come back to the place from which it. 
started, it suddenly ceased. Much game was driven toward the 
party in ambush ; but Coyote did not return, and the hunters went 
to work cutting up the meat and cooking food for themselves. 

240. Coyote, in the mean time, had gone to seek the bad neigh- 
bors. He untied his brand at the place where the hunters had seen 
the line of fire cease, and wandered off in a different direction. 
After a while he came to two great trees, a spruce and a pine, grow- 
ing close together, and filled with chattering birds of two kinds. 
The spruce-tree was filled with birds called Tsi'di Bese, and the pine- 
tree with birds called Tsi' di Sisi. They were all busily engaged in 
playing a game which Coyote had never seen before. They would 

9<D Navaho Legends. 

pull out their eyes, toss these up to the top of the tree, cry " Drop 
back, my eyes ! Drop back ! " and catch the eyes as they descended 
in their proper sockets. Coyote watched their play for a long time, 
and at length, becoming fascinated with the game, he cried out to 
the Tsi'di Sisi in the pine-tree, " Pull out my eyes for me. I want 
to play, too." " No," they replied, "we will have nothing to do with 
you." Again and again he begged to be allowed to join in the 
sport, and again and again they refused him. But when he had 
pleaded for the fourth time, they flew down to where Coyote sat, and, 
taking sharp sticks, they gouged his eyes out. The eyes were 
thrown up to the top of the pine-tree, and when they fell down 
Coyote caught them in his orbits and could see again as well as 
ever. Coyote was delighted with the result of his first venture, and 
he begged them to pull his eyes out again, but they said angrily : 
" We do not want to play with you. We have done enough for you 
now. Go and leave us." But he continued to whine and beg until 
again they pulled out his eyes and tossed them up with the same 
happy result as before. Thus four times were his eyes pulled out, 
thrown upward, and caught back again in the head. But when he 
begged them to pull out his eyes for the fifth time, they went to a 
distance and held a council among themselves. When they returned 
they pulled his eyes out once more ; but this time they took pains 
to pull out the strings of the eyes (optic nerves) at the same time ; 
these they tied together, and, when the eyes were again flung up in 
the tree, they caught on one of the branches and there they stayed. 
Now Coyote was in mortal distress. " Drop back, my eyes ! Drop 
back ! " he cried. But back they never came, and he sat there with 
his nose pointed up toward the top of the tree, and he howled and 
prayed and wept. At last the birds took pity on him and said : 
" Let us make other eyes for him." So they took a couple of partly 
dried pieces of pine gum and rolled them into two balls ; these were 
stuck into the empty sockets, and, although they were not good eyes, 
they gave him sight enough to see his way home. The gum was 
yellow, and for this reason coyotes have had yellow eyes ever since. 
241. He crept back, as best he could, to the place where he had 
left the hunters, and where he found them cutting and cooking meat. 
He sat down facing the fire, but he soon found that his gum eyes 
were getting soft with the heat, so he turned his side to the fire. 
The hunters gave him a piece of raw liver, supposing he would cook 
it himself. Not daring to turn towards the fire, lest his eyes should 
melt altogether, he threw the liver on the coals without looking, and 
when he tried afterwards to take it up he thrust his hand at random 
into the fire and caught nothing but hot coals that burned him. 
Fearing that his strange action was observed, he tried to pass it off 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 91 

as a joke, and every time he picked up a hot coal he cried : " Don't 
burn me, liver ! Don't burn me, liver ! " After a while the hunters 
seated around the fire began to notice his singular motions and 
words, and one said to another : " He does not act as usual. Go and 
see what is the matter with him." The hunter who was thus bidden 
went over in front of Coyote, looked at him closely, and saw melted 
gum pouring out from between his eyelids. 

242. It happened that during the day, while Coyote was absent, 
a messenger had come to the camp of the hunters from another 
camp to tell them that an individual named Mai, or Coyote, had left 
his home, and had been seen going toward the camp of the Hum- 
mingbirds, and to warn them against him. " He is an idler and a 
trickster, — beware of him," said the messenger. So when they 
found out the condition of their visitor they said : "This must be 
Coyote of whom we have heard. He has been playing with the 
Tsi'di Sari and has lost his eyes." 

243. When they had arrived at this conclusion they started for 
camp and led the blind Coyote along. In the mean time they devised 
a plan for getting rid of him. When they got home they took the 
rattling dress of Trike Nazi'li and gave her an ordinary garment to 
wear. Then a Chicken-hawk took the dress in his beak, and, flying 
a little distance above the ground, shook the dress in front of Coyote. 
The latter, thinking the maiden was there, approached the sound, 
and as he did so the Chicken-hawk flew farther away, still shaking 
the dress. Coyote followed the rattling sound, and was thus led on 
to the brink of a deep canyon. Here the hawk shook the dress 
beyond the edge of the precipice. Coyote jumped toward where he 
heard the sound, fell to the bottom of the canyon, and was dashed 
to pieces. 

244. But for all this he did not die. He did not, like other beings, 
keep his vital principle in his chest, where it might easily be de- 
stroyed ; he kept it in the tip of his nose and in the end of his tail, 
where no one would expect to find it ; so after a while he came to 
life again, went back to the camp of the birds, and asked for Tiike 
Nazi'li. They told him she was gone away, and ordered him an- 
grily to leave, telling him they knew who he was, and that he was a 
worthless fellow. 

245. Coyote left the camp of the birds, and wandered around till he 
came to the house of one of the anaye, or alien gods, named YeVapahi, 71 
or Brown Giant. He was half as tall as the tallest pine-tree, and 
he was evil and cruel. Coyote said to the Brown Giant, " YeVapahi,. 
I want to be your servant ; I can be of great help to you. The 
reason that you often fail to catch your enemies is that you cannot 
run fast enough. I can run fast and jump far; I can jump over 

92 Navaho Legends. 

four bushes at one bound. I can run after your enemies and help 
you to catch them." "My cousin," responded Brown Giant, "you 
can do me service if you will." Coyote then directed the giant to 
build a sweat-house for himself, and, while the latter was building it, 
Coyote set out on another errand. 

246. In those days there was a maiden of renowned beauty in the 
land. She was the only sister of eleven divine brothers. 81 She had 
been sought in marriage by the Sun and by many potent gods, but 
she had refused them all because they could not comply with certain 
conditions which she imposed on all suitors. It was to visit her 
that Coyote went when he left Ye/apahi at work on the sweat-house. 

247. " Why have you refused so many beautiful gods who want 
you for a wife ? " said Coyote to the maiden after he had greeted her. 
"It would profit you nothing to know," she replied, "for you could 
not comply with any one of my demands." Four times he asked 
her this question, and three times he got the same reply. When he 
asked her the fourth time she answered : " In the first place, I will 
not marry any one who has not killed one of the anaye." When he 
heard this Coyote arose and returned to the place where he had left 

248. On his way back he looked carefully for the bone of some 
big animal which Great Wolf had slain and eaten. At length he 
found a long thigh-bone which suited his purpose. He took this 
home with him, concealing it under his shirt. When Coyote got 
back, Ye/apahi had finished the sweat-house. 82 Together they built 
the fire, heated the stones, and spread the carpet of leaves. Coyote 
hung over the doorway four blankets of sky, — one white, one blue, 
one yellow, and one black, and put the hot stones into the lodge. 
Then they hung their arms and clothes on a neighboring tree, 
entered the sudatory, and sat down. 83 

249. " Now," said Coyote, " if you want to become a fast runner, 
I will show you what to do. You must cut the flesh of your thigh 
down to the bone and then break the bone. It will heal again in a 
moment, and when it heals you will be stronger and swifter than 
ever. I often do this myself, and every time I do it I am fleeter of 
foot than I was before. I will do it now, so that you may observe 
how it is done." Coyote then produced a great stone knife and pre- 
tended to cut his own thigh, wailing and crying in the mean time, 
and acting as if he suffered great pain. After a while of this pre- 
tence he put the old femur on top of his thigh, held it by both ends, 
and said to the giant : " I have now reached the bone. Feel it." 
When the giant had put forth his hand, in the absolute darkness of 
the sweat-house, and felt the bare bone, Coyote shoved the hand 
away and struck the bone hard with the edge of his knife several 

The Navaho Origin Legend. t 93 

times until he broke the bone, and he made the giant feel the frac- 
tured . ends. Then he threw away the old bone, rubbed spittle on 
his thigh, prayed and sang, and in a little while presented his sound 
thigh to the giant for his examination, saying: "See! my limb is 
healed again. It is as well as ever." When he had thus spoken 
Coyote handed his knife to YeVapahi, and the latter with many tears 
and loud howls slowly amputated his own thigh. When the work 
was done he put the two severed ends together, spat upon them, 
sang and prayed, as Coyote had done. " 7ohe ! 7ohe ! Tbhe ! " u he 
cried, " Heal together ! Grow together ! " he commanded ; but the 
severed ends would not unite. " Cousin," he called to Coyote, 
"help me to heal this leg." Coyote thought it was now time to 
finish his work. He ran from the sweat-house, seized his bow, and 
discharged his arrows into the helpless YeVapahi, who soon expired 
with many wounds. 

250. Coyote scalped his victim, and tied the scalp to the top of a 
branch which he broke from a cedar-tree ; as further evidence of his 
victory, he took the quiver and weapons of the slain and set out for 
the lodge of the maiden. He knew she could not mistake the scalp, 
for the yei, in those days, had yellow hair, 85 such as no other people 
had. When he reached the lodge he said to the maiden : " Here is 
the scalp and here are the weapons of one of the anaye. Now you 
must marry me." " No," said the maiden, " not yet ; I have not 
told you all that one must do in order to win me. He must be killed 
four times and come to life again four times." " Do you speak the 
truth ? Have you told me all ? " said Coyote. " Yes ; I speak only 
the truth," she replied. Four times he asked this question, and 
four times he received the same answer. When she had spoken for 
the fourth time Coyote said : "Here I am. Do with me as you will." 
The maiden took him a little distance from the lodge, laid him on 
the ground, beat him with a great club until she thought she had 
smashed every bone in his body, and left him for dead. But the 
point of his nose and the end of his tail she did not smash. She 
hurried back to her hut, for she had much work to do. She was the 
only woman in a family of twelve. She cooked the food and tanned 
the skins, and besides she made baskets. At this particular time 
she was engaged in making four baskets. When she returned to 
the lodge she sat down and went on with her basket-work ; but she 
had not worked long before she became aware that some one was 
standing in the doorway, and, looking up, she beheld Coyote. " Here 
I am," he said ; " I have won one game ; there are only three more 
to win." 

251. She made no reply, but took him off farther than she had 
taken him before, and pounded him to pieces with a club. She threw 

94 Navaho Legends. 

the pieces away in different directions and returned to her work 
again ; but she had not taken many stitches in her basket when 
again the resurrected Coyote appeared in the doorway, saying : " I 
have won two games ; there are only two more to win." 

252. Again she led him forth, but took him still farther away 
from the lodge than she had taken him before, and with a heavy 
club pounded him into a shapeless mass, until she thought he must 
certainly be dead. She stood a long time gazing at the pounded 
flesh, and studying what she would do with it to make her work 
sure. She carried the mass to a great rock, and there she beat it 
into still finer pieces. These she scattered farther than she had 
scattered the pieces before, and went back to the house. But she 
had still failed to injure the two vital spots. It took the Coyote a 
longer time on this occasion than on the previous occasions to pull 
himself together ; still she had not wrought much on her basket 
when he again presented himself and said : " I have won three 
games ; there is but one more game to win." 

253. The fourth time she led him farther away than ever. She 
not only mashed him to pieces, but she mixed the pieces with earth, 
ground the mixture, like corn, between two stones, until it was 
ground to a fine powder, and scattered this powder far and wide. 
But again she neglected to crush the point of the nose and the tip 
of the tail. She went back to the lodge and worked a long time 
undisturbed. She had just begun to entertain hopes that she had 
seen the last of her unwelcome suitor when again he entered the 
door. Now, at last, she could not refuse him. He had fulfilled all 
her conditions, and she consented to become his wife. He remained 
all the afternoon. At sunset they heard the sound of approaching 
footsteps, and she said : " My brothers are coming. Some of them 
are evil of mind and may do you harm. You must hide yourself." 
She hid him behind a pile of skins, and told him to be quiet. 

254. When the brothers entered the lodge they said to their sis- 
ter : " Here is some fat young venison which we bring you. Put it 
down to boil and put some of the fat into the pot, for our faces are 
burned by the wind and we want to grease them." The woman slept 
on the north side of the lodge and kept there her household utensils. 
She had about half of the lodge to herself. The men slept on the 
south side, the eldest next to the door. 

255. The pot was put on and the fire replenished, and when it 
began to burn well an odor denoting the presence of some beast 
filled the lodge. One of the brothers said : " It smells as if some 
animal had been in the wood-pile. Let us throw out this wood and 
get fresh sticks from the bottom of the pile." They did as he 
desired ; but the unpleasant odors continued to annoy them, and 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 95 

again the wood was taken from the fire and thrown away. Thinking 
the whole pile of wood was tainted with the smell, they went out, 
broke fresh branches from trees, and built the fire up again ; but 
this did not abate the rank odor in the least. Then one said : " Per- 
haps the smell is in the water. Tell us, little sister, where did you 
get the water in the pot ? " " I got it at the spring where I always 
get it," she replied. But they got her to throw out the water and 
fill the pot with snow, and to put the meat down to boil again. In 
spite of all their pains the stench was as bad as ever. At length 
one of the brothers turned to his sister and said : " What is the 
cause of this odor ? It is not in the wood. It is not in the water. 
Whence comes it ? " She was silent. He repeated the question 
three times, yet she made no answer. But when the question had 
been asked for the fourth time, Coyote jumped out of his hiding- 
place into the middle of the lodge and cried : " It is I, my brothers- 
in-law ! " "Run out there ! " the brothers commanded, and turning 
to their sister they said : " Run out you with him ! " 

256. They both departed from the lodge. As Coyote went out 
he took a brand from the fire, and with this he lighted a new fire. 
Then he broke boughs from the neighboring trees and built a shel- 
ter for himself and his wife to live in. When this was completed 
she went back to the lodge of her brothers, took out her pots, skins, 
four awls, baskets, and all her property, and carried them to her new 

257. One of the elder brothers said to the youngest: "Go out 
to-night and watch the couple, and see what sort of a man this is 
that we have for a brother-in-law. Do not enter the shelter, but lie 
hidden outside and observe them." So the youngest brother went 
forth and hid himself near the shelter, where he could peep in and 
see by the light of the fire what took place and hear what was said. 
The pair sat side by side near the fire. Presently the woman laid 
her hand in a friendly manner on Coyote's knee, but Coyote threw 
it away. These motions were repeated four times, and when he had 
thrown her hand away for the fourth time he said : " I have sworn 
never to take a woman for a wife until I have killed her four times." 
For a while the woman remained silent and gazed at the fire. At 
length she said : " Here I am. Do with me as you will." (The 
myth then relates four deaths and resurrections of the woman, simi- 
lar to those of the Coyote, but it does not state how or where she pre- 
served her vital principle.) When she returned for the fourth time 
she lay down, and Coyote soon followed her to her couch. From 
time to time during the night they held long, low conversations, of 
which the listener could hear but little. At dawn the watcher went 
home. In reply to the questions of his brothers he said : " I cannot 

g6 Navaho Legends. 

tell you all that I saw and heard, and they said much that I could 
not hear ; but all that I did hear and behold was trindas- " (devilish, 

258. Next morning the brothers proposed to go out hunting. 
While they were getting ready Coyote came and asked leave to join 
them, but they said to him tauntingly : " No ; stay at home with your 
wife ; she may be lonely and may need some one to talk to her," and 
they chased him out of the lodge. Just as they were about to leave 
he came back again and begged them to take him with them. 
" No," they replied, " the woman will want you to carry wood ; you 
must stay at home with her." They bade him begone' and set out 
on their journey. They had not gone far on their way when he 
overtook them, and for the third time asked to be allowed to join 
the party ; but again they drove him back with scornful words. 
They travelled on till they came to the edge of a deep canyon bor- 
dered with very steep cliffs, and here Coyote was seen again, skulk- 
ing behind them. For the fourth time he pleaded with them ; but 
now the youngest brother took his part, and suggested that Coyote 
might assist in driving game towards them. So, after some delib- 
eration, they consented to take Coyote along. At the edge of the 
canyon they made a bridge of rainbow, 86 on which they proceeded to 
cross the chasm. Before the brothers reached the opposite bluff 
Coyote jumped on it from the bridge, with a great bound, and began 
to frolic around, saying : "This is a nice place to play." 

259. They travelled farther on, and after a while came to a mesa, 
or table-land, which projected into a lower plain, and was connected 
with the plateau on which they stood by a narrow neck of level land. 
It was a mesa much like that on which the three eastern towns of 
the Mokis stand, with high, precipitous sides and a narrow entrance. 
On the neck of land they observed the tracks of four Rocky Moun- 
tain sheep, which had gone in on the mesa but had not returned. 
They had reason, therefore, to believe that the sheep were still on 
the mesa. At the neck they built a fire, sat down near it, and sent 
Coyote in on the mesa to drive the sheep out. Their plans were 
successful ; soon the four sheep came running out over the neck, 
within easy range of the hunters' weapons, and were all killed. 
Presently Coyote returned and lay down on the sand. 

260. In those days the horns of the Rocky Mountain sheep were 
flat and fleshy and could be eaten. The eldest brother said : " I will 
take the horns for my share." " No," said Coyote, " the horns shall 
be mine: give them to me." Three times each repeated the same 
declaration. When both had spoken for the fourth time, the eldest 
brother, to end the controversy, drew out his knife and began to 
cut one of the horns ; as he did so Coyote cried out, " Tsmantlehi ! 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 97 

Tsinantlehi ! Tsinantlehi ! Tsinantlehi ! " (Turn to bone ! Turn to 
bone ! Turn to bone ! Turn to bone !) Each time he cried, the horn 
grew harder and harder, and the knife slipped as it cut, hacking but 
not severing the horn. This is why the horns of the Rocky Moun- 
tain sheep are now hard, not fleshy, and to this day they bear the 
marks of the hunter's knife. " Tn'ndi ! T^inda^ bi/naal/i ! " (You 
devil ! You evil companion in travel !) said the hunter to Coyote. 

26,1. The hunters gathered all the meat into one pile, and by 
means of the mystic power which they possessed they reduced it to 
a very small compass. They tied it in a small bundle which one 
person might easily carry, and they gave it to Coyote to take home, 
saying to him, " Travel round by the head of the canyon over which 
we crossed and go not through it, for they are evil people who dwell 
there, and open not your bundle until you get home." 

262. The bundle was lifted to his back and he started for home, 
promising to heed all that had been told him. But as soon as he was 
well out of sight of his companions he slipped his bundle to the 
ground and opened it. At once the meat expanded and became 
again a heap of formidable size, such that he could not bind it up 
again or carry it ; so he hung some of it up on the trees and bushes ; 
he stuck part of it into crevices in the rocks ; a portion he left scat- 
tered on the ground ; he tied up as much as he could carry in a new 
bundle, and with this he continued on his journey. 

263. When he came to the edge of the forbidden canyon he 
looked down and saw some birds playing a game he had never wit- 
nessed before. They rolled great stones down the slope, which 
extended from the foot of the cliff to the bottom of the valley, and 
stood on the stones while they were rolling ; yet the birds were not 
upset or crushed or hurt in the least by this diversion. The sight 
so pleased Coyote that he descended into the canyon and begged to 
be allowed to join in the sport. The birds rolled a stone gently for 
him ; he got on it and handled himself so nimbly that he reached 
the bottom of the slope without injury. Again and again he begged 
them to give him a trial until he thus three times descended without 
hurting himself. When he asked the birds for the fourth time to 
roll a stone for him they became angry and hurled it with such force 
that Coyote lost his footing, and he and the stone rolled over one 
another to the bottom of the slope, and he screamed and yelped all 
the way down. 

264. After this experience he left the birds and travelled on until 
he observed some Otters at play by the stream at the bottom of the 
canyon. They were playing the Navaho game of nan^o^. They 
bet their skins against one another on the results of the game. But 
when one lost his skin at play he jumped into the water and came 

98 Navaho Legends. 

out with a new skin. Coyote approached the Otters and asked to be 
allowed to take part in the game, but the Otters had heard about 
him and knew what a rascal he was. They refused him and told 
him to begone ; but still he remained and pleaded. After a while 
they went apart and talked among themselves, and when they re- 
turned they invited Coyote to join them in their game. Coyote bet 
his skin and lost it. The moment he lost, the Otters all rushed at 
him, and, notwitstanding his piteous cries, they tore the hide from 
his back, beginning at the root of his tail and tearing forward. 
When they came to the vital spot at the end of his nose his wails 
were terrible. When he found himself denuded of his skin he 
jumped into the water, as he had seen the Otters doing ; but, alas ! 
his skin did not come back to him. He jumped again and again 
into the water ; but came out every time as bare as he went in. At 
length he became thoroughly exhausted, and lay down in the water 
until the Otters took pity on him and pulled him out. They dragged 
him to a badger hole, threw him in there, and covered him up with 
earth. Previous to this adventure Coyote had a beautiful, smooth 
fur like that of the otter. When he dug his way out of the badger 
hole he was again covered with hair, but it was no longer the glossy 
fur which he once wore ; it was coarse and rough, much like that of 
the badger, and such a pelt the coyotes have worn ever since. 

265. But this sad experience did not make him mend his ways. 
He again went round challenging the Otters to further play, and 
betting his new skin on the game. " Your skin is of no value ; no 
one would play for it. Begone ! " they said. Being often refused 
and insolently treated, he at length became angry, retired to a safe 
distance, and began to revile the Otters shamefully. " You are brag- 
garts," he cried ; "you pretend to be brave, but you are cowards. 
Your women are like yourselves : their heads are flat ; their eyes 
are little ; their teeth stick out ; they are ugly ; while I have a bride 
as beautiful as the sun." He shook his foot at them as if to say, 
" I am fleeter than you." He would approach them, and when they 
made motion as if to pursue him, he would take a big jump and 
soon place himself beyond their reach. When they quieted down, 
he would approach them again and continue to taunt and revile 
them. After a while he went to the cliff, to a place of safety, and 
shouted from there his words of derision. The Otters talked to- 
gether, and said they could suffer his abuse no longer, that something 
must be done, and they sent word to "the chiefs of the Spiders, who 
lived farther down the stream, telling them what had occurred, and 
asking for their aid. 

266. The Spiders crept up the bluff, went round behind where 
Coyote sat cursing and scolding, and wove strong webs in the trees 

The Navaho Origin Legend, 99 

and bushes. When their work was finished they told the Otters what 
they had done, and the latter started to climb the bluff and attack 
Coyote. Conscious of his superior swiftness, he acted as if indiffer- 
ent to them, and allowed them to come quite close before he turned 
to run ; but he did not run far until he was caught in the webs of 
the Spiders. Then the Otters seized him and dragged him, howling, 
to the foot of the hill. He clung so hard to the grasses and shrubs 
as he passed that they were torn out by the roots. When the Otters 
got him to the bottom of the hill they killed him, or seemed to kill 
him. The Cliff Swallows (Hzstsdsi) a flew down from the walls of 
the canyon and tore him in pieces ; they carried off the fragments to 
their nests, leaving only a few drops of blood on the ground ; they 
tore his skin into strips and made of these bands which they put 
around their heads, and this accounts for the band which the cliff 
swallow wears upon his brow to-day. 

267. It was nightfall when the brothers came home. They saw 
that Coyote had not yet returned, and they marvelled what had 
become of him. When they entered the lodge and sat down, the 
sister came and peeped in over the porti&re, scanned the inside of 
the lodge, and looked inquiringly at them. They did not speak to 
her until she had done this four times, then the eldest brother said : 
" Go back and sleep, and don't worry about that worthless man of 
yours. He is not with us, and we know not what has become of 
him. We suppose he has gone into the canyon, where we warned 
him not to go, and has been killed." She only said, " What have 
you done with him ?" and went away in anger. 

268. Before they lay down to sleep they sent the youngest brother 
out to hide where he had hidden the night before to watch their 
sister, and this is what he saw : At first she pretended to go to 
sleep. After a while she rose and sat facing the east. Then she 
faced in turn the south, the west, and the north, moving sunwise. 
When this was done she pulled out her right eye-tooth, broke a 
large piece from one of her four bone awls and inserted it in the 
place of the tooth, making a great tusk where the little tooth had 
once been. As she did this she said aloud : " He who shall here- 
after dream of losing a right eye-tooth shall lose a brother." After 
this she opened her mouth to the four points of the compass in the 
order in which she had faced them before, tore out her left eye-tooth 
and inserted in its place the pointed end of another awl. As she 
made this tusk she said : " He #ho dreams of losing his left eye- 
tooth shall lose a sister." 

269. The watcher then returned to his brothers and told them 
what he had seen and heard. "Go back," said they, "and watch 
her again, for you have not seen all her deeds." When he went 

ioo Navaho Legends. 

back he saw her make, as she had done before, two tusks in her 
lower jaw. When she had made that on the right she said : " He who 
dreams of losing this tooth (right lower canine) shall lose a child ; " 
and when she made that on the left she said : " He who dreams of 
losing this tooth (left lower canine) shall lose a parent." 

270. When she first began to pull out her teeth, hair began to 
grow on her hands ; as she went on with her mystic work the hair 
spread up her arms and her legs, leaving only her breasts bare. 
The young man now crept back to the lodge where his brethren 
waited and told them what he had seen. "Go back," they said, 
"and hide again. There is more for you to see." 

271. When he got back to his hiding-place the hair had grown 
over her breasts, and she was covered with a coat of shaggy hair 
like that of a bear. She continued to move around in the direction 
of the sun's apparent course, pausing and opening her mouth at the 
east, the south, the west, and the north as she went. After a while 
her ears began to wag, her snout grew long, her teeth were heard to 
gnash, her nails turned into claws. He watched her until dawn, 
when, fearing he might be discovered, he returned to his lodge and 
told his brothers all that had happened. They said : " These must 
be the mysteries that Coyote explained to her the first night." 

272. In a moment after the young man had told his story they 
heard the whistling of a bear, and soon a she-bear rushed past the 
door of the lodge, cracking the branches as she went. She followed 
the trail which Coyote had taken the day before and disappeared in 
the woods. 

273. At night she came back groaning. She had been in the 
fatal canyon all day, fighting the slayers of Coyote, and she had been 
wounded in many places. Her brothers saw a light in her hut, and 
from time to time one of their number would go and peep in through 
an aperture to observe what was happening within. All night she 
walked around the fire. At intervals she would, by means of her 
magic, draw arrow-heads out of her body and heal the wounds. 

274. Next morning the bear-woman again rushed past the lodge 
of her brethren, and again went off toward the fatal canyon. At 
night she returned, as before, groaning and bleeding, and again 
spent the long night in drawing forth missiles and healing her 
wounds by means of her magic rites. 

275. Thus she continued to do for four days and four nights ; 
but at the end of the fourth day she had conquered all her enemies ; 
she had slain many, and those she had not killed she had dispersed. 
The swallows flew up into the high cliffs to escape her vengeance ; 
the otters hid themselves in the water ; the spiders retreated into 
holes in the ground, 87 and in such places these creatures have been 
obliged to dwell ever since. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 101 

276. During these four days, the brothers remained in their 
camp ; but at the end of that time, feeling that trouble was in store 
for them, they decided to go away. They left the youngest brother 
at home, and the remaining ten divided themselves into four different 
parties ; one of which travelled to the east, another to the south, 
another to the west, and another to the north. 

277. When they were gone, the Whirlwind, Niyol, and the Knife 
Boy, Pe.fa.rike, came to the lodge to help the younger brother who 
had remained behind. They dug for him a hole under the centre of 
the hogixi ; and from this they dug four branching tunnels, running 
east, south, west, and north, and over the end of each tunnel they 
put a window of gypsum to let in light from above. They gave him 
four weapons, — atslnikli'j-ka, the chain-lightning arrow ; ^atsoil/fcalka 
(an old-fashioned stone knife as big as the open hand) ; natsili'/ka, 
the rainbow arrow ; and /iatsi\kVska, the sheet-lightning arrow. They 
roofed his hiding-place with four flat stones, one white, one blue, 
one yellow, and one black. They put earth over all these, smooth- 
ing the earth and tramping it down so that it should look like the 
natural floor of the lodge. They gave him two monitors, Ni'ltii, 
the Wind, at his right ear, to warn him by day of the approach of 
danger ; and T^a/ye/, darkness, at his left ear, to warn him by night. 

278. When morning came and the bear-woman went forth she dis- 
covered that her brothers had departed. She poured water on the 
ground {haNz) to see which way they had gone. The water flowed 
to the east ; she rushed on in that direction and soon overtook three 
of the fugitives, whom she succeeded in killing. Then she went 
back to her hut to see what had become of her other brothers. 
Again she poured water on the level ground and it flowed off to the 
south ; she followed in that direction and soon overtook three others, 
whom she likewise slew. Returning to the lodge she again per- 
formed her divination by means of water. This time she was 
directed to the west, and, going that way, she overtook and killed 
three more of the men. Again she sought the old camp and poured 
on the ground water, which flowed to the north ; going on in this 
direction she encountered but one man, and him she slew. Once 
more she went back to discover what had become of her last brother. 
She poured water for the fifth time on the level ground ; it sank 
directly into the earth. 

279. The brothers had always been very successful hunters and 
their home was always well supplied with meat. In consequence of 
this they had had many visitors who built in their neighborhood 
temporary shelters, such as the Navahoes build now when they come 
to remain only a short time at a place, and the remains of these 
shelters surrounded the deserted hut. She scratched in all these 

102 Navaho Legends, 

places to find traces of the fugitive, without success, and in doing so 
she gradually approached the deserted hut. She scratched all around 
outside the hut and then went inside. She scratched around the 
edge of the hut and then worked toward the centre, until at length 
she came to the fireplace. Here she found the earth was soft as if 
recently disturbed, and she dug rapidly downward with her paws. 
She soon came to the stones, and, removing these, saw her last 
remaining brother hidden beneath them. " I greet you, my younger 
brother ! Come up, I want to see you," she said in a coaxing voice. 
Then she held f out one fLiger to him and said : " Grasp my finger 
and I will help you up." But Wind told him not to grasp her finger ; 
that if he did she would throw him upwards, that he would fall half 
dead at her feet and be at her mercy. " Get up without her help," 
whispered Nl'ltri. 

280. He climbed out of the hole on the east side and walked 
toward the east. She ran toward him in a threatening manner, but 
he looked at her calmly and said: "It is I, your younger brother." 
Then she approached him in a coaxing way, as a dog approaches one 
with whom he wishes to make friends, and she led him back toward 
the deserted hog&ci. But as he approached it the Wind whispered : 
" We have had sorrow there, let us not enter," so he would not go 
in, and this is the origin of the custom now among the Navahoes 
never to enter a house in which death had occurred. 91 

281. " Come," she then said, " and sit with your face to the west, 
and let me comb your hair." (It was now late in the afternoon.) 
"Heed her not," whispered Wind; "sit facing the north, that you 
watch her shadow and see what she does. It is thus that she has 
killed your brothers." They both sat down, she behind him, and 
she untied his queue and proceeded to arrange his hair, while he 
watched her out of the corner of his eye. Soon he observed her 
snout growing longer and approaching his head, and he noticed that 
her ears were wagging. " What does it mean that your snout grows 
longer and that your ears move so ? " he asked. She did not reply, 
but drew her snout in and kept her ears still. When these occur- 
rences had taken place for the fourth time, Wind whispered in his 
ear : " Let not this happen again. If she puts out her snout the 
fifth time she will bite your head off. Yonder, where you see that 
chattering squirrel, are her vital parts. He guards them for her. 
Now run and destroy them." He rose and ran toward the vital 
parts and she ran after him. Suddenly, between them a large 
yucca ffl sprang up to retard her steps, and then a cane cactus, 89 and 
then another yucca, and then another cactus of a different kind. She 
ran faster than he, but was so delayed in running around the plants 
that he reached the vitals before her, and heard the lungs breathing 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 103 

under the weeds that covered them. He drew forth his chain-light- 
ning arrow, shot it into the weeds, and saw a bright stream of blood 
spurting up. At the same instant the bear-woman fell with the 
blood streaming from her side. 

282. " See ! " whispered Niltri, the Wind, " the stream of blood 
from her body and the stream from her vitals flow fast and approach 
one another. If they meet she will revive, and then your danger will 
be greater than ever. Draw, with your stone knife, a mark on the 
ground between the approaching streams." The young man did as 
he was bidden, when instantly the blood coagulated and ceased to 

283. Then the young man said : " You shall live again, but no 
longer as the mischievous Tsik6 Sas NaVlehi. 90 You shall live in 
other forms, where you may be of service to your kind and not a 
thing of evil." He cut off the head and said to it : " Let us see if in 
another life you will do better. When you come to life again, act 
well, or again I will slay you." He threw the head at the foot of a 
pifLon-tree and it changed into a bear, which started at once to walk 
off. But presently it stopped, shaded its eyes with one paw, and 
looked back at the man, saying : " You have bidden me to act well ; 
but what shall I do if others attack me ? " " Then you may defend 
yourself," said the young man ; " but begin no quarrel, and be ever 
a friend to your people, the D\n6*. Go yonder to Black Mountain 
(DsI//t?In) and dwell there." There are now in Black Mountain 
many bears which are descended from this bear. 

284. The hero cut off the nipples and said to them : u Had you 
belonged to a good woman and not to a foolish witch, it might have 
been your luck to suckle men. You were of no use to your kind ; 
but now I shall make you of use in another form." He threw the 
nipples up into a pifion-tree, heretofore fruitless, and they became 
edible pine nuts. 

285. Next he sought the homes of his friends, the holy ones, 
Nfyol and Pejasike. They led him to the east, to the south, to the 
west, and to the north, where the corpses of his brothers lay, and 
these they restored to life for him. They went back to the place 
where the brothers had dwelt before and built a new house; but 
they did not return to the old home, for that was now a trf'ndi 
^o^an and accursed. 91 

286. The holy ones then gave to the young hero the name of 
Zeyaneyani, or Reared Under the Ground, because they had hid- 
den him in the earth when his brethren fled from the wrath of his 
sister. They bade him go and dwell at a place called A/ahyltsoi 
(Big Point on the Edge), which is in the shape of a ^o^an, or Navaho 
hut, and here we think he still dwells. 

104 Navaho Legends. 


287. The Z>ine' now removed to Tse'/akai'ia (White Standing 
Rock), where, a few days after they arrived, they found on the 
ground a small turquoise image of a woman ; this they preserved. Of 
late the monsters (anaye, alien gods) had been actively pursuing and 
devouring the people, and at the time this image was found there 
were only four persons remaining alive; 92 these were an old man 
and woman and their two children, a young man and a young woman. 
Two days after the finding of the image, early in the morning, before 
they rose, they heard the voice of //astreyal/i, the Talking God, 
crying his call of " Wu'hu'hu'hu " so faint and far that they could 
scarcely hear it. After a while the call was repeated a second time, 
nearer and louder than at first. Again, after a brief silence, the call 
was heard for the third time, still nearer and still louder. The fourth 
call was loud and clear, as if sounded near at hand ; * as soon as 
it ceased, the shuffling tread of moccasined feet was heard, and a 
moment later the god //astfeyal/i stood before them. 

288. He told the four people to come up to the top of T^oh'hi after 
twelve nights had passed, bringing with them the turquoise image 
they had found, and at once he departed. They pondered deeply on 
his words, and every day they talked among themselves, wondering 
why //astreyal/i had summoned them to the mountain. 

289. On the morning of the appointed day they ascended the 
mountain by a holy trail, 93 and on a level spot, near the summit, they 
met a party that awaited them there. They found there //astreyal/i, 
Hasts6/iog3.n '(the Home God), White Body (who came up from the 
lower world with the Z?ine'), the eleven brothers (of Maid Who 
Becomes a Bear), the Mirage Stone People, the Daylight People 
standing in the east, the Blue Sky People standing in the south, the 
Yellow Light People standing in the west, and the Darkness People 
standing in the north. White Body stood in the east among the 
Daylight People, bearing in his hand a small image of a woman 
wrought in white shell, about the same size and shape as the blue 
image which the Navahoes bore. 

290. 7/astjeyal/i laid down a sacred buckskin with its head toward 
the west The Mirage Stone People laid on the buckskin, heads 
west, the two little images, — of turquoise and white shell, — a white 
and a yellow ear of corn, the Pollen Boy, and the Grasshopper 
Girl. On top of all these Hastseyalti laid another sacred buckskin 
with its head to the east, and under this they now put Ni'lt-ri 

291. Then the assembled crowd stood so as to form a circle, leaving 
in the east an opening through which //astreyal/i and Hastse/iogan 

Plate IV. NAYENEZGANI. (See pars. 76 and 105 and note 269.) 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 105 

might pass in and out, and they sang the sacred song of Hozongisin. 
Four times the gods entered and raised the cover. When they 
raised it for the fourth time, the images and the ears of corn were 
found changed to living beings in human form : the turquoise image 
had become Estsanatlehi, the Woman Who Changes (or rejuvenates 
herself) ; the white shell image had become Yo/kai Estsan, the 
White Shell Woman ; the white ear of corn had become Na/a/kai 
A^ike" ; the White Corn Boy and the yellow ear of corn, Na/a/tsoi 
Atet, the Yellow Corn Girl. 94 After the ceremony, White Body 
took Pollen Boy, Grasshopper Girl, White Corn Boy, and Yellow 
Corn Girl with him into TVolihi ; the rest of the assembly departed, 
and the two divine sisters, Estsanatlehi 95 and Yo/kai Estsan, 96 were 
left on the mountain alone. 

292. The women remained here four nights ; on the fourth morn- 
ing Estsanatlehi said : " .Site'-si (younger sister), why should we 
remain here ? Let us go to yonder high point and look around us." 
They went to the highest point of the mountain, and when they had 
been there several days Estsanatlehi said : " It is lonely here ; we 
have no one to speak to but ourselves ; we see nothing but that 
which rolls over our heads (the sun), and that which drops below us 
(a small dripping waterfall). I wonder if they can be people. I shall 
stay here and wait for the one in the morning, while you go down 
among the rocks and seek the other." 

293. In the morning Estsanatlehi found a bare, flat rock and lay 
on it with her feet to the east, and the rising sun shone upon her. 
Yo/kai Estsan went down where the dripping waters descended and 
allowed them to fall upon her. At noon the women met again on 
the mountain top and Estsanatlehi said to her sister : " It is sad to 
be so lonesome. How can we make people so that we may have 
others of our kind to talk to ? " Yo/kai Estsan answered : " Think, 
Elder Sister ; perhaps after some days you may plan how this is to 
be done." 

294. Four days after this conversation Yo/kai Estsan said : "Elder 
Sister, I feel something strange moving within me ; what can it be? " 
and Estsanatlehi answered : " It is a child. It was for this that you 
lay under the waterfall. I feel, too, the motions of a child within 
me. It was for this that I let the sun shine upon me." Soon after 
the voice of //astreyal/i was heard four times, as usual, and after the 
last call he and 76'nenili 98 appeared. They came to prepare the 
women for their approaching delivery. 99 

295. In four days more they felt the commencing throes of labor, 
and one said to the other : " I think my child is coming." She had 
scarcely spoken when the voice of the approaching god was heard, 
and soon /fastreyalri and 7b'nenili (Water Sprinkler) were seen 

106 Navaho Legends, 

approaching. The former was the accoucheur of Estsdnatlehi, and 
the latter of Yo/kai Estsan. 100 To one woman a drag-rope of rain- 
bow was given, to the other a drag-rope of sunbeam, and on these 
they pulled when in pain, as the Navaho woman now pulls on the 
rope. Estsanatlehi's child was born first. 101 i/astreyal/i took it 
aside and washed it. He was glad, and laughed and made iron- 
ical motions, as if he were cutting the baby in slices and throwing 
the slices away. They made for the children two baby-baskets, 
both alike ; the foot-rests and the back battens were made of sun- 
beam, the hoods of rainbow, the side-strings of sheet lightning, 
and the lacing strings of zigzag lightning. One child they covered 
with the black cloud, and the other with the female rain. 102 They 
called the children Sfndli (grandchildren), and they left, promising 
to return at the end of four days. 

296. When the gods (yei) returned at the end of four days, the 
boys had grown to be the size of ordinary boys of twelve years of 
age. The gods said to them : " Boys, we have come to have a race 
with you." So a race was arranged that should go all around a 
neighboring mountain, and the four started, — two boys and two 
y6i. Before the long race was half done the boys, who ran fast, 
began to flag, and the gods, who were still fresh, got behind them 
and scourged the lads with twigs of mountain mahogany. 103 
//astjeyaM won the race, and the boys came home rubbing their 
sore backs. When the gods left they promised to return at the end 
of another period of four days. 

297. As soon as the gods were gone, NYltsi, the Wind, whispered 
to the boys and told them that the old ones were not such fast run- 
ners, after all, and that if the boys would practice during the next 
four days they might win the coming race. So for four days they 
ran hard, many times daily around the neighboring mountain, and 
when the gods came back again the youths had grown to the full 
stature of manhood. In the second contest the gods began to flag 
and fall behind when half way round the mountain, where the others 
had fallen behind in the first race, and here the boys got behind 
their elders and scourged the latter to increase their speed. The 
elder of the boys won this race, and when it was over the gods 
laughed and clapped their hands, for they were pleased with the 
spirit and prowess they witnessed. 

298. The night after the race the boys lay down as usual to sleep ; 
but hearing the women whispering together, they lay awake and 
listened. They strained their attention, but could not hear a word 
of what was uttered. At length they rose, approached the women, 
and said : " Mothers, of what do you speak ? " and the women 
answered : " We speak of nothing." The boys then said : " Grand- 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 107 

mothers, of what do you speak?" but the women again replied: 
" We speak of nothing." The boys then questioned : " Who are our 
fathers ? " " You have no fathers," responded the women ; " you are 
yutajki (illegitimate)." " Who are our fathers ? " again demanded the 
boys, and the women answered : " The round cactus and the sitting 
cactus 104 are your fathers." 

299. Next day the women made rude bows of juniper wood, and 
arrows, such as children play with, and they said to the boys : " Go 
and play around with these, but do not go out of sight from our hut, 
and do not go to the east." Notwithstanding these warnings the boys 
went to the east the first day, and when they had travelled a good 
distance they saw an animal with brownish hair and a sharp nose. 
They drew their arrows and pointed them toward the sharp-nosed 
stranger ; but before they could shoot he jumped down into a canyon 
and disappeared. When they returned home they told the women — 
addressing them as " Mother " and " Grandmother " — what they 
had seen. The women said : " That is Coyote which you saw. He 
is a spy for the anaye TeelgeV." 

300. On the following day, although again strictly warned not to 
go far from the lodge, the boys wandered far to the south, and there 
they saw a great black bird seated on a tree. They aimed their 
arrows at it ; but just as they were about to shoot the bird rose and 
flew away. The boys returned to the hogan and said to the women : 
" Mothers, we have been to the south to-day, and there we saw a 
great black bird which we tried to shoot ; but before we could let 
loose our arrows it flew off. "Alas!" said the women. "This was 
Raven that you saw. He is the spy of the Tse'na'hale, the great 
winged creatures that devour men." 

301. On the third day the boys slipped off unknown to the anx- 
ious women, who would fain keep them at home, and walked a long 
way toward the west. The only living thing they saw was a great 
dark bird with a red skinny head that had no feathers on it. This 
bird they tried to shoot also ; but before they could do so it spread 
its wings and flew a long way off. They went home and said to the 
women : " Mothers, we have been to the west, and we have seen a 
great dark bird whose head was red and bare. We tried to shoot it, 
but it flew away before we could discharge our arrows." " It was 
D^eso, the Buzzard, that you saw," said the women. " He is the 
spy for Tse7a^ot?uVa7i, he who kicks men down the cliffs." 

302. On the fourth day the boys stole off as usual, and went 
toward the north. When they had travelled a long way in that 
direction, they saw a bird of black plumage perched on a tree on the 
edge of a canyon. It was talking to itself, saying "a'a'K" They 
aimed at it, but before they could let fly their arrows it spread its 

108 Navaho Legends. 

wings and tail and disappeared down the canyon. As it flew, the 
boys noticed that its plumes were edged with white. When they 
got home they told their mothers, as before, what they had seen. 
" This bird that you saw," said the women, " is the Magpie. He is 
the spy for the Binaye A/dni, who slay people with their eyes. Alas, 
our children ! What shall we do to make you hear us ? What shall 
we do to save you ? You would not listen to us. Now the spies of 
the anaye (the alien gods) in all quarters of the world have seen you. 
They will tell their chiefs, and soon the monsters will come here to 
devour you, as they have devoured all your kind before you." 

303. The next morning the women made a corncake and laid it 
on the ashes to bake. Then Yo/kai Estsan went out of the /togkn, 
and, as she did so, she saw Yeitso, 105 the tallest and fiercest of the 
alien gods, approaching. She ran quickly back and gave the warn- 
ing, and the women hid the boys under bundles and sticks. Yeitso 
came and sat down at the door, just as the women were taking the 
cake out of the ashes. " That cake is for me," "said Yeitso. " How 
nice it smells!" "No," said Estsanatlehi, "it was not meant for 
your great maw." " I don't care," said Yeitso. " I would rather eat 
boys. Where are your boys ? I have been told you have some here, 
and I have come to get them." " We have none," said Estsanatlehi. 
"All the boys have gone into the paunches of your people long 
ago." " No boys?" said the giant. "What, then, has made all the 
tracks around here ? " " Oh ! these tracks I have made for fun," 
replied the woman. " I am lonely here, and I make tracks so that 
I may fancy there are many people around me." She showed Yeitso 
how she could make similar tracks with her fist. He compared the 
two sets of tracks, seemed to be satisfied, and went away. 

304. When he was gone, Yo/kai Estsan, the White Shell Woman, 
went up to the top of a neighboring hill to look around, and she 
beheld many of the anaye hastening in the direction of her lodge. 
She returned speedily, and told her sister what she had seen. Estsa- 
natlehi took four colored hoops, and threw one toward each of the 
cardinal points, — a white one to the east, a blue one to the south, a 
yellow one to the west, and a black one to the north. At once a 
great gale arose, blowing so fiercely in all directions from the /togin 
that none of the enemies could advance against it. 

305. Next morning the boys got up before daybreak and stole 
away. Soon the women missed them, but could not trace them in 
the dark. When it was light enough to examine the ground the 
women went out to look for fresh tracks. They found four footprints 
of each of the boys, pointing in the direction of the mountain of 
Dsi/naort/, but more than four tracks they could not find. They 
came to the conclusion that the boys had taken a holy trail, so they 
gave up further search and returned to the lodge. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 109 

306. The boys travelled rapidly in the holy trail, 93 and soon after 
sunrise, near Dsi/nao/I/, they saw smoke arising from the ground. 
They went to the place where the smoke rose, and they found it 
came from the smoke-hole of a subterranean chamber. A ladder, 
black from smoke, projected through the hole. Looking down into 
the chamber they saw an old woman, the Spider Woman, 106 who 
glanced up at them and said : " Welcome, children. Enter. Who are 
you, and whence do you two come together walking ? " They made 
no answer, but descended the ladder. When they reached the floor 
she again spoke to them, asking : " Whither do you two go walking 
together?" "Nowhere in particular," they answered; "we came 
here because we had nowhere else to go." She asked this question 
four times, and each time she received a similar answer. Then she 
said : " Perhaps you would seek your father ? " " Yes," they an- 
swered, "if we only knew the way to his dwelling." "Ah!" said 
the woman, "it is a long and dangerous way to the house of your 
father, the Sun. There are many of the anaye dwelling between 
here and there, and perhaps, when you get there, your father may 
not be glad to see you, and may punish you for coming. You must 
pass four places of danger, — the rocks that crush the traveller, the 
reeds that cut him to pieces, the cane cactuses that tear him to 
pieces, and the boiling sands that overwhelm him. But I shall 
give you something to subdue your enemies and preserve your 
lives." She gave them a charm called nayeatsos, or feather of the 
alien gods, which consisted of a hoop with two life-feathers (feathers 
plucked from a living eagle) attached, and another Kfe-feather, hyina 
bilts6s, 107 to preserve their existence. She taught them also this 
magic formula, which, if repeated to their enemies, would subdue 
their anger : " Put your feet down with pollen. 108 Put your hands 
down with pollen. Put your head down with pollen. Then your 
feet are pollen ; your hands are pollen ; your body is pollen ; your 
mind is pollen ; your voice is pollen. The trail is beautiful (bike 
hozoni). Be still." 109 

307. Soon after leaving the house of Spider Woman, the boys 
came to Tse'yeinti'li (the rocks that crush). There was here a nar- 
row chasm between two high cliffs. When a traveller approached, 
the rocks would open wide apart, apparently to give him easy pas- 
sage and invite him to enter ; but as soon as he was within the cleft 
they would close like hands clapping and crush him to death. These 
rocks were really people ; they thought like men ; they were anaye. 
When the boys got to the rocks they lifted their feet as if about to 
enter the chasm, and the rocks opened to let them in. Then the 
boys put down their feet, but withdrew them quickly. The rocks 
closed with a snap to crush them; but the boys remained safe on 

no Navaho Legends. 

the outside. Thus four times did they deceive the rocks. When 
they had closed for the fourth time the rocks said : " Who are ye ; 
whence come ye two together, and whither go ye ? " "We are chil- 
dren of the Sun," answered the boys. " We come from DsI/nao£i/, 
and we go to seek the house of our father." Then they repeated the 
words the Spider Woman had taught them, and the rocks said : 
" Pass on to the house of your father." When next they ventured 
to step into the chasm the rocks did not close, and they passed 
safely on. 

308. The boys kept on their way and soon came to a great plain 
covered with reeds that had great leaves on them as sharp as knives. 
When the boys came to the edge of the field of reeds (ZokaadikLri), 
the latter opened, showing a clear passage through to the other side. 
The boys pretended to enter, but retreated, and as they did so the 
walls of reeds rushed together to kill them. Thus four times did 
they deceive the reeds. Then the reeds spoke to them, as the rocks 
had done; they answered and repeated the sacred words. "Pass 
on to the house of your father," said the reeds, and the boys passed 
on in safety. 

309. The next danger they encountered was in the country covered 
with cane cactuses. 89 These cactuses rushed at and tore to pieces 
whoever attempted to pass through them. When the boys came to 
the cactuses the latter opened their ranks to let the travellers pass 
on, as the reeds had done before. But the boys deceived them as 
they had deceived the reeds, and subdued them as they had subdued 
the reeds, and passed on in safety. 

310. After they had passed the country of the cactus tney came, 
in time, to Saitad, the land of the rising sands. Here was a great 
desert of sands that rose and whirled and boiled like water in a pot, 
and overwhelmed the traveller who ventured among them. As the 
boys approached, the sands became still more agitated and the boys 
did not dare venture among them. "Who are ye ? " said the sands, 
" and whence come ye ? " " We are children of the Sun, we came 
from Dsl/nao/i/, and we go to seek the house of our father." These 
words were four times said. Then the elder of the boys repeated 
his sacred formula; the sands subsided, saying: "Pass on to the 
house of your father," and the boys continued on their journey over 
the desert of sands. 110 

311. Soon after this adventure they approached the house of the 
Sun. As they came near the door they found the way guarded by 
two bears that crouched, one to the right and one to the left, their 
noses pointing toward one another. As the boys drew near, the 
bears rose, growled angrily, and acted as if about to attack the 
intruders ; but the elder boy repeated the sacred words the Spider 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 1 1 1 

Woman had taught him, and when he came to the last words, " Be 
still," the bears crouched down again and lay still. The boys walked 
on. After passing the bears they encountered a pair of sentinel 
serpents, then a pair of sentinel winds, and, lastly, a pair of sentinel 
lightnings. As the boys advanced, all these guardians acted as if 
they would destroy them ; but all were appeased with the words of 
prayer. 111 

312. The house of the Sun God was built of turquoise ; it was 
square like a pueblo house, and stood on the shore of a great watei. 
When the boys entered they saw, sitting in the west, a woman ; 
in the south, two handsome young men ; u2 and in the north, two 
handsome young women. The women gave a glance at the strangers 
and then looked down. The young men gazed at them more closely, 
and then, without speaking, they rose, wrapped the strangers in four 
coverings of the sky, and laid them on a shelf. 113 

313. The boys had lain there quietly for some time when a rattle 
that hung over the door shook and one of the young women said : 
"Our father is coming." The rattle shook four times, and soon 
after it shook the fourth time, Trohanoai, the bearer of the sun, 
entered his house. He took the sun off his back and hung it up on 
a peg on the west wall of the room, where it shook and clanged for 
some time, going " tla, tla, tla, tla," till at last it hung still. 

314. Then Tj6hanoai turned to the woman and said, in an angry 
tone: " Who are those two who entered here to-day ? " The woman 
made no answer and the young people looked at one another, but 
each feared to speak. Four times he asked this question, and at 
length the woman said : " It would be well for you not to say too 
much. Two young men came hither to-day, seeking their father. 
When you go abroad, you always tell me that you visit nowhere, and 
that you have met no woman but me. Whose sons, then, are these ? " 
She pointed to the bundle on the shelf, and the children smiled sig- 
nificantly at one another. 

315. He took the bundle from the shelf. He first unrolled the 
robe of dawn with which they were covered, then the robe of blue 
sky, next the robe of yellow evening light, and lastly the robe of 
darkness. When he unrolled this the boys fell out on the floor. He 
seized them, and threw them first upon great, sharp spikes of white 
shell that stood in the east ; but they bounded back, unhurt, from 
these spikes, for they held their life-feathers tightly all the while. 
He then threw them in turn on spikes of turquoise in the south, on 
spikes of haliotis in the west, and spikes of black rock in the north ; 
but they came uninjured from all these trials and T.r6hanoai said : 
"I wish it were indeed true that they were my children." 

316. He said then to the elder children, — those who lived with 

ii2 Navaho Legends, 

him, — " Go out and prepare the sweat-house and heat for it four of 
the hardest boulders you can find. Heat a white, a blue, a yellow, 
and a black boulder." When the Winds heard this they said : " He 
still seeks to kill his children. How shall we avert the danger ? " 
The sweat-house was built against a bank. Wind dug into the bank 
a hole behind the sudatory, and concealed the opening with a flat 
stone. Wind then whispered into the ears of the boys the secret of 
the hole and said : "Do not hide in the hole until you have answered 
the questions of your father." The boys went into the sweat-house, 
the great hot boulders were put in, and the opening of the lodge was 
covered with the four sky-blankets. Then T^ohanoai called out to 
the boys : '/ Are you hot ? " and they answered : " Yes, very hot." 
Then they crept into the hiding-place and lay there. After a while 
T^ohanoai came and poured water through the top of the sweat- 
house on the stones, making them burst with a loud noise, and a 
great heat and steam was raised. But in time the stones cooled 
and the boys crept out of their hiding-place into the sweat-house. 
Tj-ohanoai came and asked again : "Are you hot ? " hoping to get no 
reply ; but the boys still answered : " Yes, very hot." Then he took 
the coverings off the sweat-house and let the boys come out. He 
greeted them in a friendly way and said : " Yes, these are my chil- 
dren," and yet he was thinking of other ways by which he might 
destroy them if they were not. 

317. The four sky-blankets were spread on the ground one over 
another, and the four young men were made to sit on them, one 
behind another, facing the east. " My daughters, make these boys 
to look like my. other sons," said Ti-ohanoai. The young women 
went to the strangers, pulled their hair out long, and moulded their 
faces and forms so that they looked just like their brethren. Then 
Sun bade them all rise and enter the house. They rose and all went, 
in a procession, the two strangers last. 

318. As they were about to enter the door they heard a voice 
whispering in their ears : "St ! Look at the ground." They looked 
down and beheld a spiny caterpillar called Wasekede, who, as they 
looked, spat out two blue spits on the ground. " Take each of 
you one of these," said Wind, " and put it in your mouth, but do not 
swallow it. There is one more trial for you, — a trial by smoking." 
When they entered the house Tj-ohanoai took down a pipe of tur- 
quoise that hung on the eastern wall and filled it with tobacco. " This 
is the tobacco he kills with," whispered Ni'ltri to the boys. T^ohanoai 
held the pipe up to the sun that hung on the wall, lit it, and gave it 
to the boys to smoke. They smoked it, and passed it from one to 
another till it was finished. They said it tasted sweet, but it did them 
no harm. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 1 1 3 

319. When the pipe was smoked out and T^ohanoai saw the boys 
were not killed by it, he was satisfied and said : " Now, my children, 
what do you want from me ? Why do you seek me ? " "Oh, father!" 
they replied, " the land where we dwell is filled with the anaye, who 
devour the people. There are Yeitso and JeelgeV, the Tse'nahale, 
the BTnaye A/fcini, and many others. They have eaten nearly all of 
our kind ; there are few left ; already they have sought our lives, 
and we have run away to escape them. Give us, we beg, the wea- 
pons with which we may slay our enemies. Help us to destroy 

320. " Know," said Tjohanoai, " that Yeitso who dwells at Ts6- 
tst/ is also my son, yet I will help you to kill him. I shall hurl'the first 
bolt at him, and I will give you those things that will help you in 
war." He took from pegs where they hung around the room and 
gave to each a hat, a shirt, leggings, moccasins, all made of pes 
(iron or knives), 114 a chain-lightning arrow, a sheet-lightning arrow, 
a sunbeam arrow, a rainbow arrow, and a great stone knife or knife 
club (pe-r/zal). 115 "These are what we want," said the boys. They 
put on the clothes of per, and streaks of lightning shot from every 
joint. 116 

321. Next morning Tjohanoai led the boys out to the edge of the 
world, where the sky and the earth came close together, and beyond 
which there was no world. Here sixteen wands or poles leaned 
from the earth to the sky ; four of these were of white shell, four of 
turquoise, four of haliotis shell, and four of red stone. 117 A deep 
stream flowed between them and the wands. As they approached 
the stream, Ni'ltri, the Wind, whispered: "This is another trial ;" 
but he blew a great breath and formed a bridge of rainbow, 86 over 
which the brothers passed in safety. Ni'ltri whispered again : " The 
red wands are for war, the others are for peace ; " so when Xrohanoai 
asked his sons : " On which wands will ye ascend ? " they answered : 
"On the wands of red stone," for they sought war with their ene- 
mies. They climbed up to the sky on the wands of red stone, and 
their father went with them. 118 

322. They journeyed on till they came to Yaga//oka, the sky-hole, 
which is in the centre of the sky. 119 The hole is edged with four 
smooth, shining cliffs that slope steeply downwards, — cliffs of the 
same materials as the wands by Avhich they had climbed from the 
earth to the sky. They sat down on the smooth declivities, — T.r6ha- 
noai on the west side of the hole, the brothers on the east side. 
The latter would have slipped down had not the Wind blown up and 
helped them to hold on. Tjohanaoi pointed down and said : "Where 
do you belong in the world below ? Show me your home." The 
brothers looked down and scanned the land ; but they could distin- 

H4 Navaho Legends. 

guish nothing ; all the land seemed flat ; the wooded mountains 
looked like dark spots on the surface ; the lakes gleamed like stars, 
and the rivers like streaks of lightning. The elder brother said : " I 
do not recognize the land, I know not where our home is." Now 
Ni'ltri prompted the younger brother, and showed him which were 
the sacred mountains and which the great rivers, and the younger 
exclaimed, pointing downwards : " There is the Male Water (San 
Juan River), and there is the Female Water (Rio Grande) ; yonder is 
the mountain of Tjijnadsl'ni ; below us is TsotsI/ ; there in the west 
is Dokoslid ; that white spot beyond the Male Water is Ztepe'ntsa ; 
and there between these mountains is DsI/nao/I/, near which our 
home is." " You are right, my child, it is thus that the land lies," 
said T.«5hanoai. Then, renewing his promises, he spread a streak of 
lightning ; he made his children stand on it, — one on each end, — 
and he shot them down to the top of TsotsI/ (Mt. San Mateo, Mt. 

323. They descended the mountain on its south side and walked 
toward the warm spring at Tb'sa/o. 120 As they were walking along 
under a high bluff, where there is now a white circle, they heard 
voices hailing them. "Whither are you going? Come hither 
a while." They went in the direction in which they heard the voices 
calling and found four holy people, — Holy Man, Holy Young Man, 
Holy Boy, and Holy Girl. The brothers remained all night in a cave 
with these people, and the latter told them all about Yeitso. 121 They 
said that he showed himself every day three times on the mountains 
before he came down, and when he showed himself for the fourth 
time he descended from TsotsI/ to 7o'sa/o to drink ; that, when he 
stooped down to drink, one hand rested on TsotsI/ and the other on 
the high hills on the opposite side of the valley, while his feet 
stretched as far away as a man could walk between sunrise and 

324. They left the cave at daybreak and went on to Tb'sa/o, 
where in ancient days there was a much larger lake than there is 
now. There was a high, rocky wall in the narrow part of the valley, 
and the lake stretched back to where Blue Water is to-day. When 
they came to the edge of the lake, one brother said to the other: 
" Let us try one of our father's weapons and see what it can do." 
They shot one of the lightning arrows at TsotsI/; it made a great 
cleft in the mountain, which remains to this day, and one said to the 
other : " We cannot surfer in combat while we have such weapons as 

325. Soon they heard the sound of thunderous footsteps, and they 
beheld the head of Yeitso peering over a high hill in the east; it was 
withdrawn in a moment. Soon after, the monster raised his head 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 115 

and chest over a hill in the south, and remained a little longer in 
sight than when he was in the east. Later he displayed his body to 
the waist over a hill in the west ; and lastly he showed himself, down 
to the knees, over Tsotsi/ in the north. 122 Then he descended the 
mountain, came to the edge of the lake, and laid down a basket 
which he was accustomed to carry. 

326. Yeitso stooped four times to the lake to drink, and, each time 
he drank, the waters perceptibly diminished ; when he had done 
drinking, the lake was nearly drained. 123 The brothers lost their 
presence of mind at sight of the giant drinking, and did nothing 
while he was stooping down. As he took his last drink they ad- 
vanced to the edge of the lake, and Yeitso saw their reflection in 
the water. He raised his head, and, looking at them, roared : " What 
a pretty pair have come in sight ! Where have I been hunting? " 
(z. c, that I never saw them before). Yinike/oko ! Yinike/oko ! " 124 
" Throw (his words) back in his mouth," said the younger to the 
elder brother. " What a great thing has come in sight ! Where 
have we been hunting ? " shouted the elder brother to the giant. 
Four times these taunts were repeated by each party. The brothers 
then heard Ni'ltri whispering quickly, " Ako' ! Ako' ! Beware ! Be- 
ware ! " They were standing on a bent rainbow just then; they 
straightened the rainbow out, descending to the ground, and at the 
same instant a lightning bolt, hurled by Yeitso, passed thundering 
over their heads. He hurled four bolts rapidly ; as he hurled the 
second, they bent their rainbow and rose, while the bolt passed 
under their feet ; as he discharged the third they descended, and 
let the lightning pass over them. When he threw the fourth bolt 
they bent the rainbow very high, for this time he aimed higher than 
before ; but his weapon still passed under their feet and did them 
no harm. He drew a fifth bolt to throw at them ; but at this 
moment the lightning descended from the sky on the head of the 
giant and he reeled beneath it, but did not fall. 125 Then the elder 
brother sped a chain-lightning arrow ; his enemy tottered toward the 
east, but straightened himself up again. The second arrow caused 
him to stumble toward the south (he fell lower and lower each time), 
but again he stood up and prepared himself to renew the conflict. 
The third lightning arrow made him topple toward the west, and 
the fourth to the north. Then he fell to his knees, raised himself 
partly again, fell flat on his face, stretched out his limbs, and moved 
no more. 

327. When the arrows struck him, his armor was shivered in 
pieces and the scales flew in every direction. The elder brother 
said: "They may be useful to the people in the future." 126 The 
brothers then approached their fallen enemy and the younger 

1 1 6 Navaho Legends. 

scalped him. Heretofore the younger brother bore only the name 
of Jb'bacUist.nni, or Child of the Water ; but now his brother gave 
him also the warrior name of Nau/ikfri (He Who Cuts Around). 
What the elder brother's name was before this we do not know ; 
but ever after he was called Nayenezgani (Slayer of the Alien 
Gods). 127 

328. They cut off his head and threw it away to the other side of 
Tsotsi/, where it may be seen to-day on the eastern side of the 
mountain. 128 The blood from the body now flowed in a great stream 
down the valley, so great that it broke down the rocky wall that 
bounded the old lake and flowed on. Nflt^i whispered to the 
brothers : " The blood flows toward the dwelling of the Binaye 
A//ani ; if it reaches them, Yeitso will come to life again." Then 
Nayenezgani took his pcs/zal, or knife club, and drew with it across 
the valley a line. Here the blood stopped flowing and piled itself 
up in a high wall. But when it had piled up here very high it began 
to flow off in another direction, and Nf'ltn again whispered : " It now 
flows toward the dwelling of 5a.malkahi, the Bear that Pursues ; 
if it reaches him, Yeitso will come to life again." Hearing this, 
Nayenezgani again drew a line with his knife on the ground, and 
again the blood piled up and stopped flowing. The blood of Yeitso 
fills all the valley to-day, and the high cliffs in the black rock that 
we see there now are the places where Nayenezgani stopped the flow 
with his pes/ia\. m 

329. They then put the broken arrows of Yeitso and his scalp 
into his basket and set out for their home near Dsi/nao/i/. When 
they got near the house, they took off their own suits of armor and 
hid these, with the basket and its contents, in the bushes. The 
mothers were rejoiced to see them, for they feared their sons were 
lost, and they said : " Where have you been since you left here yes- 
terday, and what have you done ? " Nayenezgani replied : " We have 
been to the house of our father, the Sun. We have been to Tsotsi/ 
and we have slain Yeitso." " Ah, my child," said Estsanatlehi, " do 
not speak thus. It is wrong to make fun of such an awful subject." 
"Do you not believe us ? " said Nayenezgani ; "come out, then, and 
see what we have brought back with us." He led the women out 
to where he had hidden the basket and showed them the trophies of 
Y6itso. Then they were convinced and they rejoiced, and had a 
dance to celebrate the victory. 130 

330. When their rejoicings were done, Nayenezgani said to his 
mother : " Where does Teelge/ 131 dwell ? " " Seek not to know," she 
answered, " you have done enough. Rest contented. The land of 
the anaye is a dangerous place. The anaye are hard to kill." "Yes, 
and it was hard for you to bear your child," the son replied (meaning 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 117 

that she triumphed notwithstanding). " He lives at Bike/jalsi'n," 
she said. Then the brothers held a long council to determine what 
they should do. They made two cigarette kethawns of a plant called 
aze/a^il/ehe, 132 one black and one blue, each three finger-widths long ; 
to these they attached a sunbeam and laid them in a turquoise dish. 
" I shall go alone to fight Teelge/," said Nayenezgani, " while you, 
younger brother, remain at home and watch these kethawns. If 
they take fire from the sunbeam, you may know that I am in great 
danger ; as long as they do not take fire, you may know that I am 
safe." This work was finished at sundown. 133 

331. Nayenezgani arose early next morning and set out alone to 
find 7ee,lge£ He came, in time, to the edge of a great plain, and 
from one of the hills that bordered it he saw the monster lying 
down a long way off. He paused to think how he could approach 
nearer to him without attracting his attention, and in the mean time 
he poised one of his lightning arrows in his hand, thinking how 
he should throw it. While he stood thus in thought, Nasi'zi, the 
Gopher, came up to him and said : " I greet you, my friend ! Why 
have you come hither?" "Oh, I am just wandering around," said 
Nayenezgani. Four times this question was asked and this answer 
was given. Then Nasi'zi said : " I wonder that you come here ; no 
one but I ever ventures in these parts, for all fear JeelgeV. There 
he lies on the plain yonder." " It is him I seek," said Nayenezgani ; 
"but I know not how to approach him." "Ah, if that is all you 
want, I can help you," said Gopher ; "and if you slay him, all I ask 
is his hide. I often go up to him, and I will go now to show you." 
Having said this, Nasi'zi disappeared in a hole in the ground. 

332. While he was gone Nayenezgani watched Teelget. After a 
while he saw the great creature rise, walk from the centre in four 
different directions, as if watching, and lie down again in the spot 
where he was first seen. He was a great, four-footed beast, with 
horns like those of a deer. Soon Nasi'zi returned and said : " I have 
dug a tunnel up to TeelgeV, and at the end I have bored four tun- 
nels for you to hide in, one to the east, one to the south, one to the 
west, and one to the north. I have made a hole upwards from the 
tunnel to his heart, and I have gnawed the hair off near his heart. 
When I was gnawing the hair he spoke to me and said: 'Why do 
you take my hair ? ' and I answered, ' I want it to make a bed for 
my children.' Then it was that he rose and walked around ; but he 
came back and lay down where he lay before, over the hole that 
leads up to his heart." 

333. Nayenezgani entered the tunnel and crawled to the end. 
When he looked up through the ascending shaft of which Nasi'zi had 
told him, he saw the great heart of Teelget beating there. He sped 

1 1 8 Navaho Legends. 

his arrow of chain-lightning and fled into the eastern tunnel. The 
monster rose, stuck one of his horns into the ground, and ripped the 
tunnel open. Nayenezgani fled into the south tunnel ; JeelgeV then 
tore the south tunnel open with his horns, and the hero fled into the 
west tunnel. When the west tunnel was torn up he fled into the 
north tunnel. The anaye put his horn into the north tunnel to 
tear it up, but before he had half uncovered it he fell and lay still. 
Nayenezgani, not knowing that his enemy was dead, and still fearing 
him, crept back through the long tunnel to the place where he first 
met Nasi'zi, and there he stood gazing at the distant form of JeelgeV. 

334. While he was standing there in thought, he observed ap- 
proaching him a little old man dressed in tight leggings and a tight 
shirt, with a cap and feather on his head ; this was //azaf, the 
Ground Squirrel. " What do you want here, my grandchild ? " said 
//azaf. " Nothing ; I am only walking around," replied the warrior. 
Four times this question was asked and four times a similar answer 
given, when Ground Squirrel spoke again and inquired : " Do you 
not fear the anaye that dwells on yonder plain ? " " I do not know," 
replied Nayenezgani ; " I think I have killed him, but I am not cer- 
tain." "Then I can find out for you," said //azaf. "He never 
minds me. I can approach him any time without danger. If he is 
dead I will climb up on his horns and dance and sing." Nayenezgani 
had not watched long when he saw //azaf climbing one of the horns 
and dancing on it. When he approached his dead enemy he found 
that //azaf had streaked his own face with the blood of the slain (the 
streaks remain on the ground squirrel's face to this day), and that 
Nasi'zi had already begun to remove the skin by gnawing on the 
insides of the fore-legs. When Gopher had removed the skin, he 
put it on his own back and said : " I shall wear this in order that, in 
the days to come, when the people increase, they may know what 
sort of a skin Zeelge/ wore." He had a skin like that which covers 
the Gopher to-day. //azaf cut out a piece of the bowel, filled it with 
blood, and tied the ends ; he cut out also a piece of one of the 
lungs, and he gave these to Nayenezgani for his trophies. 134 

335. When Nayenezgani came home again, he was received with 
great rejoicing, for his mother had again begun to fear he would 
never more return. " Where have you been, my son, and what have 
you done since you have been gone ? " she queried. " I have been 
to Bike//abi'n and I have slain TeelgeV," he replied. " Ah, speak 
not thus, my son," she said ; " he is too powerful for you to talk thus 
lightly about him. If he knew what you said he might seek you out 
and kill you." " I have no fear of him," said her son. " Here is his 
blood, and here is a piece of his liver. Do you not now believe I 
have slain him ? " Then he said : " Mother, grandmother, tell me, 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 119 

where do the Tse'na'hale 135 dwell ? " " They dwell at 7se'bi/al 
(Winged Rock)," 136 she answered, " but do not venture near them ; 
they are fierce and strong." 

336. Next morning early he stole away, taking with him the piece 
of bowel filled with blood He climbed the range of mountains 
where the hill of T^ujkai rises, and travelled on till he came to a 
place where two great snakes lay. Since that day these snakes have 
been changed into stone. He walked along the back of one of the 
snakes, and then he stepped from one snake to the other and went 
out on the plain that stretched to the east of the mountains, until he 
came close to Tse'bi/a'f, which is a great black rock that looks like a 
bird. While he was walking along he heard a tremendous rushing 
sound overhead, like the sound of a whirlwind, and, looking up, he 
saw a creature of great size, something like an eagle in form, flying 
toward him from the east. It was the male Tse'na'hale. The war- 
rior had barely time to cast himself prone on the ground when 
Tse'na'hale swooped over him. Thus four times did the monster 
swoop at him, coming each time from a different direction. Three 
times Nayenezgani escaped; but the fourth time, flying from the 
north, the monster seized him in his talons and bore him off to 

337. There is a broad, level ledge on one side of Tse'bi/af, where 
the monster reared his young ; he let the hero drop on this ledge, as 
was his custom to do with his victims, and perched on a pinnacle 
above. This fall had killed all others who had dropped there ; but 
Nayenezgani was preserved by the life-feather, the gift of Spider 
Woman, which he still kept. When the warrior fell he cut open the 
bag of bowel that he carried and allowed the blood of 7eelge7 to 
flow out over the rock; so that the anaye might think he was killed. 
The two young approached to devour the body of the warrior, but 
he said " Sh ! " at them. They stopped and cried up to their father : 
" This thing is not dead ; it says ' Sh ! ' at us." " That is only air 
escaping from the body," said the father ; " Never mind, but eat it." 
Then he flew away in search of other prey. When the old bird was 
gone, Nayenezgani hid himself behind the young ones and asked 
them, " When will your father come back, and where will he sit when 
he comes ? " They answered : " He will return when we have a he- 
rain, 137 and he will perch on yonder point " (indicating a rock close 
by on the right). Then he inquired : "When will your mother return, 
and where will she sit ? " " She will come when we have a she- 
rain, 137 and will sit on yonder point " (indicating a crag on the left). 
He had not waited long when drops of rain began to fall, the thun- 
der rolled, lightning flashed, the male Tse'na'hale returned and 
perched on the rock which the young had pointed out. Then 

1 20 Navaho Legends. 


Nayenezgani hurled a lightning arrow and the monster tumbled to 
the foot of Winged Rock dead. After a while rain fell again, but 
there was neither thunder nor lightning with it. While it still 
poured, there fell upon the ledge the body of a Pueblo woman, 
covered with fine clothes and ornamented with ear pendants and 
necklaces of beautiful shells and turquoise. Nayenezgani looked up 
and beheld the female Tse'na'hale soaring overhead (she preyed only 
on women, the male only on men). A moment later she glided 
down, and was just about to light on her favorite crag, when 
Nayenezgani hurled another lightning arrow and sent her body 
down to the plain to join that of her mate. 

338. The young ones now began to cry, and they said to the war- 
rior: "Will you slay us, too ? " "Cease your wailing," he cried. 
" Had you grown up here you would have been things of evil ; you 
would have lived only to destroy my people ; but I shall now make 
of you something that will be of use in the days to come when men 
increase in the land." He seized the elder and said to it, " You 
shall furnish plumes for men to use in their rites, and bones for 
whistles." He swung the fledgling back and forth four times ; as 
he did so it began to change into a beautiful bird with strong wings, 
and it said : " Suk, suk, silk, suk." Then he threw it high in the air. 
It spread its pinions and soared out of sight, an eagle. To the 
younger he said : " In the days to come men will listen to your voice 
to know what will be their future : sometimes you will tell the truth ; 
sometimes you will lie." He swung it back and forth, and as he did 
so its head grew large and round ; its eyes grew big ; it began to 
say, " Uwu, uwu, uwu, uwu," and it became an owl. Then he threw 
it into a hole in the side of the cliff and said : " This shall be your 
home." 138 

339. As he had nothing more to do at Ts6'bl/a'f, he determined to 
go home, but he soon found that there was no way for him to descend 
the rock ; nothing but a winged creature could reach or leave the 
ledge on which he stood. The sun was about half way down to the 
horizon when he observed the Bat Woman walking along near the 
base of the cliff. " Grandmother," he called aloud, "come hither 
and take me down." "Tre'dani," 139 she answered, and hid behind a 
point of rock. Again she came in view, and again he called her ; 
but she gave him the same reply and hid herself again. Three times 
were these acts performed and these words said. When she ap- 
peared for the fourth time and he begged her to carry him down, he 
added : " I will give you the feathers of the Tse'na'hale if you will 
take me off this rock." When she heard this she approached the 
base of the rock, and soon disappeared under the ledge where he 
stood. Presently he heard a strange flapping sound, 140 and a voice 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 121 

calling to him : " Shut your eyes and go back, for you must not see 
how I ascend." He did as he was bidden, and soon after the Bat 
Woman stood beside him. " Get into this basket, and I will carry 
you down," she demanded. He looked at the large carrying-basket 
which she bore on her back, and observed that it hung on strings 
as thin as the strings of a spider's web. " Grandmother," he said, 
" I fear to enter your basket ; the strings are too thin." " Have no 
fear," she replied ; " I often carry a whole deer in this basket : the 
strings are strong enough to bear you." Still he hesitated, and still 
she assured him. The fourth time that he expressed his fear she 
said : " Fill the basket with stones and you will see that I speak the 
truth." He did as he was bidden, and she danced around with the 
loaded basket on her back ; but the strings did not break, though 
they twanged like bowstrings. When he entered the basket she 
bade him keep his eyes shut till they reached the bottom of the cliff, 
as he must not see how she managed to descend. He shut his eyes, 
and soon felt himself gradually going down ; but he heard again the 
strange flapping against the rock, which so excited his curiosity that 
he opened his eyes. Instantly he began to fall with dangerous 
rapidity, and the flapping stopped ; she struck him with her stick 
and bade him shut his eyes. Again he felt himself slowly descend- 
ing, and the flapping against the rock began. Three times more he 
disobeyed her, but the last time they were near the bottom of the 
cliff, and both fell to the ground unhurt. 

340. Together they plucked the two Tse'na'hale, put the feathers 
in her basket, and got the basket on her back. He reserved only the 
largest feather from one wing of each bird for his trophies. As she 
was starting to leave he warned her not to pass through either of two 
neighboring localities, which were the dry beds of temporary lakes ; 
one was overgrown with weeds, the other with sunflowers. Despite 
his warning she walked toward the sunflowers. As she was about 
to enter them he called after her again, and begged her not to go that 
way, but she heeded him not and went on. She had not taken many 
steps among the sunflowers when she heard a fluttering sound behind 
her, and a little bird of strange appearance flew past her close to 
her ear. As she stepped farther on she heard more fluttering and 
saw more birds of varying plumage, such as she had never seen 
before, flying over her shoulders and going off in every direction. 
She looked around, and was astonished to behold that the birds were 
swarming out of her own basket. She tried to hold them in, to 
catch them as they flew out, but all in vain. She laid down her 
basket and watched, helplessly, her feathers changing into little birds 
of all kinds, — wrens, warblers, titmice, and the like, — and flying 
away, until her basket was empty. Thus it was that the little birds 
were created. 141 

1 2 2 Navaho Legends. 

341. When he got home Jb'bad^istJini said to him : " Elder brother, 
I have watched the kethawns all the time you were gone. About 
midday the black cigarette took fire, and I was troubled, for I knew 
you were in danger ; but when it had burned half way the fire went 
out and then I was glad, for I thought you were safe again." " Ah, 
that must have been the time when Tse'na'hale carried me up and 
threw me on the rocks," said Nayenezgani. He hung his trophies 
on the east side of the lodge, and then he asked his mother where 
Tse7a/*otjn7a'/i m dwelt. She told him he lived at Tse'afeza ; but, 
as on previous occasions, she warned him of the power of the 
enemy, and tried to dissuade him from seeking further dangers. 
Next morning he set out to find TseVa^otruVa'/i, He Who Kicks 
(People) Down the Cliff. This anaye lived on the side of a high cliff, 
a trail passed at his feet, and when travellers went that way he 
kicked them down to the bottom of the precipice. Nayenezgani 
had not travelled long when he discovered a well-beaten trail ; fol- 
lowing this, he found that it led him along the face of a high preci- 
pice, and soon he came in sight of his enemy, who had a form much 
like that of a man. The monster reclined quietly against the rock, 
as if he meditated no harm, and Nayenezgani advanced as if he 
feared no danger, yet watching his adversary closely. As he passed, 
the latter kicked at him, but he dodged the kick and asked : " Why 
did you kick at me ? " " Oh, my grandchild," said the anaye, " I 
was weary lying thus, and I only stretched out my leg to rest my- 
self." Four times did Nayenezgani pass him, and four times did the 
monster kick at him in vain. Then the hero struck his enemy with 
his great stone knife over the eyes, and struck him again and again 
till he felt sure that he had slain him ; but he was surprised to find 
that the body did not fall down the cliff. He cut with his knife 
under the corpse in different places, but found nothing that held it 
to the rock until he came to the head, and then he discovered that 
the long hair grew, like the roots of a cedar, into a cleft in the rock. 
When he cut the hair, 143 the body tumbled down out of sight. The 
moment it fell a great clamor of voices came up from below. " I 
want the eyes," screamed one ; " Give me an arm," cried another ; 
"I want the liver," said a third; "No, the liver shall be mine," 
yelled a fourth ; and thus the quarrelling went on. " Ah ! " thought 
Nayenezgani, " these are the children quarrelling over the father's 
corpse. Thus, perhaps, they would have been quarrelling over mine 
had I not dodged his kicks." 

342. He tried to descend along the trail he was on, but found it 
led no farther. Then he retraced his steps till he saw another trail 
that seemed to lead to the bottom of the cliff. He followed it and 
soon came to the young of the anaye, twelve in number, who had 

The Navaho Origin Legend, 123 

just devoured their father's corpse; the blood was still streaming 
from their mouths. He ran among them, and hacked at them in 
every direction with his great stone knife. They fled ; but he pur- 
sued them, and in a little while he had killed all but one. This one 
ran faster than the rest, and climbed among some high rocks ; but 
Nayenezgani followed him and caught him. He stopped to take 
breath ; as he did so he looked at the child and saw that he was dis- 
gustingly ugly and filthy. " You ugly thing," said Nayenezgani ; 
"when voir ran from me so fleetly I thought you might be some- 
thing handsome and worth killing ; but now that I behold your face 
I shall let you live. Go to yonder mountain of Natsisaan 144 and 
dwell there. It is a barren land, where you will have to work hard 
for your living, and will wander ever naked and hungry." The boy 
went to Natslsaan, as he was told, and there he became the progeni- 
tor of the Pahutes, a people ugly, starved, and ragged, who never 
wash themselves and live on the vermin of the desert. 145 

343. He went to where he had first found the children of Tse'/a- 
/iots\\t&'/i. Nothing was left of the father's corpse but the bones 
and scalp. (This anaye used to wear his hair after the manner of a 
Pueblo Indian.) The hero cut a piece of the hair from one side 
of the head and carried it home as a trophy. When he got home 
there were the usual questions and answers and rejoicings, and when 
he asked his mother, " Where is the home of the Binaye A//ani, the 
people who slay with their eyes," she begged him, as before, to rest 
contented and run no more risks ; but she added : " They live at 
Tse'a/tal-d'ni, Rock with Black Hole." 146 This place stands to this 
day, but is changed since the anaye dwelt there. It has still a hole, 
on one side, that looks like a door, and another on the top that looks 
like a smoke-hole. 

344. On this occasion, in addition to his other weapons, he took 
a bag of salt with him on his journey. 147 When he came to Tse'a//al- 
ri'ni he entered the rock house and sat down on the north side. 
In other parts of the lodge sat the old couple of the Binaye A/zani 
and many of their children. They all stared with their great eyes 
at the intruder, and flashes of lightning streamed from their eyes 
toward him, but glanced harmless off his armor. Seeing that they 
did not kill him, they stared harder and harder at him, until their 
eyes protruded far from their sockets. Then into the fire in the 
centre of the lodge he threw the salt, which spluttered and flew in 
every direction, striking the eyes of the anaye and blinding them. 
While they held down their heads in pain, he struck with his great 
stone knife and killed all except the two youngest. 

345. Thus he spoke to the two which he spared : " Had you grown 
up here, you would have lived only to be things of evil and to destroy 

124 Navaho Legends. 

men ; but now T shall make you of use to my kind in the days to 
come when men increase on the earth." To the elder he said :. " You 
will ever speak to men and tell them what happens beyond their 
sight ; you will warn them of the approach of enemies," and he 
changed it into a bird called Tsidi//6i 148 (shooting or exploring bird). 
He addressed the younger, saying : " It will be your task to make 
things beautiful, to make the earth happy." And he changed it into 
a bird called Uost6di, m which is sleepy in the daytime and comes 
out at night. 

346. When he reached home with his trophies, which were the 
eyes 160 of the first Binaye AMni he had killed, and told what he 
had done, Estsanatlehi took a piece of the lung of TeelgeV (which 
he had previously brought home), put it in her mouth, and, dancing 
sang this song : — 

Naye*nezgani brings for me, 
Of 7e"elge/ he brings for me, 
Truly a lung he brings for me, 
The people are restored. 

Tb'bacUlstnni brings for me, 
Of Tse'na'hale he brings for me, 
Truly a wing he brings for me, 
The people are restored. 

Zdyaneyani brings for me, 
Of Tse'/a#otrtl/d7i he brings foi me, 
Truly a side-lock he brings for me, 
The people are restored. 

Tsdwenatlehi IM brings for me, 
Of Binaye AMni he brings for me, 
Truly an eye he brings for me, 
The people are restored. 276 

347. When she had finished her rejoicings he asked, " Where shall 
I find Sajnalkahi (Bear that Pursues) ? " " He lives at Tse'bahastslt 
(Rock that Frightens)," she replied ; but again she plead with him, 
pictured to him the power of the enemy he sought, and begged him 
to venture no more. 

348. Next morning he went off to Rock that Frightens and 
walked all around it, without meeting the bear or finding his trail. 
At length, looking up to the top of the rock, he saw the bear's head 
sticking out of a hole, and he climbed up. The bear's den was in 
the shape of a cross, and had four entrances. Nay^nezgani looked 
into the east entrance, the south entrance, and the west entrance 
without getting sight of his enemy. As he approached the north 
entrance he saw the head of the watching bear again ; but it was 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 125 

instantly withdrawn, and the bear went toward the south entrance. 
The hero ran round fast and lay in wait. In a little while the bear 
thrust forth his head to look, and Nayenezgani cut it off with his 
great stone knife. 

349. He addressed the head, saying : "You were a bad thing in 
your old life, and tried only to do mischief ; but in new shapes I 
shall make you of use to the people ; in the future, when they 
increase upon the earth, you will furnish them with sweet food to 
eat, with foam to cleanse their bodies, and with threads for their 
clothing." He cut the head into three pieces : he threw one to the 
east, where it became tsasi, or ^ai'kan ( Yucca baccata) ; he threw 
another to the west, where it became tsasitsoz ( Yucca angustifolid) ; 
and he threw the third to the south, where it became no/a (mescal). 
He cut off the left forepaw to take home as a trophy. 

350. " Where shall I find Tse'nagahi (Travelling Stone) ? " he said 
after he had returned from his encounter with Pursuing Bear and 
shown his trophy to his people. " You will find him in a lake near 
where Tse'espai points up," answered Estsanatlehi ; but she im- 
plored him not to go near the lake. He did not heed her, and next 
morning he went off to seek the Travelling Stone. 

351. He approached the lake on the north side, while the wind 
was blowing from the south, but he saw nothing of the stone. 
Thence he went around to the south side of the lake. When he 
got here the stone scented him, rose to the surface, poised itself a 
moment, and flew toward Nayenezgani as if hurled by a giant hand. 
Raising his lightning arrow, he held it in the course of the stone 
and knocked a piece off the latter. When the stone fell he struck 
another piece off with his knife. Tse'nagahi now saw it had a 
powerful foe to contend against ; so, instead of hurling itself at him 
again, it fled and Nayenezgani went in pursuit. He chased it all over 
the present Navaho land, knocking pieces off it in many places 152 
as he followed, until at length he chased it into the San Juan River 
at Tsin/a^okata, where a point of forest runs down toward the 

352. Travelling Stone sped down with the current and Nayenezgani 
ran along the bank after it. Four times he got ahead of the stone, 
but three times it escaped him by dipping deep into the river. When 
he headed it off for the fourth time, he saw it gleaming like fire under 
the water, and he stopped to gaze at it. Then the stone spoke and 
said : "Sawe (my baby, my darling), take pity on me, and I shall no 
longer harm your people, but do good to them instead. I shall 
keep the springs in the mountains open and cause your rivers to 
flow ; kill me and your lands will become barren." Nayenezgani 
answered : " If you keep this promise I shall spare you ; but if you 

126 Navaho Legends. 

ever more do evil as you have done before, I shall seek you again, 
and then I shall not spare you." Tse'nagahi has kept his promise 
ever since, and has become the Tieholtsodi of the upper world. 

353. He brought home no trophy from the contest with Tse'nagahi. 
It had now been eight days since he left the house of the Sun. 153 He 
was weary from his battles with the anaye, and he determined to 
rest four days. During this time he gave his relatives a full account 
of his journeys and his adventures from first to last, and as he began 
he sang a song : — 

Naydnezgani to Atse* Estsdn began to tell, 

About Bl/delgeri he began to tell, 

Frohi homes of giants coming, he began to tell. 

Jb'bad^rlstyfni to Estsdnatlehi began to tell, 

About the Tse'na'hale he began to tell, 

From homes of giants coming, he began to tell. 

Ze"yaneyani to Atse" Estsdn began to tell, 

Of Tse7aAotrfl/4'/i he began to tell, 

From homes of giants coming, he began to tell. 

Tsdwenatlehi to Ests&natlehi began to tell, 

About Blnaye A//4ni he began to tell, 

From homes of giants coming, he began to tell. 277 

354. There were still many of the anaye to kill ; there was White 
under the Rock, Blue under the Rock, Yellow under the Rock, 
Black under the Rock, and many ye/apahi, or brown giants. Besides 
these there were a number of stone pueblos, now in ruins, that were 
inhabited by various animals (crows, eagles, etc.), 154 who filled the 
land and left no room for the people. During the four days of rest, 
the brothers consulted as to how they might slay all these enemies, 
and they determined to visit again the house of the Sun. On the 
morning of che fourth night they started for the east. They en- 
countered no enemies on the way and had a pleasant journey. When 
they entered the house of the Sun no one greeted them ; no one 
offered them a seat. They sat down together on the floor, and as 
soon as they were seated lightning began to shoot into the lodge. 
It struck the ground near them four times. Immediately after the 
last flash T^apani, Bat, and 7o'nen!li, Water Sprinkler, entered. " Do 
not be angry with us," said the intruders ; " we flung the lightning 
only because we feel happy and want to play with you : " still the 
brothers kept wrathful looks on their faces, until Ni'lti-i whispered 
into their ears : " Be not angry with the strangers. They were once 
friends of the anaye and did not wish them to die ; but now they 
are friends of yours, since you have conquered the greatest of the 
anaye." Then, at last, T^6hanoai spoke to his children, saying: 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 127 

" These people are rude ; they respect no one. Heed them not. 
Here are seats for you. Be seated." Saying this, he offered the 
brothers a seat of shell and a seat of turquoise ; but Ni'ltsi told the 
brothers not to take them. "These are seats of peace," he said; 
"you still want help in war. Nayenezgani, take the seat of red 
stone, which is the warrior's seat ; and you, Jb'badzlstrini, stand." 
They did as the Wind bade them. 

355. "My children, why do you come to me again?" asked 
Tjohanoai, the bearer of the sun. " We come for no special pur- 
pose ; we come only to pass away the time," Nayenezgani answered. 
Three times he asked this question and got the same reply. When 
he asked for the fourth time, he added, " Speak the truth. When 
you came to me before I gave you all you asked for." Now it was 
Zb'bad-s-Tst^fni who replied : " Oh, father ! there are still many of 
the anaye left, and they are increasing. We wish to destroy them." 
" My children," said T.r6hanoai, " when I helped you before, I asked 
you for nothing in return. I am willing to help you again ; but I 
wish to know, first, if you are willing to do something for me. I 
have a long way to travel every day, and often, in the long summer 
days, I do not get through in time, and then I have no place to rest 
or eat till I get back to my home in the east. I wish you to send 
your mother to the west that she may make a new home for me." 
" I will do it," said Nayenezgani ; " I will send her there." But 
ZVbad.sist.rini said : " No, Estsanatlehi is under the power of none ; 
we cannot make promises for her, she must speak for herself, she 
is her own mistress ; but I shall tell her your wishes and plead for 
you." The room they were in had four curtains which closed the 
ways leading into other apartments. T^ohanoai lifted the curtain in 
the east, which was black, and took out of the room in the east five 
hoops : one of these was colored black, another blue, a third yellow, 
and a fourth white, the fifth was many-colored and shining. Each 
hoop had attached to it a knife of the same color as itself. He took 
out also four great hailstones, colored like the four first hoops. He 
gave all these to his sons and said : " Your mother will know what 
to do with these things." 

356. When they got their gifts they set out on their homeward 
journey. As they went on their way they beheld a wonderful vision. 
The gods spread before them the country of the Navahoes as it was 
to be in the future when men increased in the land and became 
rich and happy. They spoke to one another of their father, of what 
he had said to them, of what they had seen in his house, and of all 
the strange things that had happened. When they got near their 
journey's end they sang this song : — 

1 28 Navaho Legends. 

Naye*nezgani, he is holy, 
Thus speaks the Sun, 
Holy he stands. 

To'Dadsfstrfni, he is holy, 
Thus speaks the Moon, 
Holy he moves. 

Ze*yaneyani, he is holy, 
Thus speaks the Sun, 
Holy he stands. 

Tsdwenatlehi, he is holy, 
Thus speaks the Moon, 
Holy he moves. 2 " 

357. When they got within sight of their home they sang this 

song : — 

Slayer of Giants, 
Through the sky I hear him. 
His voice sounds everywhere, 
His voice divine. 

Child of the Water, 
Through the floods I hear him. 
His voice sounds everywhere, 
His voice divine. 

Reared 'neath the Earth, 
Through the earth I hear him. 
His voice sounds everywhere, 
His voice divine. 

The Changing Grandchild, 
Through the clouds I hear him. 
His voice sounds everywhere, 
His voice divine. 27 ' - ' 

358. When the brothers got home they said to Estsanatlehi : 
" Here are the hoops which our father has given us, and he told us 
you knew all about them. Show us, then, how to use them." She 
replied : " I have no knowledge of them." Three times she thus 
answered their questions. When they spoke to her for the fourth 
time and Nayenezgani was becoming angry and impatient, she said : 
" I have never seen the Sun God except from afar. He has never 
been down to the earth to visit me. I know nothing of these talis- 
mans of his, but I will try what I can do." She took the black hoop 
to the east, set it up so that it might roll, and spat through it the black 
hail, which was four-cornered ; at once the hoop rolled off to the 
east and rolled out of sight. She took the blue hoop to the south, 
set it up, and spat through it the blue hail, which was six-cornered. 
Then the hoop rolled away to the south and disappeared. She car- 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 129 

ried the yellow hoop to the west, set it up, and spat through it the 
eight-cornered yellow hail ; the hoop rolled off to the west and was 
lost to sight. She bore the white hoop to the north ; spat through it 
the white hail, which had eleven corners, and the hoop sped to the 
north until it was seen no more. She threw the shining hoop up 
toward the zenith, threw the four colored knives in the same direc- 
tion, and blew a powerful breath after them. Up they all went until 
they were lost to sight in the sky. As each hoop went away thunder 
was heard. 155 

359. During four days after this nothing of importance happened, 
and no change came in the weather. At the end of four days they 
heard thunder high up in the sky, and after this there were four days 
more of good weather. Then the sky grew dark, and something like a 
great white cloud descended from above. Estsanatlehi went abroad ; 
she saw in all directions great whirlwinds which uprooted tall trees 
as if they had been weeds, and tossed great rocks around as if they 
had been pebbles. " My son, I fear for our house," she said when 
she came back. " It is high among the mountains, and the great 
winds may destroy it." When he heard this, Nay^nezgani went out. 
He covered the house first with a black cloud, which he fastened to 
the ground with rainbows ; second, with a black fog, which he fas- 
tened down with sunbeams ; third, with a black cloud, which he 
secured with sheet-lightning ; and fourth, with a black fog, which he 
secured with chain-lightning. At sunset that evening they caught a 
little glimpse of the sun ; but after that, continuously for four days 
and four nights, it was dark ; a storm of wind and hail prevailed, 
such as had never been seen before, and the air was filled with sharp 
stones carried before the wind. The people stayed safe in the lodge, 
but they could hear the noise of the great storm without. On the 
morning of the fifth day the tumult ceased, and Nayenezgani, going 
out, found that all was calm, though it was still dark. He now pro- 
ceeded to remove the coverings from the lodge and threw them 
upwards toward the heavens. As the first covering, a sheet of fog, 
ascended, chain-lightning shot out of it (with chain-lightning it had 
been fastened down). As the second covering, a cloud, ascended, 
sheet-lightning came forth from it. As the third covering, a fog, 
went up, sunbeams streamed from it ; and as the fourth cover, a 
robe of cloud, floated up, it became adorned with rainbows. The air 
was yet dark, and full of dust raised by the high wind ; but a gentle 
shower of rain came later, laying the dust, and all was clear again. 
All the inmates of the lodge now came out, and they marvelled to 
see what changes the storm had wrought : near their house a great 
canyon had been formed ; the shape of the bluffs around had been 
changed, and solitary pillars of rock 156 had been hewn by the winds. 

1 30 Navaho Legends. 

360. " Surely all the anaye are now killed," said Estsanatlehi. 
" This storm must have destroyed them." But Ni'ltsi whispered into 
Nayenezgani's ear, "Saw (Old Age) still lives." The hero said then 
to his mother : " Where used Old Age to dwell ? " His mother would 
not answer him, though he repeated his question four times. At last 
Ni'ltsi again whispered in his ear and said : " She lives in the moun- 
tains of Ztepe'ntsa." 

361. Next morning he set out for the north, and when, after a 
long journey, he reached Ztepe'ntsa, he saw an old woman who came 
slowly toward him leaning on a staff. Her back was bent, her hair 
was white, and her face was deeply wrinkled. He knew this must 
be Sa«. When they met he said : " Grandmother, I have come on a 
cruel errand. I have come to slay you." "Why would you slay 
me ? " she said in a feeble voice, " I have never harmed any one. I 
hear that you have done great deeds in order that men might in- 
crease on the earth, but if you kill me there will be no increase of 
men ; the boys will not grow up to become fathers ; the worthless 
old men will not die ; the people will stand still. It is well that 
people should grow old and pass away and give their places to the 
young. Let me live, and I shall help you to increase the people." 
"Grandmother, if you keep this promise I shall spare your life," 
said Nayenezgani, and he returned to his mother without a trophy. 

362. When he got home Ni'ltsi whispered to him : " //akaz Estsan 
(Cold Woman) still lives." Nayenezgani said to Estsanatlehi : " Mo- 
ther, grandmother, where does Cold Woman dwell ? " His mother 
would not answer him ; but Ni'ltsi again whispered, saying : " Cold 
Woman lives high on the summits of Ztepe'ntsa, where the snow 
never melts." 

363. Next day he went again to the north and climbed high among 
the peaks of Ztepe'ntsa, where no trees grow and where the snow lies 
white through all the summer. Here he found a lean old woman, 
sitting on the bare snow, without clothing, food, fire, or shelter. She 
shivered from head to foot, her teeth chattered, and her eyes streamed 
water. Among the drifting snows which whirled around her, a mul- 
titude of snow-buntings were playing ; these were the couriers she 
sent out to announce the coming of a storm. " Grandmother," he 
said, •' a cruel man I shall be. I am going to kill you, so that men may 
no more suffer and die by your hand," and he raised his knife-club to 
smite her. "You may kill me or let me live, as you will. I care 
not," she said to the hero ; " but if you kill me it will always be hot, 
the land will dry up, the springs will cease to flow, the people will 
perish. You will do well to let me live. It will be better for your 
people." He paused and thought upon her words. He lowered 
the hand he had raised to strike her, saying : " You speak wisely, 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 131 

grandmother; I shall let you live." He turned around and went 

364. When Nayenezgani got home from this journey, bearing no 
trophy, Wind again whispered in his ear and said : " Tiei'« (Poverty) 
still lives." He asked his mother where Poverty used to live, but 
she would not answer him. It was Wind who again informed him. 
" There are two, and they dwell at Dsi/^asd^i'ni." 

365. He went to Dsi/^asd^i'ni next day and found there an old man 
and an old woman, who were filthy, clad in tattered garments, and 
had no goods in their house. " Grandmother, grandfather," he said, 
"a cruel man I shall be. I have come to kill you." "Do not kill 
us, my grandchild," said the old man : " it would not be well for the 
people, in days to come, if we were dead ; then they would always 
wear the same clothes and never get anything new. If we live, the 
clothing will wear out and the people will make new and beautiful 
garments ; they will gather goods and look handsome. Let us live 
and we will pull their old clothes to pieces for them." So he spared 
them and went home without a trophy. 

366. The next journey was to seek Z>it.yl'n, Hunger, who lived, as 
Ni'ltri told him, at Tlo/ta^askai, White Spot of Grass. At this place 
he found twelve of the Hunger People. Their chief was a big, fat 
man, although he had no food to eat but the little brown cactus. " I 
am going to be cruel," said Nayenezgani, "so that men may suffer 
no more the pangs of hunger and die no more of hunger." "Do not 
kill us," said the chief, " if you wish your people to increase and 
be happy in the days to come. We are your friends. If we die, 
the people will not care for food ; they will never know the pleasure 
of cooking and eating nice things, and they will never care for the 
pleasures of the chase." So he spared also the Dltsi'n, and went 
home without a trophy. 

367. When Nayenezgani came back from the home of Hunger, 
Ni'ltri spoke to him no more of enemies that lived. The Slayer of 
the Alien Gods said to his mother : " I think all the anaye must be 
dead, for every one I meet now speaks to me as a relation ; they say 
to me, 'my grandson,' £ my son,' 'my brother.' " 157 Then he took 
off his armor — his knife, moccasins, leggings, shirt, and cap — and 
laid them in a pile ; he put with them the various weapons which 
the Sun had given him, and he sang this song : — 

Now Slayer of the Alien Gods arrives 
Here from, the house made of the dark stone knives. 
From where the dark stone knives dangle on high, 
You have the treasures, holy one, not I. 

The Offspring of the Water now arrives, 

Here from the house made of the serrate knives. 

132 Navaho Legends. 

From where the serrate knives dangle on high, 
You have the treasures, holy one, not I. 

He who was Reared beneath the Earth arrives, 
Here from the house made of all kinds of knives. 
From where all kinds of knives dangle on high, 
You have the treasures, holy one, not I. 

The hero, Changing Grandchild, now arrives, 
Here from the house made of the yellow knives. 
From where the yellow knives dangle on high, 
You have the treasures, holy one, not I. 280 

368. His song had scarcely ceased when they heard, in the far 
east, a loud voice singing this song : — 

With Slayer of the Alien Gods I come, 
From the house made of dark stone knives I come, 
From where dark knives dangle on high I come, 
With implement of sacred rites I come, 
Dreadful to you. 

With Offspring of the Waters now I come, 
From the house made of serrate knives I come, 
From where the serrate knives hang high I come, 
With implement of sacred rites I come, 
Divine to you. 

With Reared beneath the Earth now do I come, 
From house of knives of every kind I come, 
Where knives of every kind hang high I come, 
With implement of sacred rites I come, 
Dreadful to you. 

Now with the Changing Grandchild here I come, 
From the house made of yellow knives I come, 
From where the yellow knives hang high I come, 
With implement of sacred rites I come, 
Dreadful to you. 281 

369. As the voice came nearer and the song continued, Estsana- 
tlehi said to the youths : " Put on quickly the clothes you usually 
wear, Tyohanoai is coming to see us ; be ready to receive him," 
and she left the lodge, that she might not hear them talk about the 

370. When the god had greeted his children and taken a seat, he 
said to the elder brother : " My son, do you think you have slain all 
the anaye ?" "Yes, father," replied the son, "I think I have killed 
all that should die." " Have you brought home trophies from the 
slain ? " the father questioned again. " Yes, my father," was the 
reply ; " I have brought back wing-feathers, and lights and hair and 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 133 

eyes, and other trophies of my enemies." " It is not well," said 
Tjohanoai, " that the bodies of these great creatures should lie 
where they fell ; I shall have them buried near the corpse of Yeitso. 
(He got the holy ones to carry the corpses to San Mateo and hide 
them under the blood of Yeitso, and this is the reason we do not 
see them lying all over the land now, but sometimes see them stick- 
ing out of the rocks.) 159 He took the trophies and the armor and 
said : "These I shall carry back to my house in the east and keep 
them safe. If you ever need them again, come and get them." 
Promising to come back again in four days, and meet Estsanatlehi 
on the top of Tsolihi, he departed. 

371. At the end of four days Estsanatlehi went to the top of 
Tjoli'hi and sat down on a rock. Tjohanoai came, sat beside her, 
and sought to embrace her; but she avoided him, saying : "What do 
you mean by this ? I want none of your embraces." " It means 
that I want you for my own," said the bearer of the Sun. " I want 
you to come to the west and make a home for me there." " But I 
do not wish to do so," said she. "What right have you to ask 
me?" " Have I not given your boys the weapons to slay the alien 
gods ? " he inquired, and added : " I have done much for you : now 
you must reward me." She replied, " I never besought you to do 
this. You did not do it on my account ; you did it of your own 
good will, and because your sons asked you." He urged another 
reason : "When Nayenezgani visited me in the east, he promised to 
give you to me." "What care I for his promise?" she exxlaimed; 
" I am not bound by it. He has no right to speak for me." Thus 
four times she repulsed him. When he pleaded for the fifth time, 
saying : " Come to the west and make a home for me," she said : 
" Let me hear first all you have to promise me. You have a beauti- 
ful house in the east. I have never seen it, but I have heard how 
beautiful it is. I want a house just the same built for me in the 
west ; I want to have it built floating on the water, away from the 
shore, so that in the future, when people increase, they will not 
annoy me with too many visits. I want all sorts of gems — white 
shell, turquoise, haliotis, jet, soapstone, agate, and redstone — 
planted around my house, so that they will grow and increase. Then 
I shall be lonely over there and shall want something to do, for my 
sons and my sister will not go with me. Give me animals to take 
along. Do all this for me and I shall go with you to the west." He 
promised all these things to her, and he made elk, buffalo, deer, 
long-tail deer, mountain sheep, jack-rabbits, and prairie-dogs to go 
with her. 

372. When she started for her new home the Hada/zonestiddine' 
and the #ada^onige^ine f , two tribes of divine people, 160 went with 

1 34 Navaho Legends. 

her and helped her to drive the animals, which were already nu- 
merous. They passed over the TuinUa range at Pe.s7it.ri (Red Knife 
or Red Metal), and there they tramped the mountain down so that 
they formed a pass. They halted in Trfnlf valley to have a cere- 
mony 161 and a foot-race, and here the animals had become vastly 
more numerous. When they crossed Dsi//Isrl'n (Black Moun- 
tain), 162 the herd was so great that it tramped a deep pass whose 
bottom is almost on a level with the surrounding plain ; at Black 
Mountain all the buffaloes broke from the herd and ran to the east ; 
they never returned to Estsanatlehi and are in the east still. At 
Hostodito' the elks went to the east and they never returned. From 
time to time a few, but not all, of the antelope, deer, and other ani- 
mals left the herd and wandered east. Four days after leaving 
Trfnli valley they arrived at Dokos/id (San Francisco Mountain), 
and here they stopped to perform another ceremony. What hap- 
pened on the way from this mountain to the great water in the west, 
we do not know, but after a while Estsanatlehi arrived at the great 
water and went to dwell in her floating house beyond the shore. 
Here she still lives, and here the Sun visits her, when his journey is 
done, every day that he crosses the sky. But he does not go every 
day ; on dark, stormy days he stays at home in the east and sends 
in his stead the serpents of lightning, who do mischief. 

373. As he journeys toward the west, this is the song he sings : — 

In my thoughts I approach, 
The Sun God approaches, 
Earth's end he approaches, 
Estsinatlehi's hearth approaches, 
In old age walking 
The beautiful trail. 

In my thoughts I approach, 
The Moon God approaches, 
Earth's end he approaches, 
Yo/kdi Estsdn's hearth approaches, 
In old age walking 
The beautiful trail. 282 

374. When Estsanatlehi had departed, Nayenezgani and Tb'ba- 
d.srist.rini went, as their father had bidden them, to Tb'ye'tli, 163 where 
two rivers join, in the valley of the San Juan; there they made 
their dwelling, there they are to this day, and there we sometimes 
still see their forms in the San Juan River. 164 The Navahoes still go 
there to pray, but not for rain, or good crops, or increase of stock ; 
only for success in war, and only the warriors go. 

Plate VII. rO'BADZIST^fNI. (See pars. 76 and 105 and note 270.) 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 135 


375. Before Estsanatlehi left, she said to Yo/kai Estsan: "Now, 
younger sister, I must leave you. Think well what you would 
most like to do after I am gone." The younger sister replied : "I 
would most like to go back to Ztepe'ntsa, where our people came 
from." "Alas! you will be lonely there," said the elder sister. 
" You will want for some one around you to make a noise and keep 
you company." Still, when Estsanatlehi left, Yolkai Estsan turned 
her face toward Ztepe'ntsa. She went with the two brothers as far 
as Tb'ye'tli, and, when these stopped there, she set out alone for the 

376. When she got to Z>epe'ntsa (the San Juan Mountains), she 
went first to a place lying east of //ad^inai (the Place of Emer- 
gence), named Dsl//aa?i/i?ehi ; in an old ruined pueblo on its side 
she rested during the day, and at night she went to the top of the 
mountain to sleep. On the second day she went to a mountain 
south of the Place of Emergence, called DsI/fnaHf/^hi ; rested on 
the side of the mountain during the day, and on its top at night 
She began now to feel lonely, and at night she thought of how men 
might be made to keep her company. She wandered round in 
thought during the third day, and on the third night she slept on 
top of Dsl//agft#£hi, a mountain west of i/ad^inaf. On the fourth 
day she walked around the Place of Emergence, and wandered into 
the old ruins she found there. On the fourth night she went to the 
top of Dsi//mi//6z, the mountain which lies to the north of the Place 
of Emergence, and there she rested, but did not sleep; for she 
thought all the time about her loneliness, and of how people might 
be made. On the fifth day she came down to the shores of the lake 
which surrounded the Place of Emergence, and built a shelter of 
brush. " I may as well stay here," she said to herself ; " what does 
it avail that I wander round? " She sat up late that night thinking 
of her lonely condition. She felt that she could not stay there 
longer without companionship. She thought of her sister in the far 
west, of the Twelve People, of the gods that dwelt in the different 
mountains, and she thought she might do well to go and live with 
some of them. 

377. The next morning she heard faintly, in the early dawn, the 
voice of //asUeyal/i shouting his usual "Wu'hu'hu'hu," in the far 
east Four times the cry was uttered, each time louder and nearer. 
Immediately after the last call the god appeared. " Where did you 
save yourself ? " he asked the White Shell Woman, meaning, 
" Where were you, that you escaped the anaye when they ravaged 

136 Navaho Legends. 

the land?" " I was at Dsi/nao/i/ with my sister," she said; "but for 
five nights I have been all alone in these mountains. I have been 
hoping that something might happen to relieve my great loneliness, 
— that I might meet some one. ,Sit.raf (Grandfather), whence do you 
come ? " He replied : " I come from Tse'gihi, 165 the home of the 
gods. I pity your loneliness and wish to help you. If you remain 
where you are, I shall return in four days and bring Estsanatlehi, 
the divine ones of all the great mountains, and other gods, with me." 
When he left, she built for herself a good hut with a storm door. 
She swept the floor clean, and made a comfortable bed of soft grass 
and leaves. 

378. At dawn on the fourth day after the god departed, Yo/kaf 
Estsan heard two voices calling, — the voice of //astreyal/i, the 
Talking God, and the voice of //astxeV/og-an, the House God. The 
voices were heard, as usual, four times, and immediately after the 
last call the gods appeared. It was dark and misty that day ; the 
sun did not rise. Soon after the arrival of the first two, the other 
promised visitors came, and they all formed themselves in a circle 
east of the lodge, each in the place where he or she belonged. Thus 
the divine ones of Tsisnads'I'ni stood in the east ; those of Tsotsi/ 
(San Mateo Mountain) in the south ; those of Ztokoslw/ (San Fran- 
cisco Mountain) in the west ; those of Z>epe'ntsa (San Juan Moun- 
tain) in the north. Each one present had his appropriate place in 
the group. At first Yo/kaf Estsan stood in the west ; but her sister, 
Estsanatlehi, said to her : " No, my young sister ; go you and stand 
in the east. My place is in the west," and thus they stood during 
the ceremony. Estsanatlehi brought with her two sacred blankets 
called Z>i/pi7-naska, the Dark Embroidered, and Zakai'-naska, the 
White Embroidered. Hastse/iogan brought with him two sacred 
buckskins, and the Nalkenaas (a divine couple who came together 
walking arm in arm) brought two ears of corn, — one yellow, one 
white, — which the female carried in a dish of turquoise. 

379. Ha.stseya.lti laid the sacred blankets on the ground, and 
spread on top of these one of the sacred buckskins with its head to 
the west. He took from the dish of the female Nalkenaaz the two 
ears of corn, handing the white ear to Tse'ga^ina/Ini A.?ik6, the 
Rock Crystal Boy of the eastern mountain, and the yellow ear to 
Na^a/tsoi At€t, the Yellow Corn Girl of San Francisco Mountain. 
These divine ones laid the ears on the buckskin, — the yellow with 
its tip toward the west, the white with its tip toward the east. 
//asUeyal/i picked up the ears, and nearly laid them down on the 
buckskin with their tips to the east, but he did not let them touch the 
buckskin; as he did this he uttered his own cry of " Wu'hu'hu'hu." 
Then he nearly laid them down with their tips to the south, giving 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 137 

as he did so ffastse/iogaris cry of "//a-wa-u-u." With similar mo- 
tions he pointed the ears to the west and the north. Next he raised 
them toward the sky, and at length laid them down on the buck- 
skin, with their tips to the east. He accompanied each act with a 
cry of his own or of Ilkstse/iogan, alternating as in the beginning. 
So the ears were turned in every direction, and this is the reason 
the Navahoes never abide in one home like the Pueblos, but wander 
ever from place to place. Over the ears of corn he laid the other 
sacred buckskin with its head to the east, and then Ni'ltri, the Wind, 
entered between the skins. Four times, at intervals, Ha.sts6ya.lti 
raised the buckskins a little and peeped in. When he looked the 
fourth time, he saw that the white ear of corn was changed to a man, 
and the yellow ear to a woman. It was Ni'ltri who gave them the 
breath of life. He entered at the heads and came out at the ends 
of the fingers and toes, and to this day we see his trail in the tip of 
every human finger. The Rock Crystal Boy furnished them with 
mind, and the Grasshopper Girl gave them voices. When Hastse- 
yal/i at last threw off the top buckskin, a dark cloud descended and 
covered like a blanket the forms of the new pair. Yo/kai Estsan 
led them into her Ziogan, and the assembled gods dispersed. Before 
he left, i/astreyal/i promised to return in four days. 

380. No songs were sung and no prayers uttered during their 
rites, and the work was done in one day. The Ziogan near which all 
these things happened still stands ; but since that time it has been 
transformed into a little hill. To-day (a. d. 1884) seven times old 
age has killed since this pair was made by the holy ones from the 
ears of corn. The next very old man who dies will make the eighth 
time. 166 

381. Early on the fourth morning after his departure i/astreyal/i 
came again as he had promised, announcing his approach by calling 
four times as usual. When White Shell Woman heard the first call, 
she aroused the young people and said : "Get up, my children, and 
make a fire. Z/astreyal/i is coming." He brought with him another 
couple, //a<3?a//onige Aiike (Mirage Boy) and Hadahonzstid Atit 
(Ground-heat Girl). He gave Yo/kai Estsan two ears of corn, say- 
ing, " Grind only one grain at a time," and departed. Yo/kaf Estsan 
said to the newly-arrived couple : " This boy and girl of corn cannot 
marry one another, for they are brother and sister ; neither can you 
marry one another, for you are also brother and sister, yet I must do 
something for you all." So she married the boy made of corn to 
the Ground-heat Girl, and the Mirage Boy to the girl made of corn. 
After a time each couple had two children, — a boy and a girl. 
When these were large enough to run around, this family all moved 
away from Hadzmai, where they had lived four years, to Tse'/akaiia 

1 38 Navaho Legends. 

(White Standing Rock). The two men were busy every day hunt- 
ing rabbits, rats, and other such animals, for on such game they 
chiefly lived. From these people are descended the gens of Tse'- 
ds-inkfni, 167 House of the Dark Cliffs ; so named because the gods 
who created the first pair came from the cliff houses of Tse'gihi, 
and brought from there the ears of corn from which this first pair 
was made. 

382. After they had lived thirteen years at Tse'/akai'ia, during 
which time they had seen no sign of the existence of any people 
but themselves, they beheld one night the gleam of a distant fire. 
They sought for the fire all that night and the next day, but 
could not find it. The next night they saw it again in the same 
place, and the next day they searched with greater vigilance, but in 
vain. On the third night, when the distant gleam shone again 
through the darkness, they determined to adopt some means, better 
than they had previously taken, to locate it. They drove a forked 
stick firmly into the ground ; one of the men got down on his hands 
and knees, spreading them as wide apart as possible, and sighted 
the fire through the fork of the stick. Next morning he carefully 
placed his hands and knees in the tracks which they had made the 
night before, and once more looked through the fork. His sight 
was thus guided to a little wooded hollow on the side of a far-off 
mountain. One of the men walked over to the mountain and en- 
tered the little hollow, which was small and could be explored in a 
few moments ; but he discovered no fire, no ashes, no human tracks, 
no evidence of the presence of man. On the fourth night all the 
adults of the party took sight over the forked stick at the far 
twinkle, and in the morning when they looked again they found they 
had all sighted the same little grove on the distant mountain-side. 
" Strange ! " said the man who had hunted there the day before ; "the 
place is small. I went all through it again and again. There was 
no sign of life there, and not a drop of water that could reflect a 
ray from a star or from the moon." Then all the males of the fam- 
ily, men and boys, went to explore the little wood. Just as they 
were about to return, having found nothing, Wind whispered into 
the ear of one : " You are deceived. That light shines through a 
crack in the mountain at night. Cross the ridge and you will find 
the fire." 168 They had not gone far over the ridge when they saw 
the footprints of men, then the footprints of children, and soon 
they came to the camp. One party was as much rejoiced as the 
other to find people like themselves in the wilderness. They em- 
braced one another, and shouted mutual greetings and questions. 
"W 7 hence do you come?" said the strangers. "From Tse'/akai'ia," 
was the response. " And whence come you ? " asked the men of 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 1 39 

the White Standing Rock. " We tarried last," replied the strangers, 
"at 7b*i'n^btsos, a poor country, where we lived on ducks and 
snakes. 169 We have been here only a few days, and now we live on 
ground-rats, prairie-dogs, and wild seeds." The new party consisted 
of twelve persons, — five men, three women, one grown girl, one 
grown boy, and two small children. The Tse'd^inkl'ni people took 
the strangers home with them, and Yo/kai Estsan welcomed them, 
saying : " A//alani sastsini ! " (Greeting, my children !) The place 
where the Tse'd^inki'ni found the strangers encamped was called 
Tse'tlana (Bend in a Canyon) ; so they gave them the name of 
Tse'tlani, or Tse'tlanu/ine', and from them is descended the pres- 
ent gens of Tse'tlani in the Navaho nation. 

383. The next morning after the arrival of the Tse'tlani, ffastse- 
yal/i came once more to the lodge of the White Shell Woman ; but 
he talked with her apart from the others, and when he was gone she 
told no one what he said. In three days he came back again ; again 
they talked apart, and when Ha.stseya.Ui was gone she remained 
silent. It was her custom to sleep with one of the little girls, who 
was her favorite and companion. In the morning after the second 
visit of Ha.stseya.Ui she said to this little girl : " I am going to 
leave you. The gods of Tse'gi'hi have sent for me ; but I shall 
not forget your people, and shall come often to watch over them and 
be near them. Tell them this when they waken." When she had 
spoken she disappeared from the sight of the little girl, and when 
the people woke they searched, but could find her nowhere. They 
supposed she had gone to Tse'gihi and tarried there a while before 
she went to Ztepe'ntsa to dwell forever in the house of White Shell, 
which had been prepared for her there. The fourth night after the 
departure of Yo/kai Estsan the little girl had a dream, which she 
related to her people in the morning. In the vision she saw Yo/kai 
Estsan, who said to her : " My grandchild, I am going to Ztepe'ntsa 
to dwell. I would take you with me, for I love you, were it not 
that your parents would mourn for you. But look always for the 
she-rain when it comes near your dwelling, for I shall ever be in the 

384. While at White Standing Rock the men wandered much 
around the country in search of food. Some who had been to 
To'dokotizi (Saline Water) said the latter was a better place than 
than that in which they lived ; that there were some porcupines 
there, an abundance of rats, prairie-dogs, and seed-bearing plant's ; 
and that there were steep-sided mesa points in the neighborhood 
where they might surround large game. 170 After the departure of 
Yo/kai Estsan the people all moved to To'dokonzi ; 171 but they 
remained here only a few days, and then went to Tsa.'olga/ia.sse* 

140 Navaho Legends, 

Here they planted some grains of corn from the two ears that 
.//astjeyal/i had given them long ago. This was a very prolific kind 
of corn ; when planted, several stalks sprouted from each grain, and 
a single grain, when ground, produced a large quantity of meal, 
which lasted them many days. 

385. When they had been fourteen years at Tja'olga^as^e they 
were joined by another people, who came from the sacred mountain 
of Dsi/naofi/, and were therefore called Dsi/nao/I'/ni, or Dsi/nao/I'/- 
dme 1 . These were regarded as dme' aftgi'ni, or holy people, because 
they had no tradition of their recent creation, and were supposed to 
have escaped the fury of the alien gods by means of some miracu- 
lous protection. They did not camp at first with the older settlers, 
but dwelt a little apart, and sent often to the latter to borrow pots 
and metates. After a while all joined together as one people, and 
for a long time these three gentes have been as one gens and have 
become close relations to one another. The new-comers dug among 
old ruins and found pots and stone axes ; with the latter they built 
themselves huts. 

386. Seven years after the arrival of the Dsi/nao/i'/ni a fourth 
gens joined the Navahoes. The new arrivals said they had been 
seeking for the DsT/nao/i'/ni all over the land for many years. 
Sometimes they would come upon the dead bushes of old camps. 
Sometimes they would find deserted brush shelters, partly green, 
or, again, quite green and fresh. Occasionally they would observe 
faint footprints, and think they were just about to meet another 
people like themselves in the desolate land ; but again all traces 
of humanity would be lost. They were rejoiced to meet at last the 
people they so long had sought. The new-comers camped close to 
the Dsi/nao/i7ni, and discovered that they and the latter carried 
similar red arrow-holders, 172 such as the other gentes did not have, 
and this led them to believe that they were related to the Dsi/nao- 
ZiVni. The Navahoes did not then make large skin quivers such 
as they have in these days ; they carried their arrows in simpler 
contrivances. The strangers said that they came from a place 
called Naskan/iatso (much Yucca baccatd), and that they were the 
Ha.ska.ndme', or Yucca People ; but the older gentes called them 
//ai-kan/^atso, or //ajkan/zatsoaftne', from the place whence they 
came. 173 

387. Fourteen years after the accession of the fourth gens, the 
Navahoes moved to Klntyel (which was then a ruin), in the Chaco 
Canyon. They camped there at night in a scattering fashion, and 
made so many fires that they attracted the attention of some 
strangers camped on a distant mountain, and these strangers came 
down next day to find out who the numerous people were that kin- 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 141 

died so many fires. As the strangers, who were also <^in6* aftgini, 
or holy people, said they came from Na^opa (Place of the Brown 
Horizontal Streak), the Navahoes called them Na/zopani. They 
joined the tribe, camping near the //arkan/zatso and Dsi/nao/i'/ni. 

388. It was autumn when the fifth gens was received. Then the 
whole tribe moved to the banks of the San Juan River and settled 
at a place called Tsin/o'betlo 174 (Tree Sweeping Water), where a 
peculiar white tree hangs over the stream and sweeps the surface of 
the water with its long branches : there is no other tree of its kind 
near by. Here they determined to remain some time and raise 
crops ; so they built warm huts for the winter, and all the fall and 
winter, when the days were fair, they worked in the bottom-lands 
grubbing up roots and getting the soil ready for gardens to be 
planted in the spring. The elder gentes camped farther down the 
stream than those more newly arrived. 

389. In those days the language which the Navahoes spoke was 
not the same they speak now. It was a poor language then ; it is 
better in these days. 

390. When the tribe had been living six years on the banks of the 
San Juan, a band joined them who came from Tsi'nadsrin 176 (Black 
Horizontal Forest), and were named as a gens from the place 
whence they came. The Navahoes observed that in this band 
there was a man who talked a great deal to the people almost every 
morning and evening. The Navahoes did not at first understand 
what this meant ; but after a while they learned he spoke to his 
people because he was their chief. His name was Nabinil/ahi. 

391. While living at the San Juan the people amused themselves 
much with games. They played mostly nansos 76 in the daytime 
and kgsitre 176 at night. They had as yet no horses, domestic sheep, 
or goats. They rarely succeeded in killing deer or Rocky Moun- 
tain sheep. When they secured deer it was sometimes by still- 
hunting them, sometimes by surrounding one and making it run 
till it was exhausted, and sometimes by driving them over preci- 
pices. When a man got two skins of these larger animals he made 
a garment of them by tying the fore-legs together over his shoul- 
ders. The woman wore a garment consisting of two webs of woven 
cedar bark, one hanging in front and one behind ; all wore sandals of 
yucca fibre or cedar bark. They had headdresses made of weasel- 
skins and rat-skins, with the tails hanging down behind. These 
headdresses were often ornamented with colored artificial horns, 
made out of wood, or with the horns of the female mountain sheep 
shaved thin. Their blankets were made of cedar bark, of yucca 
fibre, or of skins sewed together. 177 Each house had, in front of the 
door, a long passageway, in which hung two curtains, — one at the 

142 Navaho Legends. 

outer, the other at the inner end, — made usually of woven cedar 
bark. In winter they brought in plenty of wood at night, closed 
both curtains, and made the house warm before they went to sleep. 
Their bows were of plain wood then ; the Navahoes had not yet 
learned to put animal fibre on the backs of the bows. 178 Their 
arrows were mostly of reeds tipped with wood ; but some made 
wooden arrows. 180 The bottom-land which they farmed was sur- 
rounded by high bluffs, and hemmed in up-stream and down-stream 
by jutting bluffs which came close to the river. After a time the 
tribe became too numerous for all to dwell and farm on this spot, so 
some went up in the bluffs to live and built stone storehouses in 
the cliffs, 179 while others — the TsTnad^I'ni — went below the lower 
promontory to make gardens. Later yet, some moved across the 
San Juan and raised crops on the other side ot the stream. 180 

392. Eight years after the coming of the'ni, some fires 
were observed at night on a distant eminence north of the river, and 
spies were sent out to see who made them. The spies brought 
back word that they had found a party of strangers encamped at a 
place called 77/a'neza", Among the Scattered (Hills). Soon after, 
this party came in and joined the Navahoes, making a new gens, 
which was called 77/a'neza'ni. The strangers said they were de- 
scended from the //a^a^onige^ine', or Mirage People. The remains 
of their old huts are still to be seen at Z^a'neza'. 

393. Five years after the T^a'neza'ni were added, another people 
joined the tribe ; but what gods sent them none could tell. They 
came from a place called Dsi/tla' (Base of Mountain), and were 
given the name of Dsl/tla'ni. As they had headdresses, bows, ar- 
rows, and arrow-holders similar to those of the 77/a'neza'ni they 
concluded they must be related to the latter. Ever since, these 
two gentes have been very close friends, — so close that a member 
of one cannot marry a member of the other. The Dsi/tla'ni knew 
how to make wicker water-bottles, carrying-baskets, and earthen 
pots, and they taught their arts to the rest of the people. 

394. Five years later, they were joined on the San Juan by a 
numerous band who came originally from a place called 7'ha'paha- 
£alkaf, White Valley among the Waters, which is near where the 
city of Santa Fe now stands. These people had long viewed in the 
western distance the mountains where the Navahoes dwelt, wonder- 
ing if any one lived there, and at length decided to go thither. 
They journeyed westward twelve days till they reached the moun- 
tains, and they spent eight days travelling among them before they 
encountered the Navahoes. Then they settled at 70'1'n^otsos and 
lived there twelve years, subsisting on ducks and fish, 169 but making 
no farms. All this time they were friendly to the Navahoes and 

The Navaho Origin Legend, 143 

exchanged visits ; but, finding no special evidences of relationship 
with the latter, they dwelt apart. When at length they came to the 
San Juan to live, marriages had taken place between members of 
the two tribes, and the people from Among the Waters became a 
part of the Navaho nation, forming the gens of Tl&a'paha. They 
settled at a place called Hyi'eVyin (Trails Leading Upward), close to 
the Navahoes. Here was a smooth, sandy plain, which they thought 
would be good for farming, and the chief, whose name was Gontso, 
or Big Knee, had stakes set around the plain to show that his 
people claimed it. The people of the new gens were good hunters, 
skilled in making weapons and beautiful buckskin shirts, and they 
taught their arts to the other gentes. 

395. The TM'paha then spoke a language more like the modern 
Navaho than that which the other gentes spoke. The languages 
were not alike. The chief of the'ni and Gontso often 
visited one another at night, year after year, for the purpose of 
uniting the two languages and picking out the words in each that 
were best. But the words of the 77/a'paha were usually the best 
and plainest ; 182 so the new language resembles the 77*a'paha more 
than it resembles the old Navaho. 

396. While the TM'paha lived at Hyi'eVyin they had always abun- 
dant crops, — better crops than their neighbors had. Sometimes 
they could not harvest all they raised, and let food lie ungathered in 
the field. They built stone storehouses, something like pueblo 
houses, among the cliffs, and in these stored their corn. The store- 
houses stand there yet. The 77/a'paha remained at Hyietyin thir- 
teen years, during which time many important events occurred, as 
will be told, and then they moved to Azafeltfigi. 

397. Gontso had twelve wives ; four of these were from the gens 
of Tsmadzi'ni, four from the gens of DsT/tla'ni, and four from the 
gens of 7/ia'neza'ni. He used to give much grain from his abun- 
dant harvests to the gentes to which his wives belonged ; but, in 
spite of his generosity, his wives were unfaithful to him. He com- 
plained to their relations and to their chiefs ; these remonstrated 
with the wives, but failed to improve their ways. At last they lost 
patience with the women and said to Gontso : " Do with them as 
you will. We shall not interfere." So the next wife whom he 
detected in crime he mutilated in a shameful way, and she died in 
consequence. He cut off the ears of the next transgressor, and she, 
too, died. He amputated the breasts of the third wife who offended 
him, and she died also. He cut off the nose of the fourth; she did 
not die. He determined then that cutting the nose should, in 
future, be the greatest punishment imposed on the faithless wife, — 
something that would disfigure but not kill, — and the rest of the 

144 Navako Legends. 

people agreed with him. 183 But this had no effect on the remaining 
wives ; they continued to lapse from virtue till all were noseless. 
Then they got together and began to plot mischief against their 
husband, Big Knee. They spoke so openly of their evil intentions 
that he feared to let any of them stay in his lodge at night and he 
slept alone. 

398. About this time the people determined to have a great cere- 
mony for the benefit of Big Knee ; so they made great preparations 
and held a rite of nine days' duration. 184 During its progress the 
mutilated women remained in a hut by themselves, and talked about 
the unkindness of their people and the vengeance due to their hus- 
band. They said one to another : " We should leave our people 
and go elsewhere." On the last night of the ceremony there was a 
series of public exhibitions in a corral, or circle of branches, such as 
the Navahoes have now on the last night of the ceremony of the 
mountain chant, 185 and among the different ali'li, or entertainments 
of the night, was a dance by the mutilated women. When their 
time came they entered the circle, each bearing a knife in her hand, 
and danced around the central fire, peering among the spectators as 
if searching for their husband ; but he was hidden in the wall of 
branches that formed the circle. As they danced they sang a song 
the burden of which was " Perla a^ila." (It was the knife that did 
it to me.) When they had finished their dance they left the corral, 
and, in the darkness without, screamed maledictions at their peo- 
ple, saying : " May the waters drown ye ! May the winters freeze 
ye ! May the fires burn ye ! May the lightnings strike ye ! " and 
much more. Having cursed till they were tired, they departed 
for the far north, where they still dwell, and now, whenever they 
turn their faces to the south, we have cold winds and storms and 

399. Not long after this memorable ceremony a number of Utes 
visited the Navahoes. They came when the corn-ears were small, 
and remained till the corn was harvested. They worked for the 
Navahoes, and when their stomachs were filled all left except one 
family, which consisted of an old couple, two girls, and a boy. 
These at first intended to stay but a short time after their friends 
had gone; but they tarried longer and longer, and postponed their 
going from time to time, till they ended by staying with the Nava- 
hoes till they died. They made particular friends with the TM'paha, 
and got into the way of speaking to the latter people as they would 
to relations. One of the girls, whose name was Tsa'yTski^ (Sage- 
Brush Hill), lived to be an old woman and the mother of many chil- 
dren. From her is descended the gens of Tsa'yiskrWni, which is so 
closely allied to the 77/a'paha that a member of one of these gentes 
may not marry a member of the other. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 145 

400. Soon after the departure of the Utes the Navahoes were 
joined by a group of people who, when they came to tell their story, 
were found to have come from ITM'paha-^alkai, and to have made 
wanderings similar to those of the people who first came from that 
place. The new people spoke, also, the same language as the 
77/a'paha. For these reasons they were not formed into a new gens, 
but were joined to the gens of T^a'paha. 

401. Some years later a large band came from the south to the 
settlement on the San Juan. It consisted of Apaches, who told the 
Navahoes that they had left their old tribe forever and desired to 
become Navahoes. They had not come to visit, they said, but to 
stay. They all belonged to one gens among the Apaches, — the 
gens of Tse'^in^/iaf (Trap-dyke), 186 and they were admitted into the 
tribe as a new gens with their old name. From the beginning they 
showed a desire to associate with 7^a'paha, and now they are 
closely related to the latter and must not marry with them. An- 
other band of Apaches, which came a little later, was added to the 
same gens. 

402. About this time there was a great famine in Zuiii, and some 
people from this pueblo came to the San Juan to dwell with the 
Navahoes. They came first to the TM'paha, and, although they had 
women in the party, they were not formed into a new gens, but 
added to 77/a'paha. The gens of Zuni was formed later. 

403. The famine prevailed also at other pueblos, a id some starv- 
ing people came to the Navahoes from an old pueblo named Klogi, 
which was near -where the pueblo of Jemez now stands. These 
formed the gens of Klogi, and made special friends of the 7^a'paha. 

404. The next accession was a family of seven adults, who came 
from a place called To'^ani (Near the Water). They first visited 
the DsT/tla'ni and remained, forming the gens of To'^ani, affiliated 
now with Dsi/tla'ni. 

405. The people who joined the Navahoes next after the Td'/iani 
came from a place called Tfa'tsi, Among the Red (Waters or 
Banks), which was west of the San Juan settlement. From their 
traditions it appeared that they were not a newly created people ; 
they had escaped in some way from the alien gods, and were for 
these reasons regarded as^ne' dlgini, or holy, people. They were 
divided into two gentes, 7M'trini and Kawsftne', or Willow People, 
and for a while they formed two gentes among the Navahoes ; but 
in these days all traces of this division have been lost, and all their 
descendants are now called, without distinction, sometimes Tte'tsini 
and sometimes Kai or Kaf</Ine'. 

406. Before this time the Navahoes had been a weak and peace- 
able tribe ; but now they found themselves becoming a numerous 

146 Navaho Legends. 

people and they began to talk of going to war. Of late years they 
had heard mjuch of the great pueblos along the Rio Grande, but 
how their people had saved themselves from the anaye the Nava- 
hoes did not know. A man named Napailin/a got up a war party 
and made a raid on a pueblo named Kin/itri (Red House), and 
returned with some captives, among whom was a girl captured by 
Napai'lin/a. From her is descended the gens of Kin/itri; whose 
members are now close relations to Tsinad^I'ni (the gens of Napai- 
lin/a), and cannot intermarry with the latter. 

407. The captives from Kin/Itj-f were, at first, slaves among the 
Navahoes ; 187 but their descendants became free and increased 
greatly, and from them came another gens, Tlizi/ani, Many Goats, 
also closely related to Tsinad^fhi. 

408. Next in order came a band of Apaches from the south repre- 
senting two gentes, — Z>estn'ni (Red Streak People), and Tlastn'ni 
(Red Flat Ground People). These were adopted by the Navahoes 
as two separate gentes and became close relations to the Tsinad^i'ni. 

409. Not long after the arrival of these Apaches some Utes came 
into the neighborhood of the Navahoes, camping at a place called 
Ts6'di'yikani (a ridge or promontory projecting into the river), not 
far from Hyietym. They had good arms of all kinds, and two varie- 
ties of shields, — one round and one with a crescentic cut in the top. 
They lived for a while by themselves, and were at first unruly and 
impertinent ; but in the course of time they merged into the Nava- 
hoes, forming the gens of No/a or No^a^ine', Ute People. 

410. About the time they were incorporated by the Navahoes, 
or soon after, a war party of the Utes made a raid on a Mexican 
settlement, somewhere near where Socorro now is, and captured 
a Spanish woman. She was their slave ; but her descendants be- 
came free among the Navahoes and formed the Nakaf^ine' (White 
Stranger People), or Mexican gens, who cannot now intermarry with 

411. Gontso, or Big Knee, chief of the 7Tia'paha, was still alive 
and was a famous old man ; but he had become feeble and had many 
ailments. There was a great ceremony practised in those days called 
n at si'd, which lasted all winter, 184 from harvest-time to planting-time; 
but the Navahoes have long ceased to celebrate it. This ceremony 
was held one winter for the benefit of Big Knee at the sacred place 
of Tb'ye'tli, the home of the War Gods. One night, while the rites 
were being performed, some strangers joined the Navahoes coming 
from the direction of the river. Adopted by the Navahoes, they 
formed the gens of Tb'yetlini, and became closely allied to No/a^ine* 
and Nakak/me*. 

412. On another occasion during the same winter some Apaches 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 147 

came from their country in the south to witness the ceremony of 
nati-fd. Among the women of the TM'paha was one who visited 
the Apache camp and remained all night there. She became attached 
to an Apache youth, with whom she secretly absconded when the 
visitors left. For a long time her people did not know what had 
become of her ; but many years after, learning where she was, some 
of her relations went to the Apache country to persuade her to 
return. She came back an old woman, bringing her husband and a 
family of three girls. The girls were handsome, had light skins and 
fair hair. Their grandmother, who admired them very much, insisted 
that a new gens should be made of them. So they were called 
//altso, Yellow Bodies, 188 and originated the gens of that name. 
Their father died an old man among the Navahoes. 

413. On another night of the same winter, while the ceremony 
for Big Knee was going on, two strange men, speaking the Navaho 
language, entered the camp. They said they were the advanced 
couriers of a multitude of wanderers who had left the shores of the 
great waters in the west to join the Navahoes. You shall now hear 
the story of the people who came from the western ocean : — 

414. Surrounding Estsanatlehi's home were four mountains, lo- 
cated like those at the Place of Emergence — one in the east, one 
in the south, one in the west, and one in the north. She was in the 
habit of dancing on these mountains, — on the mountain in the east 
to bring clouds ; on the mountain in the south, to bring all kinds of 
goods, — jewels, clothing, etc. ; on the mountain in the west, to bring 
plants of all kinds ; and on the mountain in the north, to bring corn 
and animals. On these journeys for dancing she passed from the 
east mountain to the south, the west, and the north mountain, the 
way the sun goes ; and when she was done dancing on the north 
mountain she retraced her course (without crossing it) to the east ; 
but she never completed the circle, i. e., she never passed from the 
north directly to the east. Over the space between the north and 
the east mountains she never travelled. This is the way her trail 
lay : — 

148 Navaho Legends. 

/vw // 

c ^ 

Fig. 33. Trail of Estsanatlehi. 

415. Estsanatlehi had not been long in her western home when 
she began to feel lonely. She had no companions there. The 
people who had accompanied her thither did not stay with her. She 
thought she might make people to keep her company, so one day, 
when she had completed one of her dancing journeys, she sat down 
on the eastern mountain. Here she rubbed epidermis from under 
her left arm with her right hand ; she held this in her palm and it 
changed into four persons, — two men and two women, — from whom 
descended a gens to which no name was then given, but which after- 
terwards (as will be told) received the name of //onaga'ni. She 
rubbed the epidermis with her left hand from under her right arm, 
held it in her palm as before, and it became two men and two 
women, from whom descended the gens afterwards known as Ki«- 
aa'ni. In a similar way, of epidermis rubbed from under her left 
breast she created four people, from whom descended the gens later 
known as Jb'diti-ini ; of epidermis from under her right breast, four 
persons, from whom descended the gens called Bi/ani ; of epidermis 
from the middle of her chest, the four whose descendants were called 
Hdisll'zni ; and of epidermis from her back between her shoulders, 
the four whose descendants were called Bi/a'ni in later times. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 149 

416. She said to these : " I wish you to dwell near me, where I 
can always see you ; but if you choose to go to the east, where your 
kindred dwell, you may go." She took them from her floating home 
to the mainland ; here they lived for thirty years, during which time 
they married and had many children. At the end of this time the 
Twelve People (Z>ine* Nakida/a), or rather what was left of them, 
appeared among Estsanatlehi' s people and said to them : "We have 
lost our sister who kept our house for us ; we have no home ; we 
know not where else to go ; so we have come here to behold our 
mother, our grandmother. You have kindred in the far east who 
have increased until they are now a great people. We do not visit 
them, but we stand on the mountains and look at them from afar. 
We know they would welcome you if you went to them." And many 
more things they told about the people in the far east. 

417. Now all crossed on a bridge of rainbow to the house of Estsa- 
natlehi on the sea, where she welcomed them and embraced them. 
Of the Dine' Nakid&ta. but ten were left, for, as has been told, they 
lost their sister and their younger brother ; but when they came to 
the home of Estsanatlehi she made for them two more people out 
of turquoise, and this completed their original number of twelve. 
She knew with what thoughts her children had come. She opened 
four doors leading from the central chamber of her house into four 
other rooms, and showed them her various treasures, saying : " Stay 
with me always, my children ; these things shall be yours, and we 
shall be always happy together." 

418. When the people went back from the house of Estsanatlehi 
to the mainland, all was gossip and excitement in their camp about 
what they had heard of the people in the east. Each one had a dif- 
ferent part or version of the tale to tell, — of how the people in the 
east lived, of what they ate, of the way in which they were divided 
into gentes, of how the gentes were named, and of other things 
about them they had heard. "The people are few where we live," 
they said ; " we would be better off where there are so many." 
They talked thus for twelve days. At the end of that time they 
concluded to depart, and they fixed the fourteenth day after that as 
the day they should leave. 

419. Before they left, the Zftne* NakWa/a and Estsanatlehi came 
to see them. She said : " It is a long and dangerous journey to 
where you are going. It is well that you should be cared for and 
protected on the way. I shall give you five of my pets, 189 — a bear, 
a great snake, a deer, a porcupine, and a punja, — to watch over you. 
They will not desert you. Speak of no evil deeds in the presence 
of the bear or the snake, for they may do the evil they hear you 
speak of; but the deer and the porcupine are good, — say whatever, 
you please to say in their presence." 

1 50 Navaho Legends. 

420. Besides these pets she gave them five magic wands. To 
those who were afterwards named //bnaga'ni she gave a wand of 
turquoise ; to those who later were called Kiwaa'ni, a wand of white 
shell ; to those who became Tb'dltrini, a wand of haliotis shell ; to 
those who became Bi/a'ni, a wand of black stone ; and to those who 
in later days became HaslVzm, a wand of red stone. " I give you 
these for your protection," she said, " but I shall watch over you 
myself while you are on your journey." 

421. On the appointed day they set out on their journey. On the 
twelfth day of their march they crossed a high ridge and came in 
sight of a great treeless plain, in the centre of which they observed 
some dark objects in motion. They could not determine what they 
were, but suspected they were men. They continued their journey, 
but did not directly approach the dark objects ; -they moved among 
the foothills that surrounded the plain, and kept under cover of the 
timber. As they went along they discerned the dark objects more 
plainly, and discovered that these were indeed human beings. They 
got among the foothills to one side of where the strangers were, 
and camped in the woods at night. 

422. In spite of all the precautions taken by the travellers, they 
had been observed by the people of the plain, and at night two of 
the latter visited their camp. The visitors said they were Ki/tsoi, 
or Ki/tsoidfine' (People of the Bigelovia graveolens) ; that their tribe 
was numerous ; that the plain in which they dwelt was extensive ; 
and that they had watermelons getting ripe, with corn and other 
food, in their gardens. The people of the west concluded to remain 
here a while. The second night they had two more visitors, one of 
whom became enamored of a maiden among the wanderers, and 
asked for her in marriage. Her people refused him at first ; but 
when he came the second night and begged for her again, they gave 
her to him. He stayed with her in the camp of her people as long 
as they remained in the valley, except the last two nights, when she 
went and stayed with his people. These gave an abundance of the 
produce of their fields to the wanderers, and the latter fared well. 
When the travellers were prepared to move, they implored the young 
husband to go with them, while he begged to have his wife remain 
with him in the valley. They argued long ; but in the end the 
woman's relations prevailed, and the Ki/tsoi man joined them on 
their journey. In the mean time four other men of Ki/tsdi had 
fallen in love with maidens of the wanderers, and asked for them in 
marriage. The migrating band refused to leave the girls behind, 
so the enamored voung men left their kindred and joined the trav- 
ellers. The Ki/tsoi tried to persuade the others to dwell in their 
land forever, but without avail. 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 151 

423. They broke camp at last early in the morning, and travelled 
all day. At night a great wind arose, and the bear would not rest, 
but ran around the camp all night, uneasy and watchful. The men 
looked out and saw some of the Ki/tsoi trying to approach ; but the 
bear warded them off and they disappeared without doing harm. 
In the morning it was found that the men of the Ki/tsoi who had 
joined them on their journey had now deserted them, and it was sup- 
posed that in some way they were in league with their brethren 

424. The second day they journeyed far, and did not make camp 
until after dark. As on the previous night, the bear was awake, 
watchful, and uneasy all night. They supposed he was still looking 
out for lurking Ki/tsoi. Not until daybreak did he lie down and 
take a little sleep while the people were preparing for the day's 

425. On the third night the bear was again wakeful and on guard, 
and only lay down in the morning while the people were breaking 
camp. " My pet, why are you tioubled thus every night ? " said one 
of the men to the bear. The latter only grunted in reply, and made 
a motion with his nose in the direction whence they had come. 

426. On the fourth night they camped, for mutual protection, 
closer together than they had camped before. The bear sat on a 
neighboring hill, from which he could watch the sleepers, but slept 
not himself all night. As before, he took a short sleep in the morn- 
ing. Before the people set out on their march some one said : " Let 
us look arcund and see if we can find what has troubled our pet." 
They sent two couriers to the east and two to the west. The former 
returned, having found nothing. The latter said they had seen 
strange footprints, as of people who had approached the camp and 
then gone back far to the west. Their pursuers, they thought, had 
returned to their homes. 

427. They had now been four days without finding water, and the 
children were crying with thirst. On the fifth day's march they 
halted at noon and held a council. " How shall we procure water? " 
said one. " Let us try the power of our magic wands," said another. 
A man of the gens who owned the wand of turquoise stuck this 
wand into the ground, and worked it back and forth and round and 
round to make a good-sized hole. Water sprang from the hole. A 
woman of another gens crouched down to taste it. " It is bitter 
water," she cried. " Let that, then, be your name and the name of 
your people," said those who heard her ; thus did the gens of Tb'di- 
tjfni, Bitter Water People, receive its name. 

428. When the people had cooked and eaten food and drunk their 
fill of the bitter water, they said : " Let us try to reach yonder moun- 

152 Navaho Legends. 

tain before night." So they pushed on to a distant mountain they 
had beheld in the east. When they got near the mountain they saw 
moccasin tracks, and knew there must be some other people at 
hand. At one place, near the base of the mountain, they observed 
a cluster of cottonwood trees, and, thinking there might be a spring 
there, they went straight to the cottonwood. Suddenly they found 
themselves among a strange people who were dwelling around a 
spring. The strangers greeted the wanderers in a friendly manner, 
embraced them, and asked them whence they came. The wanderers 
told their story briefly, and the strangers said : " We were created at 
this spring and have always lived here. It is called Mai/6', Coyote 
Water (Coyote Spring), and we are the MaiVine' " (Coyote People). 
The Navahoes called them Mai/6'aHtae'. 

429. The travellers tarried four days at the Coyote Spring, dur- 
ing which time they talked much to their new friends, and at length 
persuaded the latter to join them on their eastern journey. Before 
they started, the Coyote People declared that their spring was the 
only water in the neighborhood ; that they knew of no other water 
within two days' journey in any direction. On the morning of the 
fifth day they all moved off toward the east. They travelled all 
day, and made a dry camp at night. The next day at noon they 
halted on their way, and decided to try again the power of a magic 
wand. This time the white shell was used by a member of the gens 
to whom it had been given, in the same way that the turquoise wand 
was used before. Water sprang up. A woman of another gens 
said: "It is muddy; it may make the children sick." "Let your 
people then be named Uas/i'sni, Mud People," cried voices in the 
crowd. Thus the gens of H&slxz, or Hasti'zni, was named. 

430. The second night after leaving Coyote Spring, darkness over- 
took the wanderers at a place where there was no water, and they 
rested there for the night. At noon on the following day all were 
th'irsty, and the children were crying. The people halted, and pro- 
posed to try again the efficacy of a sacred wand. The wand of 
haliotis was used this time. When the water sprang up, a woman 
of the Coyote People stooped first and drank. " It is To'dokonz, 
alkaline (or sapid) water," she exclaimed. To her and her children 
the name To'dokonzi was then given, and from them the present 
gens of that name is descended. Its members may not marry with 
Mai/oWine', to whom they are related. 

431. On the night after they found the alkaline water, they en- 
camped once more at a place where no water was to be found, and 
on the following day great were their sufferings from thirst. At 
midday they rested, and begged the bearers of the black stone wand 
to try the power of their magic implement. A stream of fine, clear 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 153 

water sprang up when the wand was stuck in the ground. They 
filled their vessels and all drank heartily, except a boy and a girl of 
the gens that bore the black stone wand. " Why do you not come 
and drink before the water is all gone ? " some one asked. The 
children made no reply, but stood and looked at the water. The 
girl had her arms folded under her dress. They gave then to her 
and to her gens the name of Bi/a'ni, 190 which signifies the arms 
under the dress. 

432. The night after the Bi/a'ni was named, the travellers slept 
once more at a place where no water was to be found, and next day 
they were very thirsty on their journey. In the middle of the day 
they stopped, and the power of the red stone wand was tried. It 
brought forth water from the ground, as the other wands had done, 
and all drank till they were satisfied ; but no member of the gentes 
still unnamed said anything and no name was given. 

433. After this they camped two nights without water. On the 
second noon they arrived at a spring in a canyon known to the 
MaiVine' and called by them 7/alkai7o', Water of the White Valley. 
They journeyed no farther that day, but camped by the water all 

434. From //alkaf/o' they travelled steadily for twenty five days, 
until they came to a little river near San Francisco Mountain, and 
west of it. During this part of the journey they found sufficient 
water for their needs every day. They stopped at this river five 
nights and five days and hunted. Here one man, and one only, — 
whose name was Bainilfni (Looks on at a Battle), — killed a deer, a 
large one, which he cut into small pieces and distributed around so 
that every one might get a taste. 

435. From the banks of this stream they came to the east side 
of San Francisco Mountain, to where, beside a little peak, there is a 
spring that has no name. Here the travellers stopped several days, 
and built around their camp a stone wall that still stands. 

436. The puma belonged to the gens that bore the black stone 
wand, and that was afterwards called -Kmaa'ni. While the people 
were camped at this spring he killed a deer. The bear sometimes 
killed rabbits. The snake and the porcupine were of no use, but 
were a trouble instead, since they had to be carried along. The 
deer ran among the crowd and did neither good nor harm. The 
people lived mostly on rabbits and other small animals and the 
seeds of wild plants. 

437. From the spring near San Francisco Mountain they travelled 
to Bi/a/zot.yi (Red Place on Top), 191 and from there to Tse'^Inti-idilya. 
Here they held a council about the big snake. He was of no use to 
them, and a great incumbrance. They turned him loose among the 

154 Navaho Legends. 

rocks, and his descendants are there in great numbers to this day. 
At Natsisaan (Navaho Mountain) they turned the porcupine loose, 
and that is why there are so many porcupines on the Navaho Moun- 
tain now. 

438. They next went to the place now called Aga/a, 192 or Aga/ani, 
Much Wool, or Hair, and were now in the land of the Ozai (Orai- 
bes). They camped all around the peak of Aga/a and went out 
hunting. Some who wore deer-masks for decoys, and went to get 
deer, succeeded in killing a great number. They dressed many 
skins, and the wind blew the hair from the skins up in a great pile. 
Seeing this, one of the //bnaga'ni proposed that the place be called 
Aga/a, so this name was given to it. 

439. From Aga/a the wanderers went to Tse'^otsobia.d, Little 
Place of Yellow Rocks, and from there to Yotso, Big Bead. On 
the way they camped often, and sometimes tarried a day or two to 
hunt. It was now late in the autumn. At Yotso they saw moccasin 
tracks, evidently not fresh, and they said to one another: " Perhaps 
these are the footprints of the people whom we seek." Now there 
were diverse counsels among the immigrants. Some were in haste 
to reach the end of the journey, while others, as the season was late, 
thought it prudent to remain where they were. Thus they became 
divided into two parties, one of which remained at Yotso, while the 
other (containing parts of several gentes) continued the journey. 
Soon after the latter was gone, those who remained at Yotso sent 
two messengers, and later they sent two more, to induce the sece- 
ders to return ; but the latter were never overtaken. The couriers 
came to a place where the runaways had divided into two bands. 
From one of these the Jicarilla Apaches are supposed to have 
descended. The other band, it is thought, wandered far off and 
became part of the Dme.' Na/zotloni. 193 

440. The last two messengers sent out pursued one of the fugi- 
tive bands some distance, gave up the task, and returned to Yotso. 
The messengers sent first pursued the other band. After a while 
they saw its camp-fires ; but at such a great distance that they de- 
spaired of overtaking it and turned toward the San Juan River, 
where they found at length the long-sought Navahoes. These two 
messengers were the men, of whom you have heard before, who 
entered the camp of Big Knee at To'ye'tli while the dance of natn'd 
was going on, and announced the approach of the immigrants from 
the west. (See par. 143.) 

441. When spring-time came, the people who had remained at 
Yotso set out again on their journey ; but before long some of the 
To'dTtj-ini got tired. They said that the children's knees were 
swollen, that their feet were blistered, and that they could not go 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 155 

much farther. Soon after they said this they came to a place where 
a great lone tree stood and here they declared : " We shall stop at 
this tree. After a while the people will come here and find us." 
They remained and became the gens of Tsinsakaafni, People of the 
(Lone) Tree, who are closely related to To'ditJini and cannot marry 
with the latter. 

442. At Finbito', Deer Spring, some more of the gens of Tb'ditrfni 
halted, because, they said, their children were lame from walking 
and could travel no farther. Here they formed a new gens of 
Vinbito'dine', People of Deer Spring, 19 * who are also closely related 
to To'dltsihi. At this place they wanted their pet deer to leave 
them, but he would not go ; he remained at the spring with the 
people who stayed there. What finally became of him is not 
known. 195 

443. The main body of the immigrants kept on their way, and, 
soon after passing Deer Spring, arrived at Hyfetyin, where the peo- 
ple of 7/za'paha had their farms. Big Knee was still alive when 
they came ; but he was very old and feeble, and was not respected 
and obeyed as in former days. When 77za'paha and Hash' 2m met, 
they traced some relationship between the two gentes : their names 
had much the same meaning ; their headdresses and accoutrements 
were alike ; so the Hdisli'zm stopped with Z^a'paha and became 
great friends with the latter. Yet to-day a member of one of these 
gentes may marry a member of the other. 

444. The bear was the last of their five pets which the immigrants 
retained. When they were done their journey they said to him: 
" Our pet, you have served us well ; but we are now safe among our 
friends and we need your services no more. If you wish you may 
leave us. There are others of your kind in T^uj-kai (the Chusca 
Mountains). Go there and play with them." They turned him 
loose in Tjui-kai, and bears have been numerous there ever since. 

445. Of the people from the west, there was yet one gens — that 
to which Estsanatlehi had given the wand of turquoise — which had 
no name. This nameless people did not stay long on the banks of 
the San Juan before they wandered off far toward the south. One 
day two men of the party, while hunting, came to a place called 
Tse'nahapi/, where there were high overhanging rocks. Here they 
saw the fresh prints of unshod human feet. They followed these 
tracks but a short distance when they beheld a man watching them 
from a rocky pinnacle. As soon as he saw that he was observed, 
he crouched and disappeared. They ran quickly behind the rock on 
which they had seen him and again observed him, running as fast 
as he could. " Why do you fly from us ? " they shouted. " We 
mean no harm to you." Hearing this he stopped till they came up 

156 Navaho Legends. 

to him. Then they found he spoke the same language they did, 
and they addressed him in terms of relationship. " Where do you 
live?" they asked. "In a canyon high on the mountain," he re- 
plied. " What do you live on ? " they queried. " We live mostly 
on seeds," he answered ; " but sometimes we catch wood-rats, and 
we raise small crops." "We shall have many things to tell one an- 
other," said the hunters ; " but your home is too far for our people 
to reach to-day. Tell your people to come to this spot, and we shall 
tell ours to come up here and meet them." When the hunters got 
home they found their friends cooking rabbits and making mush 
of wild seeds. When the meal was finished all climbed the moun- 
tain to the appointed place and found the strangers awaiting them. 
The two parties camped together that night and related to one 
another their histories and adventures. The strangers said that 
they had been created at the place where they were all then camped 
only seven years previously ; that they were living not far off at a 
place called Natenbi/%a/in, but that they came often to their natal 
place to pick cactus fruit and yucca fruit. They said they called 
themselves Tse'dme', or Rock People ; but the nameless ones gave 
them the name of Tse'nahapi'/ni, Overhanging Rocks People, from 
the place where they met. With this name they became a gens 
of the Navahoes. 

446. The Tse'nahapi'/ni told their new friends that they had 
some corn and pumpkins cached at a distance, and they proposed to 
open their stores and get ready for a journey. They knew of some 
Apaches to the south, whom they would all visit together. These 
Apaches, they said, had some gentes of the same names as those of 
the Navahoes. Then they all went to where the provisions were 
stored, and they made corn-cakes to use on the journey. When they 
were ready they went to the south and found, at a place called 
Trohanaa, the Apaches, who recognized them as friends, and treated 
their visitors so well that the latter concluded to remain for a while. 

447. At the end of three years the Tse'nahapf/ni went off to join 
the Navahoes on the San Juan. The nameless people stayed four 
years longer. About the end of that time they began to talk of 
leaving, and their Apache friends tried to persuade them to remain, 
but without avail. When they had all their goods packed and were 
ready to start, an old woman was observed walking around them. 
She walked around the whole band, coming back to the place from 
which she started ; then she turned towards them and said : " You 
came among us without a name, and you have dwelt among us, 
nameless, for seven years ; no one knew what to call you ; but you 
shall not leave us without a name. I have walked around you, and 
I call you i/onaga'ni (Walked-around People)." 196 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 157 

448. When the //bnaga'ni got back to the San Juan they found 
that the Tse'nahapiVni had been long settled there and had become 
closely related to Tlast.nni, Z?est.yfni, Kin/it.n'ni, and Tsinad^fni. 
The i/onaga'ni in time formed close relationships with TM'neza'ni, 
Dsi/tla'ni, To'Mni, and Na^opani. These five gentes are now all 
the same as one gens, and no member of one may marry a member 
of another. 

449. It happened about this time, while some of the TM'paha 
were sojourning at Aga/a, that they sent two children, one night, to 
a spring to get water. The children carried out with them two 
wicker bottles, but returned with four. " Where did you get these 
other bottles ? " the parents inquired. " We took them away from 
two little girls whom we met at the spring," answered the children. 
" Why did you do this, and who are the girls ? " said the elders. 
" We do not know. They are strangers," said the little ones. The 
parents at once set out for the spring to find the strange children 
and restore the stolen bottles to them ; but on their way they met 
the little girls coming toward the TM'paha camp, and asked them 
who they were. The strange children replied : " We belong to a 
band of wanderers who are encamped on yonder mountain. They 
sent us two together to find water." "Then we shall give you a 
name," said the TM'paha ; " we shall call you Tb'basnaasi," Two 
Come Together for Water. The TM'paha brought the little girls 
to their hut and bade them be seated. " Stay with us," they said. 
" You are too weak and little to carry the water so far. We will 
send some of our young men to carry it for you." When the young 
men found the camp of the strangers they invited the latter to visit 
them. The TM'paha welcomed the new-comers as friends, and told 
them they had already a name for them, Zb'basnaasi. Under this 
name they became united to the Navahoes as a new gens, and they 
are now closely affiliated with TM'paha. 197 

450. Shortly after the coming of To'b&s-naas'i, the Navahoes were 
joined by a band of Apaches, who were adopted by TM'paha and not 
formed into a new gens. About the same time a band of Pah Utes 
came and were likewise adopted by TM'paha. A little later some 
more Apaches arrived and became a part of TM'paha ; but, although 
no distinct name is now given them, their descendants are known 
among the TM'paha as a people of different origin from the others. 

451. Another party of Apaches, who came afterwards, dwelt a 
long time among the To'dokozx ; but later they abode with the 
TM'paha, and became closely related to the latter. They are still 
affiliated with TM'paha, but these call them TbVokosi. 

158 Navaho Legends. 

452. Some years passed before the next accession was made. 
This was another party of Zufii Indians, and they were admitted into 
the gens of the 77^a'paha. Soon after them came the Zufii People, 
who were at last formed into a separate gens, — that of Nanaj/e'^iw. 
This is the Navaho name for all the Zunians, and means Black 
Horizontal Stripe Aliens. 198 All these people deserted the Zufii 
villages on account of scarcity of food. 

453. A new people, with painted faces, came from the west about 
the same time as those who formed the gens of Zufii, or a little 
later. They are supposed to have been a part of the tribe now 
called Mohaves on the banks of the Colorado. They bore the name 
of ZttkLzehi, and their descendants now form a gens of that name 
among the Navahoes. At first they affiliated with Nanay/e^iw ; but 
to-day they are better friends with 77/a'Uini than with Nana^e'^iw. 

454. A war-party, consisting of members of different gentes, was 
now organized among the Navahoes to attack a pueblo called 
Saibe/iogan, House Made of Sand. At that place they captured 
two girls and brought them home as slaves. There was a salt lake 
near their old home, and the girls belonged to a gens of Salt People 
there. So their numerous descendants now among the Navahoes 
form the gens of A-rihi, or Salt, The captives were taken by mem- 
bers of the Tse'd^rTnki'ni, hence A-rihi and Tse'd^inki ni are now 

455. Then a war party was gotten up to attack the people of 
Jemez pueblo. On this raid one of the Tlastrini captured a Jemez 
girl, but sold her to one of the Tse'd^Tnki'ni. She was the pro- 
genitor of the gens of Mai^exki'^ni, People of Wolf Pass (i. e., 
Jemez), which is now affiliated with Tse'd^inki'ni. 

456. After the Navahoes attacked Saibe^o^n there was a famine 
there, and some of the people abandoned their homes and joined 
the Navahoes. They said that in their pueblo there was a gens of 
7#a/paha, and hearing there was such a gens among the Navahoes 
they came to join it. Therefore they sought T^a'paha till they 
found it and became a part of it. 

457. There came once a party of seven people from a place called 
Tse'yana/6'ni, Horizontal Water under Cliffs, to pay a short visit 
to the Navahoes ; but from time to time they delayed their depar- 
ture, and at last stayed forever with the Navahoes. They formed 
the gens of Tse'yana^o'ni, which is now extinct. 

458. The people whom Estsanatlehi created from the skin under 
her right arm, and to whom she gave the wand of white shell, was 
called, after they came among the Navahoes, Ki/zaa'ni, High Stone 
House People ; not because they built or dwelt in such a house, 
but because they lived near one. 199 

The Navaho Origin Legend. 159 

459. When the Bita'ni were encamped at a place called To'tso, or 
Big Water, near the Carrizo Mountains, a man and a woman came 
up out of the water and joined them. From this pair is descended 
the gens of To'tsoni, People of the Big Water, which is affiliated 
with Bi/a'ni. 


460. Na/1'nes/^ani, 201 He Who Teaches Himself, lived, with his 
relations, near the mountain of Dsi/nao/T/. The few people who 
lived there used to wander continually around the mountain, hence 
its name, Encircled Mountain. Na/i'nes/^ani delighted in gambling, 
but was not successful. He lost at game, not only all his own 
goods, but all the goods and jewels of his relations, until there was 
only one article of value left — a necklace consisting of several 
strings of white beads. His parents and brother lived in one lodge ; 
his grandmother and niece lived in another, a little distance from 
the first. When the gambler had parted with everything except the 
necklace, his brother took this to the lodge of his grandmother and 
gave it to her, saying : " My brother has gambled away everything 
save this. Should he lose this at game, it is the last thing he will 
ever lose, for then I shall kill him." 

461. Na/i'nes//zani did not spend all his time gambling; some- 
times he hunted for wood-rats and rabbits in the mountains. The 
day the necklace was brought, in returning from his hunt, he came 
to the house of his grandmother and saw the necklace hanging up 
there. " Why is this here ? " he asked. " It is put here for safe- 
keeping," replied his niece. " Your brother values it and has asked 
us to take care of it. If you lose it in gambling, he has threatened 
to kill you. I have heard the counsels of the family about you. 
They are tired of you. If you lose this necklace at play, it is the 
last thing you will ever lose." On hearing this he only said to 
his niece, " I must think what I shall do," and he lay down to rest. 

462. Next morning he rose early, made his breakfast of wood- 
rats, and went out to hunt, travelling toward the east. He stopped 
at one place, set fall-traps for wood-rats, and slept there all night. 
During the night he pondered on many plans. He thought at first 
he would go farther east and leave his people forever ; but again he 
thought, " Who will hunt wood-rats for my niece when I am gone ? " 
and he went back to her lodge and gave her all the little animals he 
had killed. 

463. In the morning he breakfasted again on wood-rats, and said 

Nati'riesthani. 161 

to himself: " I shall go to-day to the south and never return." Such 
was his intention as he went on his way. He travelled to the south, 
and spent the night out again ; but in the morning he changed his 
mind, and came back to his niece with wood-rats and rabbits and the 
seeds of wild plants that' he had gathered. The women cooked 
some of the wood-rats for his supper that night. When he lay 
down he thought of his brother's threats, and made plans again for 
running away. He had not touched the beads, though he longed to 
take them. 

464. Next morning he went to the west, hunted there all day, 
and camped out at night as before ; but again he could not make up 
his mind to leave his people, though he thought much about it ; so 
he returned to his niece with such food as he had been able to get 
for her, and slept in the lodge that night. 

465. On the following day he went to the north and hunted. He 
slept little at night while camping out, for his mind was filled with 
sad thoughts. "My brother disowns me," he said to himself. "My 
parents refuse me shelter. My niece, whom I love most, barely 
looks at me. I shall never go back again." Yet, for all these words, 
when morning came he returned to the lodge. 19 

466. By this time he was very poor, and so were his grandmother 
and niece. His sandals, made of grass and yucca-fibre, were worn 
through, and the blanket made of yucca-fibre and cedar-bark, which 
covered his back, was ragged. 177 But the people in the other lodge 
were better off. They gave the grandmother and niece food at 
times ; but always watched these closely when they came for food, 
lest they should carry off .something to give the gambler. "Let 
him live," said his parents, " on wood-rats and rabbits as well as he 

467. The night after he returned from his hunt to the north he 
slept little, but spent the time mostly in thinking and making 
plans. What these plans were you shall soon know, for the next 
day he began to carry them out. His thought for his niece was now 
the only thing that made him care to stay at home. 

468. In the morning after this night of thought he asked his 
niece to roast for him four wood-rats ; he tied these together and set 
out for the San Juan River. When he got to the banks of the river 
he examined a number of cottonwood trees until he found one that 
suited him. He burned this down and burned it off square at the 
base. He kept his fire from burning up the whole trunk by apply- 
ing mud above the place to be burned. His plan was to make a 
hollow vessel by which he could go down the San Juan River. It 
was his own plan. He had never heard of such a thing before. 
The Navahoes had never anything better than rafts, and these were 

1 62 Navaho Legends. 

good only to cross the river. He lay down beside the log to see 
where he should divide it, for he had planned to make the vessel a 
little longer than himself, and he burned the log across at the place 
selected. All this he did in one day, and then he went home, col- 
lecting rats on the way ; but he told his niece nothing about the 
log. He slept that night in the lodge. 

469. He went back, next morning, to hh log on the banks of the 
San Juan, and spent the day making the log hollow by means of 
fire, beginning at the butt end. He succeeded in doing only a part 
of this work in one day. It took him four days to burn the hole 
through from one end of the log to the other and to make it wide 
enough to hold his body. At the end of each day's work he returned 
to his grandmother's lodge, and got wood-rats and rabbits on his 
way home. 

470. The next day, after the hole was finished, was spent in mak- 
ing and inserting plugs. He moistened a lot of shredded cedar- 
bark and pounded it between stones so as to make a soft mass. He 
shoved a large piece of this in at the butt end and rammed it down 
to the tip end. In burning out the log, he had burned, where the 
tree branched, four holes which he did not need, and these he filled 
with plugs of the cedar-bark. He prepared another plug to be 
rammed into the butt from the inside, after he entered the log, and 
when this was finished he went home to his grandmother's house, 
collecting wood-rats from his traps as he went. 

471. The next morning his niece cooked several wood-rats and 
ground for him a good quantity — as much as could be held in two 
hands — of the seeds of tlo'ts6zi (Sporobolus cryptandrus). This 
meal she put in a bag of wood-rat skins sewed together. Thus pro- 
vided he went back to his log. He put the provisions into the hole 
and then proceeded to enter, in person, to see if the log was sound 
and the hole big enough. He entered, head foremost, and crawled 
inwards until half of his chest was in the log, when he heard a voice 
crying, " Wu'hu'hu'hu ! " x and he came out to see who called. He 
looked in every direction and examined the ground for tracks, but 
seeing no signs of any intruder he proceeded again to enter the log. 
This time he got in as far as his waist, when again he heard the cry 
of " Wu'hu'hu'hu," but louder and nearer than before. Again he 
came out of the log and looked around farther and more carefully 
than he did the first time, going in his search to the margin of the 
river ; but he saw no one, found no tracks, and returned to his log. 
On the next trial he entered as far as his knees, when for the third 
time the cry sounded, and he crept out once more to find whence it 
came. He searched farther, longer, and more closely than on either 
of the previous occasions, but without success, and he went back to 

Nati'tiesthani. 1 63 

enter the log again. On the fourth trial, when he had entered as 
far as his feet, he heard the cry loud and near, and he felt some one 
shaking the log. He crept out for the fourth time and beheld 
//astreyal/i, the Talking God, 73 standing over him. 

472. /fastreyal/i did not speak at first, but told the man by signs 
that he must not get into the log, that he would surely be drowned 
if he did, and that he must go home. Then Zfastreyalri walked off 
a distance from the log and motioned to the Navaho to come to him. 
When Nafl'nesAfcani came near the god, the latter spoke, saying : 
" My grandchild, why are you doing all this work ? Where do you 
intend to go with this log ? " The man then told the god all his sad 
story, and ended by saying : " I am an outcast. I wish to get far 
away from my people. Take pity on me. Stop me not, but let me 
go in this log as far as the waters of the Old Age River (San Juan) 
will bear me." //astreyaM replied : " No. You must not attempt 
to go into that log. You will surely be drowned if you do. I shall 
not allow you." Four times Na/i'nes//*ani pleaded, and four times 
the god denied him. Then the, god said : " Have you any precious 
stones ? " " Yes," replied the man. " Have you white shell beads ? 
Have you turquoise ? " and thus the god went on asking him, one 
by one, if he had all the original eighteen sacred things 202 that must 
be offered to the gods to gain their favor. To each of his questions 
the man replied " Yes," although he had none of these things, and 
owned nothing but the rags that covered him. " It is well," said 
the god. " You need not enter that log to make your journey. Go 
home and stay there for four nights. At daylight, after the fourth 
night, you may expect to see me again. Have yourself and your 
house clean and in order for my coming. Have the floor and all 
around the house swept carefully. Have the ashes taken out. Wash 
your body and your hair with yucca suds the night before I arrive, 
and bid your niece to wash herself also with yucca. I shall go off, 
now, and tell the other divine ones about you." 

473. As soon as he came home, Na/fnes/Z/ani told his niece what 
things he wanted (except the baskets and the sacred buckskins) ; 
but he did not tell her for what purpose he required them, and he 
asked her to steal them from their neighbors. This she did, a few 
things at a time, and during many visits. It took her three days to 
steal them all. On the evening of the third day, after they had 
washed themselves with the yucca suds, he told her about the bas- 
kets and the sacred buckskins which he needed. She went to the 
neighboring lodge and stole these articles, wrapping the baskets up 
in the buckskins. When she returned with her booty, he wrapped all 
the stolen goods up in the skins, put them away in the edge of the 
lodge, and lay down to rest. He was a good sleeper, and usually 

164 Navaho Legends. 

slept all night ; but on this occasion he woke about midnight, and 
could not go to sleep again. 

474. At dawn he heard, faintly, the distant " Wu'hu'hu'hu " of 
Hasts6ya\t\. At once he woke his grandmother, saying: "I hear a 
voice. The d\g\x\\ (holy ones, divine ones) are coming." "You fool," 
she replied. " Shut your mouth and go to sleep. They would never 
come to visit such poor people as we are," and she fell asleep again. 
In a little while he heard the voice a second time, louder and nearer, 
and again he shook his grandmother and told her he heard the 
voices of the gods ; but she still would not believe him, and slept 
again. The third time that he awoke her, when he heard the voices 
still more plainly, she remained awake, beginning to believe him. 
The fourth time the call sounded loud and clear, as if cried by one 
standing at the door. " Hear," he said to his grandmother. " Is 
that not truly the voice of a divine one ? " At last she believed 
him, and said in wonder: "Why should the digini come to visit us ?" 

475. Hasts6ya\ti and Ha.sts6AogB.n were at the door, standing on 
the rainbow on which they had travelled. The former made signs 
to the man, over the curtain which hung in the doorway, bidding 
him pull the curtain aside and come out. " Grandmother," said the 
Navaho, " T/astreyal/i calls me to him." " It is well," she answered. 
" Do as he bids you." As he went out, bearing his bundle of sacri- 
ficial objects, he said : " I go with the divine ones, but I shall come 
back again to see you." The niece had a pet turkey 203 that roosted 
on a tree near the lodge, Ha.sts6ya\ti made signs to the Navaho to 
take the turkey along. The Navaho said : " My niece, the gods bid 
me take your turkey, and I would gladly do it, for I am going among 
strange people, where I shall be lonely. I love the bird ; he would 
be company to me and remind me of my home. Yet I shall not take 
him against your will." " Then you may have my turkey pet," re- 
plied the niece. The old woman said to the god : " I shall be glad 
to have my grandchild back again. Will you let him return to us ? " 
//astyeyahi only nodded his head. The gods turned the rainbow 
around sunwise, so that its head, 204 which formerly pointed to the 
door of the lodge, now pointed in a new direction. Ha.sts6ya.Ui 
got on the bow first. He made the Navaho get on behind him. 
Hastsekogan got on behind the man. " Shut your eyes," com- 
manded 7/ast.reyal/i, and the Navaho did as he was bidden. 

476. In a moment Hasts6ya\ti cried again: "Open your eyes." 
The Navaho obeyed and found himself far away from his home, at 
Ts6'tadi, where the dXgim dwelt. They led him into a house in the 
rock which was full of divine people. It was beautiful inside — the 
walls were covered with rock crystal, which gave forth a brilliant 
light. Hasts6yalii ordered food brought for his visitor. The latter 

Natl'nesthani. 165 

was handed a small earthen cup only so big (a circle made by the 
thumb and index finger joined at the tips) filled with mush. "What 
a poor meal to offer a stranger ! " thought the Navaho, supposing he 
would finish it in one mouthful. But he ate, and ate, and ate, and 
ate, from the cup and could not empty it. When he had eaten till 
he was satisfied the little cup was as full as in the beginning. 206 He 
handed the cup, when he was done, back to //astreyal/i, who, with 
one sweep of his finger, emptied it, and it remained empty. The 
little cup was then filled with water and given to the guest to drink. 
He drank till his thirst was satisfied ; but the cup was as full when 
he was done as it was when he began. He handed it again to 
iTasts-eyalri, who put it to his own lips and emptied it at a single 

477. The gods opened the bundle of the Navaho and examined 
the contents to see if he had brought all they required, and they 
found he had done so. In the mean time he filled his pipe and 
lighted it. While he was smoking, the gods Nayenezgani, To'ba- 
dsistimi, and //astreol/oi m arrived from Tb'ye'tli and entered the 
house. Nayenezgani said to the visitor : " I hear that you were 
found crawling into a hole which you had made in a log by burn- 
ing. Why were you doing this ? " In reply the Navaho told his 
whole story, as he had told it to i/astieyal/i, and ended by saying : 
" I wished to go to Tb'ye'tli, where the rivers meet, or wherever else 
the waters would bear me. While I was trying to carry out this 
plan, my grandfather, //astj^yalri, found me and bade me not to go. 
For this reason only I gave my plan up and went home." " Do you 
still wish to go to Tb'ye'tli ? " said Nayenezgani. " Yes," said the 
Navaho, " I wish to go to Tb'ye'tli or as far down the San Juan as I 
can get." " Then you shall go," said the god. 

478. Nayenezgani went forth from the house and the other gods 
followed him. They went to a grove of spruce, and there picked 
out a tree of unusual size. They tied rainbow ropes to it, so that it 
might not fall with too great force and break in falling. Nayenez- 
gani and Tb'bad^istjfni cut it near the root with their great stone 
knives, and it fell to the north. Crooked Lightning struck the fallen 
tree and went through it from butt to tip. Straight Lightning struck 
it and went through it from tip to butt. Thus the hole was bored 
in the log, and this was done before the branches were cut away. 
The hole that Crooked Lightning bored was too crooked. Straight 
Lightning made it straight, but still it was too small. Black Wind 
was sent into the hole, and he made it larger, but not large enough. 
Blue Wind, Yellow Wind, and White Wind entered the hole, each in 
turn, and each, as he went through, made it a little larger. It was 
not until White Wind had done his work that the hole was big 

1 66 Navaho Legends. 

enough to contain the body of a man. //astreyalri supplied a bowl 
of food, a vessel of water, and a white cloud for bedding. They 
wrapped the Navaho up in the cloud and put him into the log. They 
plugged the ends with clouds, — a black cloud in the butt and a blue 
cloud in the tip, — and charged him not to touch either of these 
cloudy plugs. When they got him into the log some one said: " How 
will he get light ? How will he know when it is night and when it 
is day ? " They bored two holes in the log, one on each side of his 
head, and they put in each hole, to make a window, a piece of rock 
crystal, which they pushed in so tightly that water could not leak in 
around it. 

479. While some of the gods were preparing the log, others were 
getting the pet turkey ready for his journey, but they did this un- 
known to the Navaho. They put about his body black cloud, he-rain, 
black mist, and she-rain. They put under his wings white corn, 
yellow corn, blue corn, corn of mixed colors, squash seed, water- 
melon seed, muskmelon seed, gourd seed, and beans of all colors. 
These were the six gods who prepared the turkey : four of the 
Ginsiskidi w ~ from a place called Z>epe//a//a/i/, one Ha.sts6/ioga.n from 
Tse'gihi, 165 and the //ast se/iogan from Ts£7a*/i, — the one who found 
the Navaho entering his Cottonwood log and took him home to the 
house in the rocks. 

480. The next thing they had to think about was how they should 
carry the heavy log to the river with the man inside of it. They 
put under the log (first) a rope of crooked lightning, (second) a rope 
of rainbow, (third) a rope of straight lightning, and (fourth) another 
rope of rainbow. They attached a sunbeam to each end of the log. 
All the gods except those who were engaged in preparing the tur- 
key tried to move the log, but they could not stir it ; and they sent 
for the six who were at work on the turkey to come to their aid. 
Two of the Gawaskl^i were now stationed at each end, and two of 
the ffa.stse/ioga.n in the middle. The others were stationed at other 
parts. The Gawaskl^i put their wands under the log crosswise, 
thus, X. All lifted together, and the log was carried along. Some 
of them said : " If strength fail us and we let the log fall, we shall 
not attempt to raise it again, and the Navaho will not make his 
journey." As they went along some became tired and were about 
to let the log go, but the winds came to help them — Black Wind 
and Blue Wind in front, Yellow Wind and White Wind behind, and 
soon the log was borne to the margin of the river. As they went 
along, To'nenlli, 98 the Water Sprinkler, made fun and played tricks, 
as he now does in the dances, to show that he was pleased with 
what they were doing. While the gods were at work the Navaho 
sang five songs, each for a different part of the work ; the signifi- 
cant words of the songs were these : — 

Nattriesthani. 167 

First Song, " A beautiful tree they fell for me." 
Second Song, " A beautiful tree they prepare for me." 
Third Song, " A beautiful tree they finish for me." 
Fourth Song, " A beautiful tree they carry with me." 
Fifth Song, " A beautiful tree they launch with me." m 

481. When they threw the log on the surface of the water it 
floated around in different directions, but would not go down stream, 
so the gods consulted together to determine what they should do. 
They covered the log first with black mist and then with black cloud. 
Some of the gods standing on the banks punched the log with their 
plumed wands, when it approached the shore or began to whirl 
round, and they kept this up till it got into a straight course, with 
its head pointed down stream, and floated on. When the gods were 
punching the log to get it into the current, the Navaho sang a song, 
the principal words of which were : — 

1. "A beautiful tree, they push with me." 

When the log was about to go down the stream, he sang : — 

2. " A beautiful tree is about to float along with me," 

and when the log got into the current and went down, he sang : — 

3. " A beautiful tree floats along with me." 284 

482. All went well till they approached a pueblo called Kl'ndoAte, 
or Blue House, 208 when two of the Kisani, who were going to hunt 
eaglets, saw the log floating by, though they could not see the gods 
that guided its course. Wood was scarce around Blue House. When 
the men saw tl e log they said, " There floats a big tree. It would 
furnish us fuel for many days if we could get it. We must try to 
bring it to the shore." The two men ran back to the pueblo and 
announced that a great log was coming down the river. A number 
of people turned out to seize it. Most of them ran down the stream 
to a shallow place where they could all wade in, to await the arrival 
of the log, while a few went up along the bank to herald its ap- 
proach. When it came to the shallow place they tried to break off 
branches, but failed. They tied ropes to the branches, and tried to 
pull it ashore ; but the log, hurried on by the current, carried the 
crowd with it. But the next time the log got to a shallow place the 
Kisani got it stranded, and sent back to the pueblo for axes, intend- 
ing to cut off branches and make the log light. When the gods 
saw the people coming with axes they said : " Something must be 
done." They sent down a great shower of rain, but the Kisani 
held on to the log. They sent hail, with hailstones as big as two 
fists ; but still the Kisani held on. They sent lightning to the right 
— the people to the left held on. They sent lightning to the left — 
the people to the right held on. They sent lightning in all direc- 

1 68 Navaho Legends. 

tions four times, when, at last, the Kisani let go and the log floated 
on. Now the gods laid "upon the log a cloud so thick that no one 
could see through it ; they put a rainbow lengthwise and a rainbow 
crosswise over it, and they caused the zigzag lightning to flash all 
around it. When the Kisani saw all these things they began to fear. 
" The gods must guard this log," they said. " Yes," said the chief. 
" Go to your homes, and let the log pass on. It must be holy." 

483. The log floated steadily with the stream till it came to a place 
where a ridge of rocks, standing nearly straight up, disturbs the 
current, and here the log became entangled in the rocks. But two 
of the Fringe-mouths 209 of the river raised it from the rocks and 
set it floating again. They turned the log around, one standing at 
each end, until they got it lying lengthwise with the current, and 
then they let it float away. 

484. Thence it floated safely to T6 t hodot\\z, where the gods on 
the bank observed it stopping and slowly sinking, until only a few 
leaves on the ends of the branches could be seen. »It was the sacred 
people under the water who had pulled the log down this time. 
These were Tieholtsodi, Tie/f«, 210 Frog, Fish, Beaver, Otter, and 
others. They took the Navaho out of the log and bore him down 
to their home under the water. The gods on the bank held a coun- 
cil to consider why the tree stuck. They shook it and tried to get 
it loose, but they could not move it. Then they called on Tb'nenili, 
Water Sprinkler, to help them. He had two magic water jars, 
To'sa^i/yi7, the black jar, which he carried in his right hand, and 
To'sadotliz, the blue jar, which he carried in his left hand ; with 
these he struck the water to the right and to the left, crying as he 
did so his call of " Tu'wu'wu'wu ! " The water opened before him 
and allowed him to descend. He went around the tree, and when 
he came to the butt he found that the plug had been withdrawn and 
that the Navaho was no longer there. He called up to his friends on 
the bank and told them what he had found. They spread a short 
rainbow 211 for him to travel on, and he went to the house of the divine 
ones under the water. This house consisted of four chambers, one 
under another, like the stories of a pueblo dwelling. The first 
chamber, that on top, was black ; the second was blue ; the third 
yellow ; the fourth white. 18 Two of the Tielin, or water pets with 
blue horns, stood at the door facing one another, and roared as 
Tb'nenili passed. He descended from one story to another, but 
found no one till he came to the last chamber, and here he saw 
Tieholtsodi, the water monster ; Tsa\, Frog (a big rough frog) ; T.ra, 
Beaver, 7abasri#, Otter, Tlo'ayuinli'tigi (a great fish), and the cap- 
tive Navaho. " I seek my grandchild. Give him to me," said 
Tb'nenili. " Shut your mouth and begone," said Tieholtsodi. 

Nati'nesthani. 169 

"Such as you cannot come here giving orders. I fear you not, 
Water Sprinkler ; you shall not have your grandchild." Then 76'- 
nenlli went out again and told his friends what had happened to 
him, and what had been said in the house of Tieholtsodi under the 

485. The gods held another council. "Who shall go down and 
rescue our grandchild ? " was the question they asked one another. 
While they were talking //astrdsrini 212 (Black God), who owns all 
fire, sat apart and took no part in the council. He had built a fire, 
while the others waited, and sat with his back to it, as was his custom. 
" Go tell your grandfather there what has occurred," said the others 
to 76'nenili. The latter went over to where Hast-resini sat. " Why 
are they gathered together yonder and of what do they talk so an- 
grily ? " said the Black God. In answer, 76'nenili told of his adven- 
tures under the water and what Tieholtsodi had said to him. Hastse- 
zXm was angry when he heard all this. " I fear not the sacred people 
beneath the water," he said. "I shall have my grandchild." He 
hastened to the river, taking 7o'nenili with him, for 76'nenili had 
the power to open the water, and these two descended into the river. 
When they reached the room where Tieholtsodi sat, the Black God 
said, " We come together for our grandchild." " Run out there, 
both of you. Such as you may not enter here," said Tieholtsodi. 
" I go not without my grandson. Give him to me, and I shall go," 
said the other. " Run out," repeated Tieholtsodi, " I shall not re- 
lease your grandchild." " I shall take my grandchild. I fear you 
not." " I shall not restore him to you. I heed not your words." 
" I never recall what I have once spoken. I have come for my 
grandchild, and I shall not leave without him." "I said you should 
not go with him, and I mean what I say. I am mighty." Thus 
they spoke defiantly to one another for some time. At length 
HasXsizlm said : " I shall beg no longer for my grandchild. You 
say you are mighty. We shall see which is the more powerful, 
you or I," and Tieholtsodi answered : "Neither shall I ask your per- 
mission to keep him. I should like to see how you will take him 
from me." When i/astrezmi heard this he took from his belt his 
fire-stick and fire-drill. 213 He laid the stick on the ground, steadied 
it with both feet, and whirled the drill around, pausing four times. 
The first time he whirled the drill there was a little smoke ; the 
second time there was a great smoke ; the third time there was 
flame ; the fourth time the surrounding waters all took fire. Then 
Tieholtsodi cried : "Take your grandchild, but put out the flames." 
" Ah," said Hastsezim, " you told me you were mighty. Why do 
you implore me now ? Why do you not put out the fire your- 
self ? Do you mean what you say this time ? Do you really want 

1 70 Navaho Legends. 

the fire quenched?" "Oh! yes," cried Ti6holtsodi. "Take your 
grandchild, but put out the flames. I mean what I say." At a sign 
from Black God, Water Sprinkler took the stoppers out of his jars 
and scattered water all around him four times, crying his usual 
"Tu'wu'wu'wu " as he did so, and the flames died out. The water in 
To'nenili's jars consisted of all kinds of water — he-rain, she-rain, 
hail, snow, lake-water, spring-water, and water taken from the four 
quarters of the world. This is why it was so potent. 67 

486. When the fire was extinguished the three marched out in 
single file — 7b'nenlli in front, to divide the water, the Navaho in 
the middle, and //astreslni in the rear. Before they had quite 
reached the dry land they heard a flopping sound behind them, and, 
looking around, they saw Tsa./, the Frog. "Wait," said he. "I have 
something to tell you. We can give disease to those who enter our 
dwelling, and there are cigarettes, sacred to us, by means of which 
our spell may be taken away. The cigarette of Tieholtsodi should 
be painted black ; that of Tie/in, blue ; those of the Beaver and 
the Otter, yellow ; that of the great fish, and that sacred to me, 
white." Therefore, in these days, when a Navaho is nearly drowned 
in the water, and has spewed the water all out, such cigarettes M are 
made to take the water sickness out of him. 

487. The gods took Na/fnes///ani back to his log. TcS'nenlli 
opened a passage for them through the river, and took the water 
out of the hollow in the log. The Navaho crawled into the hollow. 
The gods plugged the butt again, and set the log floating. It floated 
on and on until it came to a fall in the San Juan River, and here it 
stuck again. The gods had hard labor trying to get it loose. They 
tugged and worked, but could not move it. At length the Dsaha- 
doldzA, the Fringe-mouths of the water, came to help. They put 
the zigzag lightning which was on their bodies 209 under the butt of 
the log, — as if the lightning were a rope, — and soon they got the 
log loose and sent it floating down the river. 

488. At the end of the San Juan River, surrounded by mountains, 
there is a whirling lake or large whirlpool called TcS'nihiliw, or End 
of the Water. When the log entered here it whirled around the 
lake four times. The first time it went around it floated near the 
shore, but it gradually approached the centre as it went round again 
and again. From the centre it pointed itself toward the east and 
got near the shore ; but it retreated again to the centre, pointed 
itself to the south, and at last stranded on the south shore of the 
lake. When it came to land four gods stood around it thus : Hasts6- 
Iiogtm. on the east, //astreyal/i on the south, one Gawasku/i on the 
west, and one on the north. They pried out one of the stoppers 
with their wands, and the Navaho came out on the land. They took 

Natl'nesthani. 171 

out what remained of the food they had given him, a bow of cedar 
with the leaves on, and two reed arrows that they had placed in the 
log before they launched it. This done, they plugged the log again 
with a black cloud. 

489. Then the gods spoke to the Navaho and said : " We have 
taken you where you wished to go. We have brought you to the 
end of the river. We have done for you all that in the beginning 
you asked us to do, and now we shall give you a new name. Hence- 
forth you shall be called A/iodiseli, He Who Floats. Go sit yonder " 
(pointing out a place), " and turn your back to us." He went and 
sat as he was told, and soon they called to him and bade him go 
to a hill west of the lake. When he ascended it he looked around 
and saw the log moving back in the direction whence, he thought, 
he had come. He looked all around, but could see no one. The 
gods had disappeared, and he was all alone. He sat down to think. 
He felt sad and lonely. He was sorry he had come ; yet, he thought, 
" This is my own deed ; I insisted on coming here, and had I stayed 
at home I might have been killed." Still the more he thought the 
sadder he felt, and he began to weep. 

490. The mountains all around the lake were very precipitous, 
except on the west side. Here they were more sloping, and he 
began to think of crossing, when he heard faintly in the distance 

»-u-£ W~ - - £«j£ 

Fig. 34. Trail of turkey approaching his master. 

the gobbling of a turkey. He paused and listened, and soon heard 
the gobbling again, more distinctly and apparently nearer. In a 
short time he heard the sound for the third time, but louder and 
clearer than before. The fourth time that the gobbling was heard 
it seemed very loud and distinct ; and a moment later he beheld, 

172 Navaho Legends. 

running toward him, his pet turkey, whom he had thought he would 
never see again. The turkey, which had followed him all the way 
down the San Juan River, now approached its master from the east, 
as if it were coming to him at once ; but when it got within arm's 
length of the man it retreated and went round him sunwise, ap- 
proaching and retreating again at the south, the west, and the north. 
When it got to the east again it ran up to its master and allowed 
itself to be embraced. (Fig. 34 shows the way it approached its 
master.) " A/^alani, sXlin (Welcome, my pet)," said Nafi'nes/^ani, " I 
am sorry for you that you have followed me, I pity you ; but now 
that you are here, I thank you for coming." 

491. The man now began to think again of crossing the mountain 
in the west, but suddenly night came on. He had not noticed the 
light fading until it was too dark to begin the journey, and he felt 
obliged to seek a resting-place for the night. They went to a gulch 
near at hand where there were a few small cedar-trees. They spread 
out, for a bed, the dead leaves and the soft debris which they found 
under the trees and lay down, side by side, to sleep. The Navaho 
spread his bark blanket over himself, and the turkey spread one of 
its wings over its master, and he slept well that night. 

492. Next morning they rose early and went out to hunt wood- 
rats. They went down a small winding valley till they came to a 
beautiful flat, through which ran a stream of water. " This would be 
a good place for a farm if I had but the seeds to plant," said the 
Navaho aloud. When he had spoken he observed that his turkey 
began to act in a very peculiar manner. It ran to the western bor- 
der of the flat, circled round to the north, and then ran directly 
from north to south, where it rejoined its master, who had in the 
mean time walked around the edge of the flat from east to west. 
This (fig. 35) shows how they went. When they met they walked 
together four times around the flat, gradually approaching the centre 
as they walked. Here, in the centre, the man sat down and the 
turkey gambolled around him. " My pet," said the Navaho, "what 
a beautiful farm I could make here if I only had the seeds." The 
turkey gobbled in reply and spread out its wings. 

493. Na/I'nes///ani had supposed that when the gods were prepar- 
ing the log for him they had done something to the turkey, but 
what they had done he knew not. Now that his pet was acting so 
strangely, it occurred to him that perhaps it could aid him. " My 
pet," he said, "can you do anything to help me make a farm 
here ? " The turkey ran a little way to the east and shook its wings, 
from which four grains of white corn dropped out ; then it ran to 
the south and shook from its wings four grains of blue corn ; at the 
west it shook out four grains of yellow corn, and at the north four 

Natznesthani. 173 

grains of variegated corn. Then it ran up to its master from the 
east and shook its wings four times, each time shaking out four 
seeds. The first time it dropped pumpkin seeds ; the second time, 
watermelon seeds ; the third time, muskmelon seeds ; the fourth 
time, beans. " E'yehe, sxlin (Thanks, my pet). I thought you had 
something for me," said Na/I'nes/^ani. 

494. He went away from the flat, roasted wood-rats for a meal, 
and when he had eaten he made two planting sticks, one of grease- 
wood and one of tsintll'zi 2M {Fendleria rupicold). He returned to 
the flat and began to make his farm. He dug four holes in the east 

Turkey's tr^cX I 

Fig. 35. Tracks of man and turkey. 

with the stick of tsintll'zi, and dropped into each hole a grain of 
white corn. He dug four holes in the south with his greasewood 
stick, and placed in each hole one grain of blue corn. He dug four 
holes in the west with the tsintll'zi stick, and planted in each one 
grain of yellow corn. He made four holes in the north with the 
greasewood, and put in each one grain of variegated corn. With 
the implement of tsintll'zi he planted the pumpkin seed between the 
white corn and the blue corn. With the implement of greasewood 
he planted watermelon seed between the blue corn and the yellow 
corn. With the stick of tsintll'zi 'he planted muskmelon seeds be- 
tween the yellow corn and the variegated corn. With the stick of 
greasewood he planted beans between the variegated corn and the 
white corn. 215 He looked all around to see if he had done every- 
thing properly, and he went to the west of his farm among the foot- 
hills and camped there. 

1 74 Navaho Legends, 

495. He felt uneasy during the night, fearing that there might be 
some one else to claim the land, and he determined to examine the 
surrounding country to see if he had any neighbors. Next day he 
walked in a circle, sunwise, around the valley, and this he did for 
four consecutive days, taking a wider circle each day ; but he met no 
people and saw no signs of human life, and he said : " It is a good 
place for a farm. No one claims the land before me." Each morn- 
ing, before he went on his journey, he visited his farm. On the 
fourth morning he saw that the corn had grown half a finger-length 
above the ground. 

496. On the fourth night, after his long day's walk around the 
valley, when darkness fell, he sat by his fire facing the east, and was 
surprised to see a faint gleam half way up the side of the mountains 
in the east. " Strange," he said, " I have travelled all over that 
ground and have seen neither man nor house nor track nor the re- 
mains of fire." Then he spoke to the turkey, saying : " Stay at home 
to-morrow, my pet ; I must go and find out who builds that fire." 

497. Next day, leaving his turkey at home, he went off to search 
the mountain-side, where he had seen the gleam ; but he searched 
well and saw no signs of human life. When he came home he told 
all his adventures to his turkey and said : " It must have been a 
great glow-worm that I beheld." He got home pretty early in the 
day and went out to trap wood-rats, accompanied by his turkey. In 
the evening when he returned to his camp, he looked again, after 
dark, toward the eastern mountain, and saw the gleam as he had 
seen it the night before. He set a forked stick in the ground, got 
down on his hands and knees, and looked at the fire through the 
fork. (See par. 382.) 

498. On the following morning he placed himself in the same 
position he was in the night before, — putting his hands and knees 
in the tracks then made, — and looked again over the forked stick. 
He found his sight directed to a spot which he had already ex- 
plored well. Notwithstanding this he went there again, leaving his 
turkey behind, and searched wider and farther and with greater 
care than on previous occasions ; but he still saw no traces of 
human life. When he returned to camp he told his turkey all that 
had happened to him. That night he saw the light again, and once 
more he sighted over the forked stick with care. 

499. When morning came, he found that he had marked the same 
spot he had marked before ; and though he had little hope he set 
out for the third time to find who made the distant fire. He 
returned after a time, only to tell his disappointment to his turkey. 
As usual he spent the rest of the day, accompanied by the turkey, 
setting traps for wood-rats and other small animals. After dark, 

Nati'nesthani. 175 

when he saw the distant flame again, he set a second forked stick in 
the ground and laid between the two forks a long, straight stick, 
which he aimed at the fire as he would aim an arrow. When this 
was done he went to sleep. 

500. Next morning he noted with great care the particular spot 
to which the straight stick pointed, and set out to find the fire. 
Before he left he said to his turkey : "I go once more to seek the 
distant fire ; but it is the last time J shall seek it. If I find it not 
to-day, I shall never try again. Stay here till I return." While he 
spoke the turkey turned its back on him, and showed its master that 
it was angry. It acted like a pouting child. He went to the place 
on the eastern mountain to which the stick pointed, and here he 
found, what he had not observed before, a shelf in the rocks, which 
seemed to run back some distance. He climbed to the shelf and 
discovered there two nice huts. He thought that wealthy people 
must dwell in them. He felt ashamed of his ragged bark blanket, of 
his garment of wood-rat skins, of his worn grass sandals, of his poor 
bow and arrows ; so he took these off, laid them in the fork of a 
juniper-tree, and, retaining only his breech-cloth of wood-rat skins, 
his belt, tobacco pouch, and pipe, he approached one of the houses. 

501. He pushed aside the curtain and saw, sitting inside, a young 
woman making a fine buckskin shirt which she was garnishing 
beautifully with fringes and shells. Ashamed of his appearance, he 
hung his head and advanced, looking at her under his eyebrows. 
" Where are the men?" he said, and he sat on the ground. The 
young woman replied: "My father and mother are in the other 
hut." Just as the Navaho had made up his mind to go to the other 
house the father entered. Doubtless the Navaho had been observed 
while disrobing, for the old man, as he came in, brought the poor 
rags with him. " Why do you not take in my son-in-law's goods ? " 
said the old man to his daughter, as he laid the ragged bundle in 
a conspicuous place on top of a pile of fine fabrics. Poor Na/I'- 
nes//iani hung his head again in shame and blushed, while the 
woman looked sideways and smiled. " Why don't you spread a skin 
for my son-in-law to sit on ? " said the old man to his daughter. 
She only smiled and looked sideways again. The old man took a 
finely dressed Rocky Mountain sheep-skin and a deer-skin, — skins 
finer than the Navaho had ever seen before, — spread them on the 
ground beside the woman, and said to the stranger : " Why do you 
not sit on the skins?" Natf'nes//zani made a motion as if to rise 
and take the offered seat, but he sank back again in shame. Invited 
a second time, he arose and sat down beside the young woman on 
the skins. 

502. The old man placed another skin beside the Navaho, sat on 

176 Navaho Legends. 

it, tapped the visitor on the knee to attract his attention, and said : 
" I long for a smoke. Fill your pipe 216 with tobacco and let me 
smoke it." The Navaho answered : " I am poor. I have nothing." 
Four times this request was made and this reply given. On the 
fourth occasion the Navaho added : " I belong to the Ninoka^Ine* (the 
People up on the Earth), 217 and I have nothing." " I thought the 
Ninoka^ine* had plenty of tobacco," said the old man. The young 
man now drew from his pouch, which was adorned with pictures of 
the sun and moon, a mixture of native wild tobacco with four other 
plants. 218 His pipe was made of clay, collected from a place where 
a wood-rat had been tearing the ground. He filled the pipe with 
the mixture, lighted it with the sun, 219 sucked it four times till it 
was well kindled, and handed it to the old man to smoke. When 
the latter had finished the pipe and laid it down he began to per- 
spire violently and soon fell into a swoon. The young woman 
thought her father was dead or dying, and ran to the other lodge to 
tell her mother. The mother gave the young woman a quantity of 
goods and said : " Give these to my son-in-law and tell him they shall 
all be his if he restores your father to life." When the daughter 
returned to the lodge where her father lay, she said to the Navaho : 
" Here are goods for you. Treat my father. You must surely know 
what will cure him." They laid the old man out on his side, in the 
middle of the floor, with his head to the north and his face to the 
east. The Navaho had in his pouch a medicine called k6'tlo, or 
ats6si kd'tlo, 220 consisting of many different ingredients. Where he 
got the ingredients we know not ; but the medicine men now collect 
them around the headwaters of the San Juan. He put some of 
this medicine into a pipe, lighted it with the sunbeams, puffed the 
smoke to the earth, to the sky, to the earth, and to the sky again ; 
puffed it at the patient from the east, the south, the west, and the 
north. When this fumigation was done, the patient began to show 
signs of life, — his eyelids twitched, his limbs jerked, his body 
shook. Na/i'nes/^ani directed the young woman to put some of the 
medicine, with water, to soak in an earthen bowl, — no other kind of 
bowl is now used in making this infusion, — and when it was soaked 
enough he rubbed it on the body of the patient. 

503. " Saa&ni, siti. (My son-in-law, my nephew)," said the old 
man, when he came to his senses once more, " fill the pipe for me 
again. I like your tobacco.". The Navaho refused and the old man 
begged again. Four times did the old man beg and thrice the 
young man refused him ; but when the fourth request was made the 
young man filled the pipe, lit it as before, and handed it to the old 
man. The latter smoked, knocked out the ashes, laid down the 
pipe, began to perspire, and fell again into a deathly swoon. As on 

Nati'nestham. 177 

the previous occasion, the women were alarmed and offered the 
Navaho a large fee, in goods, if he would restore the smoker to life. 
The medicine being administered and the ceremonies being re- 
peated, the old man became again conscious. 

504. As soon as he recovered he said : " My son-in-law, give me 
another smoke. I have travelled far and smoked much tobacco ; 
but such fine tobacco as yours I never smoked before." As on the 
other occasions, the old man had to beg four times before his request 
was granted. A third time the pipe was filled ; the old man smoked 
and swooned ; the women gave presents to the Navaho ; the atsosi 
ke'tlo was administered, and the smoker came to life again. 

505. But as soon as he regained his senses he pleaded for another 
smoke. " The smoke is bad for you," said the Navaho. " It does 
you harm. Why do you like my tobacco so well ? " "Ah ! it makes 
me feel good to the ends of my toes. It smells well and tastes 
well." " Since you like it so well," said the young man, " I shall 
give you one more pipeful." This time the old man smoked vigor- 
ously ; he drew the smoke well into his chest and kept it there a 
long time before blowing it out. Everything happened now as 
before, but in addition to the medicine used previously, the Navaho 
scattered the fragrant yididmi/ 721 on the hot coals and let the 
patient breathe its fumes. The Navaho had now four large bundles 
of fine goods as pay for his services. When the old man recovered 
for the fourth time he praised loudly the tobacco of the Navaho. 
He said he had never felt so happy as when smoking it. He asked 
the Navaho : " How would you like to try my tobacco ? " and he 
went to the other lodge to fetch his. tobacco pouch. While he was 
gone the Wind People whispered into the ear of the Navaho : " His 
tobacco will kill you surely. It is not like your tobacco. Those 
who smoke it never wake again ! " 

506. Presently the old man returned with a pouch that had pic- 
tures of the sun and moon on it, and with a large pipe — much 
larger than that of the Navaho — decorated with figures of deer, 
antelope, elk, and Rocky Mountain sheep. 222 The old man filled his 
pipe, lighted it, puffed the smoke to earth and sky, each twice, alter- 
nately, and handed the pipe to the Navaho. The young man said : 
" I allow no one to fill the pipe for me but myself. My customs 
differ from yours. You ask a stranger for a smoke. I ask no man 
for a smoke. I pick my own tobacco. Other people's tobacco 
makes me ill ; that is why I do not use it." Thus he spoke, yet the 
stuff he had given the old man to smoke was not the same that he 
used himself. The latter consisted of four kinds of tobacco : 
glona/o, or weasel tobacco, ^/epenafo, or sheep tobacco, dsiVnafo, or 
mountain tobacco, and kosnato, or cloud tobacco. 223 He had differ- 

1 78 Navaho Legends. 

ent compartments in his pouch for his different mixtures. The old 
man invited him four times to smoke ; but four times the Navaho 
refused, and said at last : " I have my pipe already filled with my 
own tobacco. I shall smoke it. My tobacco injures no one unless 
he is ill." He proceeded to smoke the pure tobacco. When he had 
done smoking, he said : " See. It does me no harm. Try another 

507. He now filled his pipe with the mixture of four kinds of real 
tobacco and handed it to the old man to smoke. When the latter 
had finished he said : " Your tobacco does not taste as it did before, 
and I do not now feel the same effect after smoking it as I did at 
first. Now it cools me ; formerly it made me perspire. Why did 
I fall down when I smoked it before ? Tell me, have I some dis- 
ease?' The Navaho answered: "Yes. It is yaii'ntrogi, some- 
thing bad inside of you, that makes the tobacco affect you so. 
There are four diseases that may cause this : they are the yellow 
disease, the cooked-blood disease, the water-slime disease, and the 
worm disease. One or more of these diseases you surely have." 224 
The old man closed his eyes and nodded his head to show that he 
believed what was told him. Of course the Navaho did not believe 
what he himself had said ; he only told this to the old man to conceal 
the fact that he had filled the pipe with poisoned tobacco. 

508. While all these things were happening the Navaho had paid 
no heed to how the day was passing ; but now he became suddenly 
aware that it was late in the afternoon and that the sun was about 
to set. " I must hasten away. It is late," he said. " No, my son- 
in-law ; do not leave us," pleaded the old man. " Sleep here to- 
night." He ordered his daughter to make a bed for the stranger. 
She spread on the floor fine robes of otter-skin and beaver-skin, 
beautifully ornamented. He laid down on the rugs and slept there 
that night. 

509. Next morning the young woman rose early and went out. 
Soon after her departure the old man entered the lodge and said to 
his guest : " I and my daughter were so busy yesterday with all that 
you did to me, and all the cures you wrought on me, that we had no 
time to cook food and eat ; neither had you. She has gone now to 
prepare food. Stay and eat with us." Presently the young woman 
returned, bringing a dish of stewed venison and a basket filled with 
mush made of wild seeds. The basket was such a one as the 
Navahoes now use in their rites. 5 On the a/aatlo (the part where 
the coil terminates, the point of finish), the old man had, with 
the knowledge of his daughter, placed poison. She presented the 
basket to the stranger, with the point of finish toward him, as her 
father had directed her to do, saving : " When a stranger visits us 

Natl'riesthani. 1 79 

we always expect him to eat from the part of the basket where it is 
finished." As he took the basket the Wind People 76 whispered to 
him : " Eat not from that part of the basket ; death is there, but 
there is no death in the venison." The young man turned the 
basket around and began to eat from the side opposite to that which 
was presented to him, saying : " It is my custom to eat from the 
edge opposite to the point of finish." He did not eat all the mush. 
He tried the venison stew ; but as it was made of dried meat he did 
not like it and ate very little of it. When he had done she took the 
dishes back to the other lodge. " From which side of the basket 
did my son-in-law eat ? " asked the old man. " From the wrong 
side. He told me it was his custom never to eat from the side 
where the basket was finished," said the young woman. Her father 
was surprised. When a visitor came to him he always tried the 
poisoned tobacco first ; if that failed he next tried, the poisoned 
basket. " My husband says he wants to go home now," said the 
young woman. " Tell him it is not the custom for a man to go 
home the morning after his marriage. He should always remain 
four days at least," said the old man. She brought this message 
back to the Navaho. He remained that day and slept in the lodge 
at night. 

510. Next morning the young woman rose early again and went 
to the other lodge. Soon after she was gone the old man entered 
and said to Na/f nes/^ani : " You would do well not to leave till you 
have eaten. My daughter is preparing food for you." In a little 
while, after he left, the young woman entered, bringing, as before, a 
dish of stewed venison and a basketful of mush, which she handed 
to the Navaho without making any remark. But Wind whispered : 
" There is poison all around the edge of the basket this time ; there 
is none in the venison." The Navaho ate some of the stew, and 
when he took the basket of mush he ate only from the middle, say- 
ing : " When I eat just as the sun is about to come up, it is my cus- 
tom to eat only from the middle of the basket." The sun was about 
to rise as he spoke. When she went back to the other lodge with 
the remains of the meal, her father asked : " How did he eat this 
morning ? " She replied : " He ate the stew ; but the mush he ate 
only from the middle of the basket." " Ahahaha ! " said the old 
man, " it never took me so long, before." The Navaho remained in 
the lodge all that day and all night. 

511. The next (third) morning things happened as before: the 
woman rose early, and while she was gone the old man came into 
the lodge, saying : " The women are cooking food for you. Don't 
go out till you have eaten." The reason they gave their visitor only 
one meal a day was that he might be so ravenous with hunger when 

180 Navaho Legends. 

it came that he would not notice the poison and would eat plenty of 
it. When the food was brought in, the Wind People whispered to 
the Navaho : " Poison is mixed all through the mush, take none of 
it." He ate heartily of the stew, and when he was done he said to 
the young woman : " I may eat no mush to-day. The sun is already 
risen, and I have sworn that the sun shall never see me eat mush." 
When she went back to the other lodge her father asked : " How 
did my son-in-law eat this morning?" " He ate only of the stew," 
she said. " He would not touch the mush." " Ahahaha," said the 
old man in a suspicious tone ; but he said no more. Again the 
Navaho stayed all day and all night. 

512. On the fourth morning when the daughter went to prepare 
food and the old man entered the lodge, he said : " Go out some- 
where to-day. Why do you not take a walk abroad every day ? Is 
it on your wife's account that you stay at home so much, my son-in- 
law ? " When the young woman brought in the usual venison stew 
and basket of mush, Wind whispered : " All the food is poisoned this 
morning." When she handed the food to the young man he said : 
" I do not eat at all to-day. It is my custom to eat no food one day 
in every four. This is the day that I must fast." When she took 
the un tasted food back to the other lodge, her father inquired : 
"What did my son-in-law eat this morning?" and she answered: 
" He ate nothing." The old man was lying when he spoke ; he rose 
when she answered him and carefully examined the food she had 
brought back. " Truly, nothing has been touched," he said. "This 
must be a strange man who eats nothing. My daughter, do you tell 
him anything he should not know ? " "Truly, I tell him nothing," 
she replied. 

513. When the young woman came back again from her father's 
lodge, the Navaho said to her : " I have a hut and a farm and a 
pet not far from here ; I must go home to-day and see them." " It 
is well," she said. " You may go." He began to dress for the 
journey by putting on his old sandals. She brought him a pair of 
fine new moccasins, beautifully embroidered, and urged him to put 
them on ; but he refused them, saying : " I may put them on some 
other time. I shall we<n my old sandals to-day." 

514. When Na/i'nes//zani got back to his farm he found the tracks 
of his turkey all around, but the turkey itself he could not see. It 
was evident from the tracks that it had visited the farm and gone 
back to the hut again. The Navaho made four circuits around the 
hut — each circuit wider than the preceding — to see whither the 
tracks led. On the fourth circuit he found they led to the base of a 
mountain which stood north of the hut. " I shall find my pet some- 
where around the mountain," thought the Navaho. The tracks had 

JVati'nestham. 1 8 1 

the appearance of being four days old, and from this he concluded 
that the turkey had left the same day he had. It took him four 
days, travelling sunwise and going spirally up the mountain, to reach 
the summit, where he found many turkey tracks, but still no turkey. 
He fancied his pet might have descended the mountain again, so he 
went below and examined the ground carefully, but found no de- 
scending tracks. He returned to the summit and, looking more 
closely than at first, discovered where the bird had flown away from 
a point on the eastern edge of the summit and gone apparently 
toward the east. 

515. The Navaho sat down, sad and lonely, and wept. "Dear 
pet," he said, " would that I had taken you with me that day when 
I set out on my journey. Had I done so I should not have lost you. 
Dear pet, you were the black cloud ; you were the black mist ; you 
were the beautiful he-rain; 226 you were the beautiful she-rain; 137 
you were the beautiful lightning ; you were the beautiful rainbow ; 
you were the beautiful white corn ; you were the beautiful blue 
corn ; you were the beautiful yellow corn ; you were the beautiful 
corn of all colors ; you were the beautiful bean. Though lost to 
me, you shall be of use to men, upon the earth, in the days to come 
— they shall use your feathers and your beard in their rites." The 
Navaho never saw his pet again ; it had flown to the east, and from 
it we think the tame turkeys of the white men are descended. But 
all the useful and beautiful things he saw in his pet are still to be 
seen in the turkey. It has the colors of all the different kinds of 
corn in its feathers. The black of the black mist and the black 
cloud are there. The flash of the lightning and the gleam of 
the rainbow are seen on its plumes when it walks in the sun. The 
rain is in its beard ; the bean it carries on its forehead. 

516. He dried his tears, descended the mountain, and sought his 
old hut, which was only a poor shelter of brush, and then he went 
to visit his farm. He found his corn with ears already formed and 
all the other plants well advanced toward maturity. 226 He pulled 
one ear from a stalk of each one of the four different kinds of corn, 
and, wrapping the ears in his mantle of wood-rat skins, went off to 
see his wife. She saw him coming, met him at the door, and re- 
lieved him of his weapons and bundle. " What is this ? " she said, 
pointing to the bundle after she had laid it down. He opened it. 
She started back in amazement. She had never seen corn before. 
He laid the ears down side by side in a row with their points to the 
east, and said : " This is what we call na/aw, corn. This (pointing 
to the first ear — the most northerly of the row) is white corn ; this 
(pointing to the next) is blue corn ; this (pointing to the third) is 
yellow corn, and this (pointing to the fourth) is corn of all colors." 227 

1 82 Navaho Legends 

" And what do your people do with it ? " she asked. " We eat it," 
he replied. " How do you prepare it to eat ? " she inquired. He 
said : " We have four ways when it is green like this. We put it, 
husk and all, in hot coals to roast. We take off the husk and roast 
it in hot ashes. We boil it whole in hot water. We cut off the 
grains and mix it with water to make mush." 

517. She wrapped the four ears in a bundle and carried them to 
the other lodge to show them to her parents. Both were astonished 
and alarmed. The old man rose and shaded his eyes with his open 
hand to look at them. They asked her questions about the corn, 
such as she had asked her husband, and she answered them as he 
had answered her. She cooked the four ears of corn, each one in a 
different way, according to the methods her husband described. 
They increased in cooking so that they made food enough to fur- 
nish a hearty meal for all. The old people, who were greatly 
pleased, said the mush smelled like fawn-cheese. 228 " Where does 
my son-in-law get this fine stuff ? Ask him. I wish to know, it is 
so delicious. Does he not want some himself ? " said the old man 
to his daughter. She brought a large dish of the corn to her hus- 
band in the other lodge, and they ate it together. The Navaho had 
no fear of poison this time, for the food did not belong to the old 

518. At night when they were alone together she asked him 
where he got the corn. " I found it," he said. " Did you dig it out 
of the ground ? " she asked. " No. I picked it up," was his an- 
swer. Not believing him, she continued to question him until at 
last he told her: "These things I plant and they grow where I plant 
them. Do you wish to see my field ? " " Yes, if my father will let 
me," the woman replied. 

519. Next morning she told her father what she had found out on 
the previous night and asked his advice. He said he would like to 
have her go with Nafl'nes/^ani to see what the farm looked like and 
to find out what kind of leaves the plant had that such food grew 
on. When she came back from her father's lodge she brought with 
her pemmican made of venison and a basket of mush. The Wind 
People whispered to him that he need not fear the food to-day, so 
he ate heartily of it. When the breakfast was over, the Navaho 
said : " Dress yourself for the journey, and as soon as you are 
ready I shall take you to my farm." She dressed herself for trave* 
and went to the lodge of her parents, where she said : " I go witl 
my husband now." "It is well," they said ; "go with him." 

520. The Navaho and his wife set out together. When they came 
to a little hill from which they could first see the field, they beheld 
the sun shining on it ; yet the rain was falling on it at the same 

Natznesthanz. 183 

time, and above it was a dark cloud spanned by a rainbow. When 
they reached the field they walked four times around it sunwise, and 
as they went he described things in the field to his wife. "This is 
my white corn, this is my blue corn, this is my yellow corn, and this 
is my corn of all colors. These we call squashes, these we call 
melons, and these we call beans," he said, pointing to the various 
plants. The bluebirds and the yellowbirds were singing in the 
corn after the rain, and all was beautiful. She was pleased and 
astonished and she asked many questions, — how the seeds were 
planted, how the food was prepared and eaten, — and he answered 
all her questions. " These on the ground are melons ; they are not 
ripe yet. When they are ripe we eat them raw," he explained. 
When they had circled four times around the field they went in 
among the plants. Then he showed her the pollen and explained its 
sacred uses. 11 He told her how the corn matured ; how his people 
husked it and stored it for winter use, how they shelled, ground, and 
prepared it, and how they preserved some to sow in the spring. 
" Now, let us pluck an ear of each kind of corn and go home," he 
said. When she plucked the corn she also gathered three of the 
leaves and put them into the same bundle with the corn ; but as 
they walked home tue leaves increased in number, and when she 
got to the house and untied the bundle she found not only three, 
but many leaves in it. 

521. He explained to her how to make the dish now known to 
the Navahoes as d\t\6g\ klesan, 230 and told her to make this of the 
white corn. He instructed her how to prepare corn as ditlogin 
trfdikoi, 231 and told her to make this of the blue corn. He showed 
her how to prepare corn in the form of ttebitsa, 232 or three-ears, 
and bade her make this of the yellow corn. He told her to roast, 
in the husk, the ear of many colors. She took the corn to the other 
lodge and prepare^ it as she had been directed. In cooking, it all 
increased greatly in amount, so that they all had a big meal out of 
four ears. 

522. The old people questioned their daughter about the farm — 
what it looked like, what grew there. They asked her many ques- 
tions. She told them of all she had seen and heard : of her distant 
view of the beautiful farm under the rain, under the black cloud, 
under the rainbow ; of her near view of it — the great leaves, the 
white blossoms of the bean, the yellow blossoms of the squash, the 
tassel of the corn, the silk of the corn, the pollen of the corn, and 
all the other beautiful things she saw there. When she had done 
the old man said : " I thank you, my daughter, for bringing me such 
a son-in-law. I have travelled far, but I have never seen such things 
as those you tell of. I thought I was rich, but my son-in-law is 

184 Navaho Legends. 

richer. In future cook these things with care, in the way my son- 
in-law shows you." 

523. The old man then went to see his son-in-law and said : " I 
thank you for the fine food you have brought us, and I am glad to 
hear you have such a beautiful farm. You know how to raise and 
cook corn ; but do you know how to make and cook the pemmican ' m 
of the deer ? " " I know nothing about it," said the Navaho. (The 
one knew nothing of venison ; the other knew nothing of corn.) 
" How does it taste to you ? " asked the old man. " I like the taste 
of it and I thank you for what you have given me," replied the 
Navaho. "Your wife, then, will have something to tell you." When 
he got back to the other lodge he said : " My son-in-law has been 
kind to us ; he has shown you his farm and taught you how to pre- 
pare his food. My daughter, now we must show him our farm." 
She brought to her husband a large portion of the cooked corn. 

524. When night came and they were alone together she asked 
him to tell her his name. " I have no name," he replied. Three 
times he answered her thus. When she asked for the fourth time 
he said : " Why do you wish to know my name ? I have two names. 
I am Na/f nesMani, He Who Teaches Himself, and I am A/iodXsefi, 
He Who Has Floated. Now that I have told you my name you 
must tell me your father's name." " He is called Piml/ani, Deer 
Raiser. I am Pi«n7ani-bitsf, Deer Raiser's Daughter, and my 
mother is Pi«il/ani-baad, She Deer Raiser," the young woman 

525. In the morning after this conversation they had a breakfast 
of mush and venison ; but Nart'nes/^ani received no warning from 
the Wind People and feared not to eat. When the meal was over, 
the young woman said to her husband : " My father has told me 
that, as you have shown me your farm, I may now show you his 
farm. If you wish to go there, you must first bathe your body in 
yucca-suds and then rinse off in pure water." After he had taken 
his bath as directed he picked up his old sandals and was about to 
put them on when she stopped him, saying : " No. You wore your 
own clothes when you went to your own farm. Now you must 
wear our clothes when you come to our farm." She gave him 
embroidered moccasins ; fringed buckskin leggings ; a buckskin 
shirt, dyed yellow, beautifully embroidered with porcupine quills, 
and fringed with stripes of otter-skin ; and a headdress adorned 
with artificial ears called Tsaharfblkohi — they wore such in the old 
days, and there are men still living who have seen them worn. 

526. Dressed in these fine garments he set out with his wife and 
they travelled toward the southeast. As they were passing the 
other hut she bade him wait outside while she went in to procure a 

Natt r nes\hani. 185 

wand of turquoise. They went but a short distance (about three 
hundred yards) 233 when they came, on the top of a small hill, to a 
large, smooth stone, adorned with turquoise, sticking in the ground 
like a stopple in a water-jar. She touched this rock stopple with 
her wand in four different directions — east, south, west, north — 
and it sprang up out of the ground. She touched it in an upward 
direction, and it lay over on its side, revealing a hole which led to a 
flight of four stone steps. 

527. She entered the hole and beckoned to him to follow. When 
they descended the steps they found themselves in a square apart- 
ment with four doors of rock crystal, one on each side. There was 
a rainbow over each door. With her wand she struck the eastern 
door and it flew open, disclosing a vast and beautiful country, like 
this world, but more beautiful. How vast it was the Navaho knew 
not, for he could not see the end of it. They passed through the 
door. The land was filled with deer and covered with beautiful 
flowers. The air was filled with the odor of pollen and the odor of 
fragrant blossoms. Birds of the most beautiful plumage were flying 
in the air, perching on the flowers, and building nests in the antlers 
of the deer. In the distance a light shower of rain was falling, and 
rainbows shone in every direction. " This, then, is the farm of my 
father-in-law which you promised to show me," said the Navaho. 
" It is beautiful ; but in truth it is no farm, for I see nothing 
planted here." She took him into three other apartments. They 
were all as beautiful as the first, but they contained different ani- 
mals. In the apartment to the south there were antelope ; in that 
to the west, Rocky Mountain sheep ; in that to the north, elk. 

528. When they closed the last door and came out to the central 
apartment they found Deer Raiser there. "Has my son-in-law been 
in all the rooms and seen all the game ? " he asked. " I have seen 
all," said Na/fnes/Zzani. " Do you see two sacrificial cigarettes of 
the deer above the rainbow over the eastern door ? " "I see them 
now," responded the Navaho, " but I did not notice them when I 
entered." The old man then showed him, over the door in the 
south, two cigarettes of the antelope ; over the door in the west, 
two cigarettes of the Rocky Mountain sheep ; over the door in the 
north, the single white cigarette of //astjreyalri 234 (the elk had no 
cigarette), and at the bottom of the steps by which they had en- 
tered, two cigarettes of the fawn. " Look well at these cigarettes," 
said the old man, " and remember how they are painted, for such 
we now sacrifice in our ceremonies/' "Are you pleased ?" "Do 
you admire what you have seen ? " " What do you think of it all ? " 
Such were the questions the old man asked, and the Navaho made 
answer: " I thank you. I am glad that I have seen your farm and 
your pets. Such things I never saw before." 

1 86 Navaho Legends. 

529. "Now, my daughter," said Deer Raiser, "catch a deer for 
my son-in-law, that we may have fresh meat." She opened the 
eastern door, entered, and caught a big buck by the foot (just as we 
catch sheep in these days). She pulled it out. The Navaho walked 
in front ; the young woman, dragging the buck, came after him, and 
the old man came last of all, closing the doors and putting in the 
stopple as he came. They brought the buck home, tied its legs 
together with short rainbows, cut its throat with a stone arrow point, 
and skinned it as we now skin deer. 

530. Now Deer Raiser began again to plot the death of his son-in- 
law. He found he could not poison him, so he determined to try an- 
other plan. In a neighboring canyon, to which there was but one 
entrance, he kept four fierce pet bears. He determined to invite his 
son-in-law out to hunt with him, and get him killed by these bears. 
The rest of that day the Navaho remained at home with his wife, 
while the old man took the hoofs of the slain deer and made with 
them a lot of tracks leading into the canyon of the bears. 

531. On the following morning, while the young woman was 
cooking in the other lodge, Deer Raiser came in where the Navaho 
sat and said : " My son-in-law, four of my pet deer have escaped 
from the farm. I have tracked them to a canyon near by, which 
has only one entrance. As soon as you have eaten I want you to 
help me to hunt them. You will stand at the entrance of the can- 
yon while I go in to drive the deer toward you, and you can kill 
them as they come out. No," said the old man after pausing for a 
while and pretending to think, "you must go into the canyon, my 
son-in-law, while I stay at the entrance and kill the deer. That will 
be better." When about to start on his hunt, the Wind People whis- 
pered to the Navaho : " Do not enter the canyon." 

532. The two men walked along the steep side of the valley, fol- 
lowing the tracks until they came to the high rugged cliffs that 
marked the entrance to the canyon. " When my deer escape, here 
is where they usually come," said Deer Raiser. A little stream of 
water ran out of the canyon, and here the old man had raised a dam 
to make a pool. When they reached the pool he said : " Here I 
shall stop to shoot the deer. Go you in and drive them out for 
me." " No, I fear the deer will pass me," said Na/I'nes//£ani. Four 
times these words were said by both. At last the old man, seeing 
that his companion was obstinate, said : " Stay here, then, but do 
not let the deer escape you, and do not climb the hillsides around 
for fear the deer should see you," and he went himself into the 
canyon. In spite of all the warnings he had received, Na/T'nes//zani 
climbed a rocky eminence where he could watch and be out of dan- 
ger. After waiting a while in silence he heard a distant cry like 

Natl'nesthani. 187 

that of a wolf, 235 woo-00-00-00, and became aware that something 
was moving toward him through the brush. He soon descried four 
bears walking down the canyon in single file, about thirty paces 
apart, alternately a female and a male. The old man had probably 
told them there was some one for them to kill, for they advanced 
with hair bristling, snouts up, and teeth showing. When he saw 
them coming he said, " I am Nay^nezgani. I am //astreyal/i. I am 
Sajnalkahi. I am a god of bears," and he mentioned the names 
of other potent gods. As the bears were passing their hidden 
enemy he drew arrow after arrow to the head and slew them all, one 
by one. He killed them as they walked along a ledge of rock, and 
their bodies tumbled down on the other side of the ledge, where 
they were hidden from view. Soon the voice of the old man was 
heard in the distance crying : " Oh, my pets ! Oh, Tjananaf ! Oh, 
T-re'skoafi ! (for the bears had names). 236 Save a piece for me! Save 
a piece for me ! " And a little later he came in sight, running and 
panting. He did not see his son-in-law till he was right beside him. 
He showed at once that he was surprised and angry, but he quickly 
tried to make it appear that he was angry from another cause. 
" I should have been here. You have let them run by," he cried 
in angry tones. "Oh, no," said the Navaho, " I have not let them 
run by. I have killed them. Look over the ledge and you will see 
them." The old man looked as he was told, and was struck dumb 
with astonishment and sorrow. He sat down in silence, with his 
head hanging between his knees, and gazed at the bodies of his dead 
pets. He did not even thank his son-in-law. 237 

533. Why did Deer Raiser seek the life of his son-in-law ? Now 
Na/fnes/^ani knew, and now you shall know. The old man was a 
dfin6'yiani, or man-eater, and a wizard. He wanted the flesh of the 
Navaho to eat, and he wanted parts of the dead body to use in 
the rites of witchcraft. But there was yet another reason ; he was 
jealous of the Navaho, for those who practise witchcraft practise 
also incest. 

534. " Why did you shoot them ? " said the old man at last ; " the 
deer went out before them. Why did you not shoot the deer ? Now 
you may skin the bears." " You never drove deer to me," said 
the Navaho. " These are what you drove to me. When a compan- 
ion in the hunt drives anything to me I kill it, no matter what it is. 
You have talked much to me about hunting with you. Now I have 
killed game and you must skin it." " Help me, then, to skin it," 
said Deer Raiser. " No. I never skin the game I kill myself. 238 
You must do the skinning. I killed for you," said the Navaho. " If 
you will not help me," said the old man, " go back to the house and 
tell my daughter to come and assist me to skin the bears. Go back 
by the way we came when we trailed the deer." 

1 88 Navaho Legends. 

535. Nart'nes/y&ani set off as the Deer Raiser had directed him. 
As soon as he was out of sight the old man rushed for the house by 
a short cut. Reaching home, he hastily dressed himself in the skin 
of a great serpent, went to the trail which his son-in-law was to 
take, and lay in ambush behind a log at a place where the path led 
through a narrow defile. As the Navaho approached the log the 
Wind People told him : " Your father-in-law awaits you behind the 
log." The Navaho peeped over the log before he got too near, and 
saw Deer Raiser in his snake-skin suit, swaying uneasily back and 
forth, poising himself as if preparing to spring. When he saw the 
young man looking in his direction he crouched low. " What are 
you doing there ? " called the Navaho (in a way which let Deer Raiser 
know he was recognized), 239 and he drew an arrow on the old man. 
" Stop ! stop ! " cried the latter. " I only came here to meet you 
and hurry you up." "Why do you not come from behind, if that is 
so ? Why do you come from before me and hide beside my path ? " 
said the Navaho, and he passed on his way and went to his wife's 

536. When Na/i'nes//*ani reached the house he told his wife that 
he had killed four animals for his father-in-law, but he did not tell 
her what kind of animals they were, and he told her that her father 
sent for her mother to help skin the animals and cut up the meat. 
The daughter delivered the message to her mother, and the latter 
went out to the canyon to help her husband. When Deer Raiser 
saw his wife coming he was furious. " It was my daughter I sent 
for, not you," he roared. "What sort of a man is he who cannot 
carry my word straight, who cannot do as he is told ? I bade him 
tell my daughter, not you, to come to me." Between them they 
skinned and dressed the bears and carried them, one at a time, to 
his house. He sent to his son-in-law to know if he wanted some 
meat, and the Navaho replied that he did not eat bear meat. When 
he heard this, Deer Raiser was again furious, and said : " What man- 
ner of a man is this who won't eat meat ? (He did not say what kind 
of meat.) When we offer him food he says he does not want to eat 
it. He never does what he is told to do. We cook food for him 
and he refuses it. What can we do to please him ? What food will 
satisfy him ? " 

537. The next morning after the bears were killed, the young 
woman went out as usual, and the old man entered during her ab- 
sence. He said to Nafi'nesMani : " I wish you to go out with me 
to-day and help me to fight my enemies. There are enemies of 
mine, not far from here, whom I sometimes meet in battle." " I 
will go with you," said the Navaho. " I have long been hoping that 
some one would say something like this to me." 

JWati'riestbam. 189 

538. They went from the lodge toward a mountain which was 
edged on two sides by steep cliffs, which no man could climb. On 
the top of the mountain the old man said there was a round hole 
or valley in which his enemies dwelled. He stationed his son-in-law 
on one side of this round valley where no cliffs were, and he went 
to the opposite side to drive the enemy, as he said. He promised to 
join the Navaho when the enemy started. Deer Raiser went around 
the mountain and cried four times in imitation of a wolf. Then, 
instead of coming to his comrade's help, he ran around the base of 
the hill and got behind his son-in-law. Soon after the old man 
made his cry, the Navaho saw twelve great ferocious bears coming 
toward him over the crest' of the hill. They were of the kind called 
.yaj-nalkahi, or tracking bears, such as scent and track a man, and 
follow till they kill him. They were of all the sacred colors, — 
white, blue, yellow, black, and spotted. They came toward the 
Navaho, but he was well armed and prepared to meet them. He 
fought with them the hardest fight he ever fought ; but at length he 
killed them all, and suffered no harm himself. 240 

539. In the mean time the old man ran off in the direction of his 
home, sure that his son-in-law was killed. He said : " I think we 
shall hear no more of Nart'nesMani. I think we shall hear no more 
of A/iodiseli. Hereafter it will be Na/i'nes//zanini (the dead Na/I'- 
nes///ani). Hereafter it will be A/fo^Ise/ini (the dead A/zo^ise/i). 241 
He can't come back out of the tracking bears' mouths." After kill- 
ing the bears, the Navaho found the old man's trail and followed it. 
Presently he came to Deer Raiser, who was sitting on a knoll. The 
old man could not conceal his astonishment at seeing the Navaho 
still alive. " When we went out to this battle," said the young 
man, "we promised not to desert one another. Why did you run 
away from me ? " The Deer Raiser answered : "I am sorry I could 
not find you. I did not see where you were, so I came on this 
way. What did you do where I left you ? Did you kill any of the 
bears?" "Yes, I killed all of them," said Nafl'nes//*ani. "I am 
glad you killed all and came away with your own life, my dear son- 
in-law," said the old cheat: 

540. They started to walk home together, but night fell when 
they reached a rocky ridge on the way ; here they picked out a 
nice spot of ground to sleep on, built a shelter of brushwood, and 
made a fire. Before they went to rest the old man said : " This 
is a bad place to camp. It is called Kedidf/yena'a' (Ridge of the 
Burnt Moccasins)." As they lay down to sleep, one on either side of 
the fire, each took off his moccasins and put them under his head. 
The old man said : " Take good care of your moccasins, my son-in- 
law. Place them securely." "Why does he say these things?" 

190 Navaho Legends. 

asked the Navaho to himself. As he lay awake, thinking of the 
warning of the old man, he heard the latter snoring. He rose softly, 
took away the old man's moccasins, put his own in their place, and 
lay down to sleep with Deer Raiser's moccasins under his head. 
Later in the night the old man got up, pulled the moccasins from 
under the young man's head, and buried them in the hot embers. 
He was anxious to get home next morning before his son-in-law. 

541. At dawn the old man aroused his companion with " It is time 
we were on our road." The young man woke, rubbed his eyes, 
yawned, and pretended to look for his moccasins. After searching 
a while he asked : " Where are my moccasins ? Have I lost them ? " 
" Huh ! " said Deer Raiser. " You did not listen to what I told 
you last night. I said that this was the Ridge of the Burned Moc- 
casins." In the mean time, on the other side of the fire, the old man 
was putting on his companion's moccasins, not noticing that they 
were not his own. " Look. You are putting on my moccasins 
instead of your own. Give me my moccasins," said the Navaho, 
reaching across the fire. He took them out of his companion's 
hands, sat down and put them on. " Now we must hurry back," he 
said. " I can't see what made you burn your moccasins, but I can- 
not wait for you. I am going now." 242 

542. Before the young man left, his father-in-law gave him a mes- 
sage. " I cannot travel as fast as you on my bare feet. When you 
go home, tell my daughter to come out with a pair of moccasins and 
some food, and meet me on the trail." When the Navaho got home 
he said to his wife : " I camped with your father last night, and he 
burned his moccasins. He is limping home barefoot. He bids his 
wife to come out and meet him with moccasins and food." The 
daughter delivered the message to her mother, and the latter went 
out to meet her husband with moccasins, food, and a brand of burn- 
ing cedar-bark. When the old man met her he was angry. " Why 
have you come ? Why has not my daughter come ? " he asked. 
" Your son-in-law said that I should come," the old woman replied. 
" Oh, what a fool my son-in-law is," cried Deer Raiser. " He never 
can remember what he is told to say." He ate his food, put on 
his moccasins, and hurried home with his wife. 

543. When Deer Raiser visited his son-in-law on the following 
morning he said : " I warn you never to stray alone to the east of the 
lodge in which you dwell. There is a dangerous place there." The 
old man went home, and the Navaho pondered all day over what his 
father-in-law had said, and during the night he made up his mind to 
do just what the old man had told him not to do. 

544. When Na/I'nes///ani had eaten in the morning he dressed 
himseif for a journey, left the lodge, and travelled straight to the east. 

JVatznesthanz. 191 

He came to a steep white ridge ; 2iS when he had climbed this about 
half way, he observed approaching him a man of low stature. His 
coat, which fitted him skin-tight, was white on the chest and insides of 
the arms, while it was brown elsewhere, like the skin of a deer. He 
wore on his head a deer-mask, with horns, such as deer-hunters use. 
He carried a turquoise wand, a black bow with sinew on the back, 
and two arrows with featherings of eagle-tail. He was one of the 
TsidasASiaftne'. 244 When the men met, the stranger, who had a pale 
face, 245 looked out from under his mask and said : " Whence come 
you, my grandchild ? " " I come, my grandfather, from a place near 
here. I come from the house of Pi«u7ani," the Navaho answered. 
" My grandchild, I have heard of you. Do you know how my cigar- 
ette is made ? " said the man with the deer-mask. " No, my grand- 
father, I never heard of your cigarette," was the reply. "There is 
a cigarette 12 for me, my grandson," said the stranger. " It is painted 
white, with a black spot on it, and is so long (second joint of mid- 
dle finger). It should be laid in the fork of a pinon-tree. I am 
now walking out, and am going in the direction whence you came. 
There are people living behind the ridge you are climbing. You 
should visit them, and hear what they will have to tell you." 

545. The Navaho climbed the ridge ; and as he began to descend 
it on the other side, he observed below him two conical tents, such 
as the Indians of the plains use. The tents were white below and 
yellow above, representing the dawn and the evening twilight. As 
he approached the tents he observed that two games of nances' were 
being played, — one beside each tent, — and a number of people 
were gathered, watching the games. As he advanced toward the 
crowd a man came forward to meet him, saying : " Go to the lodge in 
the south. There are many people there." He went to the lodge 
in the south, as he was bidden. A woman of bright complexion, 
fairer than the Navahoes usually are, the wife of the owner of the 
lodge, came out and invited him to enter. 

546. When Na/i'nes/7/ani entered the lodge he found its owner 
seated in the middle. The latter was a man past middle age, but 
not very old. He was dressed in a beautiful suit of buckskin em- 
broidered with porcupine quills. He pointed to a place by his side, 
and said to the Navaho : " Sit here, my grandchild." When the 
Navaho was seated his host said : " Whence do you come ? The 
people who live up on the earth are never seen here." " I come 
from the house of Pi';/il/ani," the young man answered. " Oh ! Do 
you ? " questioned the host. " And do you know that Deer Raiser 
is a great villain ; that he kills his guests ; that he talks softly, and 
pretends friendship, and lures people to stay with him until he can 
quietly kill them ? Has he never spoken thus softly to you ? How 

192 Navaho Legends. 

long have you been staying with him ? " " I have dwelt with him 
for many days," Nart'nes^ani answered. "Ah!" said his host. 
" Many of our young men have gone over there to woo his daughter ; 
but they have never returned. Some are killed on the first day ; 
others on the second day; others on the third day; others on the 
fourth ; but no one ever lives beyond the fourth day. No one has 
ever lived there as long as you have." "He seems to be such a 
man as you describe him," said Na/i'nes^ani. *' He has been trying 
to kill me ever since I have been with him." " You must be a wise 
man to have escaped him so long ; your prayer must be potent ; your 
charm must be strong," ™ declared the host. " No, truly, I know 
no good prayer ; I possess no charm," the Navaho replied, and then 
he went on to tell how he came into that country, and all that hap- 
pened to him, till he came to the house of Deer Raiser. " He is 
rich, but he is no good. That daughter of his is also his wife, and 
that is why he wants to poison her suitors," said the owner of the 
lodge, and then he described four ways in which PiwuVani killed his 
guests. The Navaho remained silent. He knew all the ways of the 
Deer Raiser, but he pretended not to know. Then the host went 
on : " The house of Deer Raiser is a place of danger. You will 
surely be killed if you stay there. I am sorry you are in such bad 
company, for you seem to be a good man." " You speak of Deer 
Raiser as a great man ; but he cannot be so great as you think he is. 
Four times have I killed him with smoke, and four times have I 
brought him to life again," said the Navaho, and then he related all 
his adventures since he had been with Pi«il/ani. 

547. The host thanked him for having slain the bears, and went 
out to call the players and all the crowd that stood around them to 
come to his tent. They came, for he was their chief, and soon the 
tent was crowded. Then he spoke to the assembly, and told them 
the story of the Navaho. There was great rejoicing when they 
heard it. They thanked Na/i'nes/^ani for what he had done. One 
said that Deer Raiser had killed his brother ; another said he had 
killed his son ; another said the bears had slain his nephew, and 
thus they spoke of their many woes. 

548. The people were of five kinds, or gentes : the Puma People, 
the Blue Fox People, the Yellow Fox People, the Wolf People, and 
the Lynx People, and the host was chief of all. 

549. The chief ordered one of his daughters to prepare food for 
the visitor. She brought in deer pemmican. The Navaho ate, and 
when he was done he said : '" I am now ready to go, my grandfa- 
ther." "Wait a while," said the chief. "I have some medicine to 
give you. It is an antidote for Deer Raiser's poison." He gave his 
visitor two kinds of medicine; one was an object the size of the 

JVati'riestham. 193 

last two joints of the little finger, made of the gall of birds of prey, 
— all birds that catch with their claws ; the other was a small quan- 
tity (as much as one might grasp with the tips of all the fingers of 
one hand) of a substance composed of material vomited by each of 
the five animals that were the totems of this people. " Now have 
no fear," said the chief. " The bears are slain, and you have here 
medicines that will kill the wizard's poison. They are potent against 
witchcraft." 247 

550. When the Navaho went back to the house where his wife 
was, she said : " My father has been here inquiring for you. When 
I told him you had gone to the east he was very angry, and said that 
he told you not to go there." Soon the old man entered and said 
fiercely : " Why have you gone to the east ? I told you not to go 
there. I told you it was a bad place." The young man made no 
reply, but acted as if he had seen and heard nothing while he was 
gone, and in a little while Deer Raiser calmed down and acted as if 
he wished to be at peace again with his son-in-law ; but before he 
left he warned him not to go to the south. Natf'nes//zani pondered 
on the words of his father-in-law that night, and made up his mind 
to again disobey him when morning came. 

551. Next day, when he had eaten, he dressed himself for a jour- 
ney and walked toward the south. He came, in time, to a blue 
ridge, and when he was ascending it he met a little man, much like 
the one he had met the day before, but he had a bluish face. In- 
stead of being dressed to look like a deer, he was dressed to look 
like an antelope ; he wore an antelope hunting-mask with horns, he 
carried a wand of haliotis, and a bow made of a wood called tse/kani, 
with no sinew on the back, and he had arrows trimmed with the tail 
feathers of the red-tailed buzzard. 248 Like the little man of the east, 
he was also one of the Tsidas/oi People. He told the Navaho how 
to make the cigarette that belorfged to him, to make it the length of 
the middle joint of the little finger, to paint it blue, spot it with yel- 
low, and deposit it in the fork of a cedar-tree. The little man told 
the Navaho to go on over the ridge till he came to two lodges and 
to listen there to what the people would tell him. He went and 
found two lodges, and people playing nana-os", and had all things 
happen to him nearly the same as happened to him in the east. 
When he returned home he had again an angry talk from his father- 
in-law, and was warned not to go to the west ; but again he deter- 
mined to pay no heed to the warning. 

552. When he went to the west, next day, he found a yellow ridge 
to cross. The little man whom he met had a yellowish face ; he 
was armed and dressed the same as the little man of the east, except 
that he had no horns on his deer-mask, for he represented a doe. 

194 Navaho Legends. 

He described to the Navaho how to make a cigarette sacred to him- 
self, which was to be painted yellow, spotted with blue, and de- 
posited in a pinon-tree, like the cigarette of the east. Other events 
happened much as on the two previous days. 

553. On the fourth of these forbidden journeys the Navaho went 
to the north. The ridge which he had to cross was black. The 
little man whom he met was armed and dressed like the man in the 
south, but he had no horns on his mask. His face was very dark. 
The cigarette which he described was to be painted black and 
spotted with white ; it was to be the same length as the cigarette of 
the south, and disposed of in the same way. 

554. When he got home from his fourth journey, his father-in-law 
came into the lodge and reviled him once more with angry words ; 
but this time the Navaho did not remain silent. He told the old 
man where he had been, what people he had met, what stories he 
had heard, and all that he knew of him. He told him, too, that he 
had learned of cigarettes, and medicines, and charms, and rites to 
protect him against a wizard's power. " You have killed others," 
said Natf'nesA&ani, " you have tried to kill me. I knew it all the 
time, but said nothing. Now I know all of your wickedness." "All 
that you say is true," said the old man ; " but I shall seek your life 
no more, and I shall give up all my evil ways. While you were 
abroad on your journeys you learned of powerful sacrifices, and 
rites, and medicines. All that I ask is that you will treat me with 
these." His son-in-law did as he was desired, and in doing so per- 
formed the first atsosi /za/al. 249 

555. After treating his father-in-law, Natf'nes^/zani returned to his 
people, taught them all he had learned while he was gone, and thus 
established the rite of atsosi h^tkl among the Navahoes. Then he 
went back to the whirling lake of Jb'nihiliw, and he dwells there 


556. Kintyei, 72 Broad House, and KlWollfe, Blue House, 208 are 
two pueblo houses in the Chaco Canyon. They are ruins now ; but 
in the days when Ki«nfki lived on earth many people dwelt there. 
Not far from the ruins is a high cliff called Tse'deza', or Standing 
Rock. Near these places the rite of yoi ^a/a/, 250 or the bead chant, 

Fig. 36. Ruin in the Chaco Canyon, probably Kintyei (after Bickford). 

was first practised by the Navahoes, and this is the tale of how it 
first became known to man : — 

557. Two young men, one from Kinty6I and one from KYndotliz, 
went out one day to hunt deer. About sunset, as they were return- 
ing to Ki'ndotlis, weary and unsuccessful, they observed a war- 
eagle soaring overhead, and they stopped to watch his flight. He 

ig6 Navaho Legends. 

moved slowly away, growing smaller and smaller to their gaze until 
at length he dwindled to a black speck, almost invisible ; and while 
they strained their sight to get a last look he seemed to them to 
descend on the top of Standing Rock. In order to mark the spot 
where they last saw him they cut a forked stick, stuck it in the 
ground fork upward, and arranged it so that when they should look 
over it again, crouching in a certain position, their sight would be 
guided to the spot. They left the stick standing and went home to 
KiWo/liir. 251 

558. In those days eagles were very scarce in the land; it was a 
wonder to see one ; so when the young men got home and told the 
story of their day's adventures, it became the subject of much con- 
versation and counsel, and at length the people determined to send 
four men, in the morning, to take sight over the forked stick, in 
order to find out where the eagle lived. 

559. Next morning early the four men designated went to the 
forked stick and sighted over it, and all came to the conclusion that 
the eagle lived on the point of Tse'deza*. They went at once to the 
rock, climbed to the summit, and saw the eagle and its young in a 
cleft on the face of the precipice below them. They remained on 
the summit all day and watched the nest. 

560. At night they went home and told what they had seen. 
They had observed two young eagles of different ages in the nest. 
Of the four men who went on the search, two were from Kintyel 
and two were from Ki'nafo/lls', therefore people from the two pueblos 
met in counsel in an estufa, and there it was decided that Y*A'ndot\\z 
should have the elder of the two eaglets and that Kintyel should 
have the younger. 

561. The only way to reach the nest was to lower a man to it 
with a rope ; yet directly above the nest was an overhanging ledge 
which the man, descending, would be obliged to pass. It was a 
dangerous undertaking, and no one could be found to volunteer for 
it. Living near the pueblos was a miserable Navaho beggar who 
subsisted on such food as he could pick up. When the sweepings 
of the rooms and the ashes from the fireplaces were thrown out on 
the kitchen heap, he searched eagerly through them and was happy 
if he could find a few grains of corn or a piece of paper bread. He 
was called Nahoditahe, or He Who Picks Up (like a bird). They 
concluded to induce this man to make the dangerous descent. 

562. They returned to the pueblo and sent for the poor Navaho 
to come to the estufa. When he came they bade him be seated, 
placed before him a large basket of paper bread, bowls of boiled 
corn and meat, with all sorts of their best food, and told him to eat 
his fill. He ate as he had never eaten before, and after a long time 

The Great Shell of Kinty'el. 197 

he told his hosts that he was satisfied. " You shall eat," said they, 
" of such abundance all your life, and never more have to scrape for 
grains of corn among the dirt, if you will do as we desire." Then 
they told him of their plan for catching the young eagles, and asked 
him if he were willing to be put in a basket and lowered to the nest 
with a rope. He pondered and was silent. They asked him again 
and again until they had asked him four times, while he still sat in 
meditation. At last he answered : " I lead but a poor life at best. 
Existence is not sweet to a man who always hungers. It would be 
pleasant to eat such food for the rest of my days, and some time or 
other I must die. I shall do as you wish." 

563. On the following morning they gave him another good meal ; 
they made a great, strong carrying-basket with four corners at the 
top ; they tied a strong string to each corner, and, collecting a large 
party, they set out for the rock of Tse'deza'. 

564. When the party arrived at the top of the rock they tied a 
long, stout rope to the four strings on the basket. They instructed 
the Navaho to take the eaglets out of the nest and drop them to the 
bottom of the cliff. The Navaho then entered the basket and was 
lowered over the edge of the precipice. They let the rope out 
slowly till they thought they had lowered him far enough and then 
they stopped ; but as he had not yet reached the nest he called out 
to them to lower him farther. They did so, and as soon as he was 
on a level with the nest he called to the people above to stop. 

565. He was just about to grasp the eaglets and throw them 
down when Wind whispered to him : " These people of the Pueblos 
are not your friends. They desire not to feed you with their good 
food as long as you live. If you throw these young eagles down, as 
they bid you, they will never pull you up again. Get into the eagles' 
nest and stay there." When he heard this, he called to those above: 
" Swing the basket so that it may come nearer to the cliff. I can- 
not reach the nest unless you do." So they caused the basket to 
swing back and forth. When it touched the cliff he held fast to the 
rock and scrambled into the nest, leaving the empty basket swing- 
ing in the air. 

566. The Pueblos saw the empty basket swinging and waited, 
expecting to see the Navaho get back into it again. But when they 
had waited a good while and found he did not return they began to 
call to him as if he were a dear relation of theirs. " My son," said 
the old men, " throw down those little eagles." " My elder brother! 
My younger brother ! " the young men shouted, " throw down those 
little eagles." They kept up their clamor until nearly sunset ; but 
they never moved the will of the Navaho. He sat in the cleft and 
never answered them, and when the sun set they ceased calling and 
went home. 

198 Navaho Legends. 

567. In the cleft or cave, around the nest, four dead animals lay ; 
to the east there was a fawn ; to the south a hare ; to the west the 
young of a Rocky Mountain sheep, and to the north a prairie-dog. 
From time to time, when the eaglets felt hungry, they would leave 
the nest and eat of the meat ; but the Navaho did not touch it. 

568. Early next day the Pueblo people returned and gathered in a 
great crowd at the foot of the cliff. They stayed there all day re- 
peating their entreaties and promises, calling the Navaho by endear- 
ing terms, and displaying all kinds of tempting food to his gaze ; 
but he heeded them not and spoke not. 

569. They came early again on the third day, but they came in 
anger. They no longer called him by friendly names ; they no 
longer made fair promises to him ; but, instead, they shot fire- 
arrows at the eyry in hopes they would burn the Navaho out or set 
fire to the nest and compel him to throw it and the eaglets down. 
But he remained watchful and active, and whenever a fire-arrow 
entered the cave he seized it quickly and threw it out. Then they 
abused him and reviled him, and called him bad names until sunset, 
when again they went home. 

570. They came again on the fourth day and acted as they had 
done on the previous day ; but they did not succeed in making the 
Navaho throw down the little eagles. He spoke to the birds, saying: 
" Can you not help me ? " They rose in the nest, shook their wings, 
and threw out many little feathers, which fell on the people below. 
The Navaho thought the birds must be scattering disease on his 
enemies. When the latter left at sunset they said : " Now we 
shall leave you where you are, to die of hunger and thirst." He 
was then altogether three nights and nearly four days in the cave. 
For two days the Pueblos had coaxed and flattered him ; for two 
days they had cursed and reviled him, and at the end of the fourth 
day they went home and left him in the cave to die. 

571. When his tormentors were gone he sat in the cave hungry 
and thirsty, weak and despairing, till the night fell. Soon after 
dark he heard a great rushing sound which approached from one 
side of the entrance to the cave, roared a moment in front, and then 
grew faint in the distance at the other side. Thus four times the 
sound came and went, growing louder each time it passed, and at 
length the male Eagle lit on the eyry. Soon the sounds were 
repeated, and the female bird, the mother of the eaglets, alighted. 
Turning at once toward the Navaho, she said : " Greeting, my child ! 
Thanks, my child ! You have not thrown down your younger 
brother, Ztoniki." 285 The male Eagle repeated the same words. 
They addressed the Navaho by the name of Z?oniki, but afterwards 
they named him Kiwni'ki, after the chief of all the Eagles in the sky. 
He only replied to the Eagles : " I am hungry. I am thirsty." 

The Great Shell of KintyeL 1 99 

572. The male Eagle opened his sash and took out a small white 
cotton cloth which contained a little corn meal, and he took out a 
small bowl of white shell no bigger than the palm of the hand. 
When the Indian saw this he said : " Give me water first, for I am 
famishing with thirst." "No," replied the Eagle; "eat first and 
then you shall have something to drink." The Eagle then drew 
forth from among his tail feathers a small plant called el/indsakaj, 252 
which has many joints and grows near streams. The joints were all 
filled with water. The Eagle mixed a little of the water with some 
of the meal in the shell and handed the mixture to the Navaho. 
The latter ate and ate, until he was satisfied, but he could not 
diminish in the least the contents of the shell vessel. When he 
was done eating there was as much in the cup as there was when he 
began. He handed it back to the Eagle, the latter emptied it with 
one sweep of his finger, and it remained empty. Then the Eagle put 
the jointed plant to the Navaho's lips as if it were a wicker bottle, 
and the Indian drank his fill. 

573. On the previous nights, while lying in the cave, the Navaho 
had slept between the eaglets in the nest to keep himself warm and 
shelter himself from the wind, and this plan had been of some help 
to him ; but on this night the great Eagles slept one on each side of 
him, and he felt as warm as if he had slept among robes of fur. 
Before the Eagles lay down to sleep each took off his robe of plumes, 
which formed a single garment, opening in front, and revealed a 
form like that of a human being. 

574. The Navaho slept well that night and did not waken till he 
heard a voice calling from the top of the cliff: "Where are you ? 
The day has dawned. It is growing late. Why are you not abroad 
already ? " At the sound of this voice the Eagles woke too and put 
on their robes of plumage. Presently a great number of birds were 
seen flying before the opening of the cave and others were heard 
calling to one another on the rock overhead. There were many 
kinds of Eagles and Hawks in the throng. Some of all the large 
birds of prey were there. Those on top of the rock sang : — 

Kiwnakfye, there he sits. 
When they fly up, 
We shall see him. 
He will flap his wings. 286 

575. One of the Eagles brought a dress of eagle plumes and was 
about to put it on the Navaho when the others interfered, and they 
had a long argument as to whether they should dress him in the 
garment of the Eagles or not ; but at length they all flew away 
without giving him the dress. When they returned they had 

200 Navaho Legends. 

thought of another plan for taking him out of the cave. Laying 
him on his face, they put a streak of crooked lightning under his 
feet, a sunbeam under his knees, a piece of straight lightning under 
his chest, another under his outstretched hands, and a rainbow 
under his forehead. 

576. An Eagle then seized each end of these six supports, — mak- 
ing twelve Eagles in all, — and they flew with the Navaho and the 
eaglets away from the eyry. They circled round twice with their 
burden before they reached the level of the top of the cliff. They 
circled round twice more ascending, and then flew toward the 
south, still going upwards. When they got above the top of Tsotsi/ 
(Mr. Taylor), they circled four times more, until they almost 
touched the sky. Then they began to flag and breathed hard, and 
they cried out: "We are weary. We can fly no farther." The 
voice of one, unseen to the Navaho, cried from above : " Let go your 
burden." The Eagles released their hold on the supports, and the 
Navaho felt himself descending swiftly toward the earth. But he 
had not fallen far when he felt himself seized around the waist and 
chest, he felt something twining itself around his body, and a 
moment later he beheld the heads of two Arrow-snakes 253 looking 
at him over his shoulders. The. Arrow-snakes bore him swiftly 
upwards, up through the sky-hole, and landed him safely on the sur- 
face of the upper world above the sky. 

577. When he looked around him he observed four pueblo dwell- 
ings, or towns : a white pueblo in the east, a bluej pueblo in the 
south, a yellow pueblo in the west, and a black pueblo in the north. 
Wolf was the chief of the eastern pueblo, Blue Fox of the southern, 
Puma of the western, and Big Snake of the northern. The Navaho 
was left at liberty to go where he chose, but Wind whispered into 
his ear and said : " Visit, if you wish, all the pueblos except that of 
the north. Chicken Hawk 254 and other bad characters dwell there." 

578. Next he observed that a war party was preparing, and soon 
after his arrival the warriors went forth. What enemies they sought 
he could not learn. He entered several of the houses, was well treated 
wherever he went, and given an abundance of paper bread and other 
good food to eat. He saw that in their homes the Eagles were just 
like ordinary people down on the lower world. As soon as they 
entered their pueblos they took off their feather suits, hung these 
up on pegs and poles, and went around in white suits which they 
wore underneath their feathers when in flight. He visited all the 
pueblos except the black one in the north. In the evening the war- 
riors returned. They were received with loud wailing and with 
tears, for many who went out in the morning did not return at 
night. They had been slain in battle. 

The Great Shell of Ktnty el. 201 

579. In a few days another war party was organized, and this time 
the Navaho determined to go with it. When the warriors started on 
the trail he followed them. . " Whither are you going ? " they asked. 
"I wish to be one of your party," he replied. They laughed at him 
and said : " You are a fool to think you can go to war against such 
dreadful enemies as those that we fight. We can move as fast as the 
wind, yet our enemies can move faster. If they are able to overcome 
us, what chance have you, poor man, for your life ? " Hearing this, 
he remained behind, but they had not travelled far when he hurried 
after them. When he overtook them, which he soon did, they spoke 
to him angrily, told him more earnestly than before how helpless he 
was, and how great his danger, and bade him return to the villages. 
Again he halted ; but as soon as they were out of sight he began 
to run after them, and he came up with them at the place where 
they had encamped for the night. Here they gave him of their 
food, and again they scolded him, and sought to dissuade him from 
accompanying them. 

580. In the morning, when the warriors resumed their march, he 
remained behind on the camping-ground, as if he intended to re- 
turn ; but as soon as they were out of sight he proceeded again to 
follow them. He had not travelled far when he saw smoke coming 
up out of the ground, and approaching the smoke he found a smoke- 
hole, out of which stuck an old ladder, yellow with smoke, such as 
we see in the pueblo dwellings to-day. He looked down through 
the hole and beheld, in a subterranean chamber beneath, a strange- 
looking old woman with a big mouth. Her teeth were not set in 
her head evenly and regularly, like those of an Indian ; they pro- 
truded from her mouth, were set at a distance from one another, 
and were curved like the claws of a bear. She was Nastre' Estsan, 
the Spider Woman. She invited him into her house, and he passed 
down the ladder. 

581. When he got inside, the Spider Woman showed him four 
large wooden hoops, — one in the east colored black, one in the south 
colored blue, one in the west colored yellow, and one in the north 
white and sparkling. Attached to each hoop were a number of 
decayed, ragged feathers. "These feathers," said she, "were once 
beautiful plumes, but now they are old and dirty. I want some new 
plumes to adorn my hoops, and you can get them for me. Many of 
the Eagles will be killed in the battle to which you are going, and 
when they die you can pluck out the plumes and bring them to me. 
Have no fear of the enemies. Would you know who they are that 
the Eagles go to fight ? They are only the bumblebees and the 
tumble-weeds " 256 She gave him a long black cane and said : " With 
this you can gather the tumble-weeds into a pile, and then you can 

202 Navaho Legends. 

set them on fire. Spit the juice of t .rildftlgi'si ffi7 at the bees and they 
cannot sting you. But before you burn up the tumble-weeds gather 
some of the seeds, and when you have killed the bees take some 
of their nests. You will need these things when you return to the 
earth." When Spider Woman had done speaking the Navaho left 
to pursue his journey. 

582. He travelled on, and soon came up with the warriors where 
they were hiding behind a little hill and preparing for battle. Some 
were putting on their plumes ; others were painting and adorning 
themselves. From time to time one of their number would creep 
cautiously to the top of the hill and peep over ; then he would run 
back and whisper: " There are the enemies. They await us." The 
Navaho went to the top of the hill and peered over ; but he could 
see no enemy whatever. He saw only a dry, sandy flat, covered in 
one place with sunflowers, and in another place with dead weeds ; 
for it was now late in the autumn in the world above. 

583. Soon the Eagles were all ready for the fray. They raised 
their war-cry, and charged over the hill into the sandy plain. The 
Navaho remained behind the hill, peeping over to see what would 
occur. As the warriors approached the plain a whirlwind arose j 258 
a great number of tumble-weeds ascended with the wind and surged 
around madly through the air ; and, at the same time, from among 
the sunflowers a cloud of bumblebees arose. The Eagles charged 
through the ranks of their enemies, and when they had passed to 
the other side they turned around and charged back again. Some 
spread their wings and soared aloft to attack the tumble-weeds that 
had gone up with the whirlwind. From time to time the Navaho 
noticed the dark body of an Eagle falling down through the air. 
When the combat had continued some time, the Navaho noticed a 
few of the Eagles running toward the hill where he lay watching. In 
a moment some more came running toward him, and soon after the 
whole party of Eagles, all that was left of it, rushed past him, in a 
disorderly retreat, in the direction whence they had come, leaving 
many slain on the field. Then the wind fell ; the tumble-weeds lay 
quiet again on the sand, and the bumblebees disappeared among 
the sunflowers. 

584. When all was quiet, the Navaho walked down to the sandy 
flat, and, having gathered some of the seeds and tied them up in a 
corner of his shirt, he collected the tumble-weeds into a pile, using 
his black wand. Then he took out his fire-drill, started a flame, and 
burnt up the whole pile. He gathered some trnVilgt'si, as the Spider 
Woman had told him, chewed it, and went in among the sunflowers. 
Here the bees gathered around him in a great swarm, and sought 
to sting him ; but he spat the juice of the trildfilgT'si at them and 

The Great Shell of Kintyel. 203 

stunned with it all that he struck. Soon the most of them lay help- 
less on the ground, and the others fled in fear. He went around 
with his black wand and killed all that he could find. He dug into 
the ground and got out some of their nests and honey; he took a 
couple of the young bees and tied their feet together, and all these 
things he put into the corner of his blanket. When the bees were 
conquered he did not forget the wishes of his friend, the Spider 
Woman ; he went around among the dead eagles, and plucked as 
many plumes as he could grasp in both hands. 

585. He set out on his return journey, and soon got back to the 
house of Spider Woman. He gave her the plumes and she said : 
" Thank you, my grandchild, you have brought me the plumes that 
I have long wanted to adorn my walls, and you have done a great 
service to your friends, the Eagles, because you have slain their ene- 
mies." When she had spoken he set out again on his journey. 

586. He slept that night on the trail, and next morning he got 
back to the towns of the Eagles. As he approached he heard from 
afar the cries of the mourners, and when he entered the place the 
people gathered around him and said: "We have lost many of our 
kinsmen, and we are wailing for them ; but we have been also 
mourning for you, for those who returned told us you had been 
killed in the fight." 

587. He made no reply, but took from his blanket the two young 
bumblebees and swung them around his head. All the people were 
terrified and ran, and they did not stop running till they got safely 
behind their houses. In a little while they got over their fear, came 
slowly from behind their houses, and crowded around the Navaho 
again. A second time he swung the bees around his head, and a 
second time the people ran away in terror ; but this time they only 
went as far as the front walls of their houses, and soon they returned 
again to the Navaho. The third time that he swung the bees 
around his head they were still less frightened, ran but half way to 
their houses, and returned very soon. The fourth time that he 
swung the bees they only stepped back a step or two. When their 
courage came back to them, he laid the two bees on the ground ; 
he took out the seeds of the tumble-weeds and laid them on the 
ground beside the bees, and then he said to the Eagle People : " My 
friends, here are the children of your enemies ; when you see these 
you may know that I have slain your enemies." . There was great 
rejoicing among the people when they heard this, and this one said : 
" It is well. They have slain my brother," and that one said : " It is 
well. They have slain my father," and another said : " It is well. 
They have slain my sons." Then Great Wolf, chief of the white 
pueblo, said : " I have two beautiful maiden daughters whom I shall 

204 Navaho Legends. 

give to you." Then Fox, chief of the blue pueblo in the south, 
promised him two more maidens, and the chiefs of the other pueblos 
promised him two each, so that eight beautiful maidens were prom- 
ised to hirn in marriage. 

588. The chief of the white pueblo now conducted the Navaho to 
his house and into a large and beautiful apartment, the finest the 
poor Indian had ever seen. It had a smooth wall, nicely coated 
with white earth, a large fireplace, mealing-stones, beautiful pots and 
water-jars, and all the conveniences and furniture of a beautiful 
pueblo home. And the chief said to him : ", my son-in-law, 
this house is yours." 

589. The principal men from all the pueblos now came to visit 
him, and thanked him for the great service he had done for 
them. Then his maidens from the yellow house came in bringing 
corn meal ; the maidens from the black house entered bringing soap- 
weed, and the maidens of the white house, where he was staying, 
came bearing a large bowl of white shell. A suds of the soap-weed 
was prepared in the shell bowl. The maidens of the white house 
washed his head with the suds ; the maidens of the black house 
washed his limbs and feet, and those of the yellow house dried him 
with corn meal. When the bath was finished the maidens went 
out ; but they returned at dark, accompanied this time by the 
maidens of the blue house. Each of the eight maidens carried a 
large bowl of food, and each bowl contained food of a different kind. 
They laid the eight bowls down before the Navaho, and he ate of 
all till he was satisfied. Then they brought in beautiful robes and 
blankets, and spread them on the floor for his bed. 

590. Next morning the Navaho went over to the sky-hole, taking 
with him the young bees and the seeds of the tumble-weeds. To the 
former he said : "Go down to the land of the Navahoes and multiply 
there. My people will make use of you in the days to come ; but 
if you ever cause them sorrow and trouble, as you have caused the 
people of this land, I shall again destroy you." As he spoke, he 
flung them down to the earth. Then taking the seeds of the tum- 
ble-weeds in his hands, he spoke to them as he had spoken to the 
bees, and threw them down through the sky-hole. The honey of 
the bees and the seeds of the tumble-weeds are now used in the 
rites of yoi Aa.ta.1, or the bead chant. 

591. The Navaho remained in the pueblos of the Eagle People 
twenty-four days, during which time he was taught the songs, 
prayers, ceremonies, and sacrifices of the Eagles, the same as those 
now known to us in the rite of yoi ^a/a/; 259 and when he had learned 
all, the people told him it was time for him to return to the earth, 
whence he had come. 

The Great Shell of KintyeL 205 

592. They put on him a robe of eagle plumage, such as they wore 
themselves, and led him to the sky-hole. They said to him : 
" When you came up from the lower world you were heavy and had 
to be carried by others. Henceforth you will be light and can move 
through the air with your own power." He spread his wings to 
show that" he was ready ; the Eagles blew a powerful breath behind 
him ; he went down through the sky-hole, and was wafted down on 
his outstretched wings until he lit on the summit of Tsotsi/. 

593. He went back to his own relations among the Navahoes ; 
but when he went back everything about their lodge smelt ill ; its 
odors were intolerable to him, and he left it and sat outside. 260 
They built for him then a medicine-lodge where he might sit by 
himself. They bathed his younger brother, clothed him in new 
raiment, and sent him, too, into the lodge, to learn what his elder 
brother could tell him. The brothers spent twelve days in the 
lodge together, during which the elder brother told his story and 
instructed the younger in all the rites and songs learned among the 

594. After this he went to visit the pueblo of Kintyel, whose 
inmates had before contemplated such treachery to him ; but they 
did not recognize him. He now looked sleek and well fed. He was 
beautifully dressed and comely in his person, for the Eagles had 
moulded, in beauty, his face and form. The pueblo people never 
thought that this was the poor beggar whom they had left to die in 
the eagles' nest. He noticed that there were many sore and lame 
in the pueblo. A new disease, they told him, had broken out among 
them. This was the disease which they had caught from the 
feathers of the eaglets when they were attacking the nest. " I have 
a brother," said the Navaho, " who is a potent shaman. He knows 
a rite that will cure this disease." The people of the pueblo con- 
sulted together and concluded to employ his brother to perform the 
ceremony over their suffering ones. 

595. The Navaho said that he must be one of the atsa'/ei, 261 or 
first dancers, and that in order to perform the rite properly he must 
be dressed in a very particular way. He must, he said, have strings 
of fine beads — shell and turquoise — sufficient to cover his legs 
and forearms completely, enough to go around his neck, so that he 
could not bend his head back, and great strings to pass over the 
shoulder and under the arm on each side. He must have the largest 
shell basin to be found in either pueblo to hang on his back, and the 
one next in size to hang on his chest. He must have their longest 
and best strings of turquoise to hang to his ears. The Wind told 
him that the greatest shell basin they had was so large that if he 
tried to embrace it around the edge, his finger-tips would scarcely 


Navaho Legends. 

meet on the opposite side, and that this shell he must insist on 
having. The next largest shell, Wind told him, was but little 
smaller. 262 

596. Three days after this conference, people began to come in 
from different pueblos in the Chaco Canyon and from pueblos on 
the banks of the San Juan, — all these pueblos are now in ruins, — 
and soon a great multitude had assembled. Meantime, too, they 
collected shells and beads from the various pueblos in order to 
dress the atsa7ei as he desired. They brought him some great shell 
basins and told him these were what he wanted for the dance ; but 
he measured them with his arms as Wind had told him, and, finding 
that his hands joined easily when he embraced the shells, he dis- 
carded them. They brought him larger and larger shells, and tried 
to persuade him that such were their largest ; but he tried and 
rejected all. On the last day, with reluctance, they brought him 
the great shell of Klntyel and the great shell of ¥L\'ndot\\z. He 
clasped the first in his arms ; his fingers did not meet on the oppo- 
site side. He clasped the second in his arms, and the tips of his 
fingers just met. "These," said he, "are the shells I must wear 
when I dance." 

597. Four days before that on which the last dance was to occur, 
the pueblo people sent out messengers to the neighboring camps 

Fig. 37. Circle of branches of the rite of the mountain chant, after ceremony is over. 

of Navahoes, to invite the latter to witness the exhibition of the 
last night and to participate in it with some of their ah'li (dances 
or dramas). One of the messengers went to the Chelly Canyon 
and there he got Ga»asku/i, with his son and daughter, to come and 
perform a dance. The other messengers started for the Navaho 
camp at the foot of Tsotsi/ on the south (near where Cobero is 

The Great Shell of Kintyel. 207 

now). On his way he met an akaninlli, or messenger, coming from 
Ts6tsi/ to invite the people of the Chaco Canyon to a great Navaho 
ceremony. (You have heard all about the meeting of these mes- 
sengers in the legend of the mountain chant. I shall not now 
repeat it.) 263 The messengers exchanged bows and quivers as a 
sign they had met one another, and the messenger from Kintyel 
returned to his people without being able to get the Navahoes to 
attend. This is the reason that, on the last night of the great cere- 
mony of yoi hditil, there are but few different dances or shows. 

598. On the evening of the last day they built a great circle of 
branches, such as the Navahoes build now for the rites of the moun- 
tain chant (fig. 37), and a great number of people crowded into the 
inclosure. They lighted the fires and dressed the atsa'/ei in all their 
fine beads and shells just as he desired them to dress him. They 
put the great shell of Kintyel on his back, and the great shell of 
YH'ndotViz on his chest, and another fine shell on his forehead. 
Then the Navaho began to dance, and his brother, the medicine- 
man, began to sing, and this was the song he sang : — 

The white-corn plant's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 

The blue-corn plant's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 

The yellow-corn plant's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 

The black-corn plant's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 

All-colored corn's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 

The round-eared corn's great ear sticks up. 
Stay down and eat. 287 

599. This seemed a strange song to the pueblo people, and they 
all wondered what it could mean ; but they soon found out what it 
meant, for they observed that the dancing Navaho was slowly rising 
from the ground. First his head and then his shoulders appeared 
above the heads of the crowd ; next his chest and waist ; but it was 
not until his whole body had risen above the level of their heads 
that they began to realize the loss that threatened them. He was 
rising toward the sky with the great shell of Kintyel, and all the 
wealth of many pueblos in shell-beads and turquoise on his body. 
Then they screamed wildly to him and called him by all sorts of 
dear names — father, brother, son — ■ to come down again, but the 

208 Navaho Legends. 

more they called the higher he rose. When his feet had risen above 
them they observed that a streak of white lightning passed under 
his feet like a rope, and hung from a dark cloud that gathered 
above. It was the gods that were lifting him ; for thus, the legends 
say, the gods lift mortals to the sky. When the pueblos found that 
no persuasions could induce the Navaho to retiirn, some ,callqd for 
ropes that they might seize him and pull him down ; but he was 
soon beyond the reach of their longest rope. Then a shout was 
raised for arrows that they might shoot him ; but before the arrows 
could come he was lost to sight in the black cloud and was never 
more seen on earth. 



i. How and when the name Navajo (pronounced Na'va-ho) originated has not 
been discovered. It is only known that this name was given by the Spaniards 
while they still claimed the Navaho land. The name is generally supposed to 
be derived from navaja, which means a clasp-knife, or razor, and to have been 
applied because the Navaho warriors carried great stone knives in former days. 
It has been suggested that the name comes from navajo, a pool or small lake. 
The Navahoes call themselves Din6 f or Din€, which means simply, men, people. 
This word in the various forms, De'ne, Tinne'h, Tunne', etc., is used as a tribal 
designation for many branches of the Athapascan stock. 

2. The Carrizo Mountains consist of an isolated mountain mass, about 12 
miles in its greatest diameter, situated in the northeast corner of Arizona. It is 
called by the Navahoes Dsl/naodsf/, which means mountain surrounded by moun- 
tains ; such is the appearance of the landscape viewed from the highest point, 
Pastora Peak, 9,420 feet high. 

3. The San Juan River, a branch of the Colorado of the West, flows in a westerly 
direction through the northern portion of the Navaho Reservation, and forms in 
part its northern boundary. It is the most important river in the Navaho country. 
It has two names in the Navaho language : one is Sawbl/o' (Water of Old Age, 
or Old Age River), said to be given because the stream is white with foam and 
looks like the hair of an old man ; the other is 7b'baka (Male Water), given 
because it is turbulent and strong in contrast to the placid Rio Grande, which 
the Navahoes call 7b'baad, or Female Water. (See note 137.) Perhaps the river 
has other names. 

4. 7u-In-tjd is derived from to 1 or /u (water) and Intra or Intsd (abundant, 
scattered widely). The name is spelled Tuincha, Tuintcha, and Tunicha on our 
maps. The Tuincha Mountains are situated partly in New Mexico and partly in 
Arizona, about 30 miles from the northern boundary of both Territories. They 
form the middle portion of a range of which the Chusca and Lukachokai Moun- 
tains form the rest. The portion known as Tulntsi. is about 12 miles long. The 
highest point is 9,575 feet above sea-level. The top of the range, which is rather 
level and plateau-like, is well covered with timber, mostly spruce and pine, and 
abounds in small lakes and ponds ; hence the name Tulntra. 

5. The basket illustrated in fig. 16 is made of twigs of aromatic sumac (Rhus 
aromatica, var. trilobata). It is 13' in diameter and 3§' deep. In forming the 
helical coil, the fabricator must always put the butt end of the twig toward the 
centre of the basket and the tip end toward the periphery, in accordance with the 
ceremonial laws governing the disposition of butts and tips (see notes 12 and 
319). The sole decoration is a band, red in the middle with black zigzag edges. 
This band is intersected at one point by a narrow line of uncolored wood. This 
line has probably no relation to the " line of life " in ancient and modern pueblo 
pottery. It is put there to assist in the orientation of the basket at night, in the 
dim light of the medicine-lodge. In making the basket, the butt of the first twig 
is placed in the centre ; the tip of the last twig, in the helix, must be in the same 
radial line, which is marked by the uncolored line crossing the ornamental band. 

2 1 2 Notes. 

This line must lie due east and west on certain ceremonial occasions, as for 
instance when the basket, inverted, is used as a drum during the last five nights 
of the night chant. The margin of this, as of other Navaho baskets, is finished 
in a diagonally woven or plaited pattern, and there is a legend, which the author 
has related in a former paper, 321 accounting for the origin of this form of mar- 
gin. If the margin is worn through or torn, the basket is unfit for sacred use. 
The basket is one of the perquisites of the shaman when the rites are done ; but 
he, in turn, must give it away, and must be careful never to eat out of it. Notwith- 
standing its sacred uses, food may be served in it. Fig. 25 represents a basket of 
this kind used as a receptacle for sacrificial sticks and cigarettes. In this case 
the termination of the helix must be in the east, and the sacrifices sacred to the 
east must be in the eastern quarter of the basket. 

Fig. 17 shows the other form of sacred basket. It is also made of aromatic 
sumac, and is used in .the rites to hold sacred meal. The crosses are said to repre- 
sent clouds, and the zigzag lines to indicate lightning. 

6. The ceremonies of " House Dedication " are described at some length by Mr. 
A. M. Stephen in his excellent paper on "The Navajo," 329 and he gives a free 
translation of a prayer and a song belonging to these rites. 

7. A-na-ye', or a-nd-ye, is composed of two words, and and ydi or ye. Ana, 
sometimes contracted to na, signifies a member of an alien tribe, — one not speak- 
ing a language similar to the Navaho, — and is often synonymous with enemy. 
Ye (see par. 78) may be defined as genius or god. The anaye were the offspring 
of women conceived during the separation of the sexes in the fourth world. 

8. Ti-e'-hol-tso-di is a water god, or water monster, a god of terrestrial waters, — 
not a rain god. He seems akin to the Unktehi of the Dakotas. He is said to 
dwell in the great water of the east, i. e., the Atlantic Ocean. Although commonly 
spoken of as one, there is little doubt that the Navahoes believe in many of the 
Tidholtsodi. Probably every constant stream or spring has its own water god, 
(See note 152.) A picture of this god is said to be made in a dry-painting of the 
rite of hoz6m ha.t&l, but the author has not seen it. Tidholtsodi is described as 
having a fine fur, and being otherwise much like an otter in appearance, but 
having horns like a buffalo. (See pars. 140, 187, 484, 485.) 

9. Tjuj-kai or Tj6-ix-kai is the name given by the Navahoes to a prominent 
conical hill rising 8,800 feet above sea-level, in northwestern New Mexico, about 
twenty-six miles north of Defiance Station on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. 
It is called Chusca Knoll, Chusca Peak, and Choiskai Peak by geographers. It 
rises abruptly four hundred feet or more above the level of the neighboring ridge. 
is visible at a great distance from the south (but not from the north), and forms 
a prominent landmark. The Navahoes limit the name T-ru-rkai to this knoll, 
but the Mexicans, and following them the Americans, apply the name in differ- 
ent forms (Chusca Mountains, Sierra de Chusca, Chuska, Chuskai, Tchuskai, etc.) 
to the whole mountain mass from which the knoll rises. The name, not accurately 
translated, contains the words for spruce (tro) and white (kai). 

10. The bath forms an important part of the Navaho rites, being administered 
on many occasions, and it is often mentioned in the tales. It usually consists of a 
suds made in a water-tight wicker basket by soaking the root of some species of 
yucca (see note 88) in water ; the root of Yucca baccata being usually preferred, 
as it seems richest in saponine. After the application of the suds, the subject is 
commmonly rinsed off with plain water and dried by rubbing on corn meal. In 
different ceremonies different observances are connected with the bath. In the 
myth of " The Mountain Chant," :JU pp. 389, 390, a bath is described as part of the 
ceremony of the deer-hunt. It is given, no doubt, in preparing for the hunt, for 
practical as well as religious reasons. It is important that the hunter should divest 
himself as much as possible of his personal odor when he goes to kill game. 

Notes. 213 

11. Pollen (Navaho, thz.d\t'\ri) is obtained, for sacred uses, from various plants, 
but Indian corn is the chief source of supply. The pollen is carried in small buck- 
skin bags, which also usually contain small sacred stones, such as rock crystal and 
pyrophyllite, or small animal fetiches. The administration or sacrifice of pollen 
is a part of all rites witnessed, and almost always follows or accompanies prayer. 
It is used in different ways on different occasions ; but the commonest way is to 
take a small pinch from the bag, apply a portion of it to the tongue and a portion 
to the crown of the head. For some purposes, the shaman collects a quantity of 
pollen, puts it in a large bag, immerses in it some live bird, insect, or other animal, 
and then allows the prisoner to escape. This is supposed to add extra virtue to 
the pollen. In one kind called i'yu/eznd a bluebird, a yellowbird, and a grass- 
hopper are put in the pollen together. In note 49 we have a mythic account 
of pollen put on the young of the sea monster and then preserved. Pollen which 
has been applied to a ceremonial dry-painting is preserved for future uses. Pollen 
in which a live striped lizard has been placed is used to favor eutocia. The term 
thdid'itin is applied to various things having the appearance of an impalpable 
powder, such as the misty hues of the horizon in the morning and evening, due 
in Arizona more frequently to dust in the air than to moisture. Captain Bourke, 
in " The Medicine-men of the Apache," 295 chapter ii., describes many modes of 
using pollen which exist also among the Navahoes. 

12. The following are a few additional observances with regard to kethawns : — 
In cutting the reed used for a series of cigarettes, they cut off a piece first from the 

end nearest the root, and they continue to cut off as many pieces as may be neces- 
sary from butt to point. The pieces, according as they are cut, are notched near 
the butt (with a stone knife), so that the relations of the two extremities of the 
piece may not be forgotten. All through the painting of the cigarettes, and the 
various manipulations that follow, the butt end must be the nearer to the operator, 
and the tip end the farther away from him. Since the cigarette-maker sits in the 
west of the medicine-lodge facing the east, the cigarettes, while there, must lie east 
and west, with the tips to the east. If a number of cigarettes are made for one 
act of sacrifice, the first piece cut off is marked with one notch near the base, the 
second piece with two notches, the third piece with three notches, the fourth piece 
with four notches, all near the butt ends. This is done in order that they may 
always be distinguished from one another, and their order of precedence from butt 
to tip may not be disregarded. When they are taken up to be painted, to have the 
sacred feathers of the bluebird and yellowbird inserted into them, to be filled with 
tobacco, to be sealed with moistened poJen, or to be symbolically lighted with the 
rock crystal, the piece that came from nearest the butt (the senior cigarette, let us 
call it) is taken first, that nearest the tip last. When they are collected to be placed 
in the patient's hands, when they are applied to his or her person, and finally when 
they are taken out and sacrificed, this order of precedence is always observed. The 
order of precedence in position, when sacrifices are laid out in a straight row, is 
from north to south ; the senior sacrifice is in the northern extremity of the row, 
the junior or inferior in the southern extremity. When they are laid out in a circle, 
the order is from east back to east by the way of the south, west, and north. The 
gods to whom the sacrifices are made have commonly also an order of precedence, 
and when such is the case the senior sacrifice is dedicated to the higher god, the 
junior sacrifice to the lower god. When it is required that other articles, such as 
feathers, beads, powdered vegetable and mineral substances, be sacrificed with the 
cigarettes, all these things are placed in corn-husks. To do this, the husks are 
laid down on a clean cloth with their tips to the east ; the cigarettes are laid in 
them one by one, each in a separate husk, with their tip ends to the east ; and the 
sacred feathers are added to the bundle with their tips also to the east. When dry 

214 Notes. 

pollen is sprinkled on the cigarette, it is sprinkled from butt to tip. When moist 
pollen is daubed on the side of the cigarette, it is daubed from butt to tip. (From 
" A Study in Butts and Tips.") 819 The hollow internodeof the reed only is used. 
The part containing the solid node is discarded and is split up, so that when thrown 
away the gods may not mistake it for a true cigarette and suffer disappointment. 
All the debris of manufacture is carefully collected and deposited to the north of 
the medicine-lodge. The tobacco of commerce must not be employed. A plug of 
feathers, referred to above, is shoved into the tube from tip to butt (with an owl's 
feather) to keep the tobacco from falling out at the butt. The moistened pollen 
keeps the tobacco in at the tip end. The rules for measuring kethawns are very 
elaborate. One or more finger-joints ; the span ; the width of the outstretched 
hand, from tip of thumb to tip of little finger ; the width of three finger-tips or 
of four finger-tips joined, — are a few of the measurements. Each kethawn has its 
established size. This system of sacrifice is common among the pueblo tribes of 
the Southwest, and traces of it have been found elsewhere. Fig. 23 represents 
a thing called ke/dn yaltf, or talking kethawn (described in " The Mountain 
Chant," 814 p. 452), consisting of a male stick painted black and a female stick painted 
blue. Fig. 24 shows a kethawn used in the ceremony of the night chant ; a dozen 
such are made for one occasion, but male and female are not distinguished. Fig. 
25 depicts a set of fifty-two kethawns, used also in the night chant : of these the four 
in the centre are cigarettes lying on meal ; the forty-eight surrounding the meal are 
sticks of wood. Those in the east are made of mountain mahogany, those in the 
south of Forestiera neo-mexicana, those in the west of juniper, and those in the 
north of cherry. A more elaborate description of them must be reserved for a 
future work. 

13. "Sacred buckskin " is a term employed by the author, for convenience, to 
designate those deerskins specially prepared for use in making masks and for other 
purposes in the Navaho rites. The following are some of the particulars concern- 
ing their preparation ; perhaps there are others which the author has not learned : 
The deer which is to furnish the skin must not be shot, or otherwise wounded. 
It is surrounded by men on foot or horseback, and caused to run around until it 
falls exhausted ; then a bag containing pollen is put over its mouth and nostrils, 
and held there till the deer is smothered. The dead animal is laid on its back. 
Lines are marked with pollen, from the centre outwards along the median line of 
the body and the insides of the limbs. Incisions are made with a stone knife 
along the pollen lines, from within outwards, until the skin is opened ; the flaying 
may then be completed with a steel knife. When the skin is removed it is laid to 
the east of the carcass, head to the east, and hairy side down. The fibulae and 
ulnae are cut out and put in the skin in the places where they belong, — i. e., each 
ulna in the skin of its appropriate fore-leg, each fibula in the skin of its appropri- 
ate hind-leg. The hide may then be rolled up and carried off. Both ulnae are 
used as scrapers of the skin. If masks are to be made of the skin, the fibulae 
are used as awls,— the right fibula in sewing the right sides of the masks, the 
left fibula in sewing the left sides of the masks. Other rules (very numerous) for 
making the masks will not be mentioned in this place. Fibulae and ulna? other 
than those belonging to the deer that furnished the skin must not be used on 
the latter. 

14. This mask, made of leaves of Yucca baccata, from which the thick dorsal por- 
tions have been torn away, is used in the rite of the night chant. The observances 
connected with the culling of the leaves, the manufacture of the mask, and the 
destruction of the same after use, are too numerous to be detailed here. The 
author never succeeded in getting such a mask to keep (the obligation on the 
shaman to tear it up when it has served its purpose seemed imperative), but he 



was allowed to take two photographs of it, one before the fringe of spruce twigs 
was applied, the other when the mask was finished, as shown in fig. 26. 

15. The following account taken from "The Prayer of a Navajo Shaman," 81s 
and repeated here at the request of Mr. Newell, shows how definitely fixed was 
the limit of this part of the tale in the mind of the narrator : — 

* In none of my interviews with him (//a/a7i Nez) had he shown any impatience 
with my demands for explanations as we progressed, or with interruptions in our 
work. He lingered long over his meals, lighted many cigarettes and smoked them 
leisurely, got tired early in the evening, and was always willing to go to bed as early 
as I would let him. When, however, he came to relate the creation myth, all this 
was changed. He arrived early; he remained late; he hastened through his 
meals ; he showed evidence of worry at all delays and interruptions, and frequently 
begged me to postpone minor explanations. On being urged to explain this change 
of spirit he said that we were travelling in the land of the dead, in a place of 
evil and potent ghosts, just so long as he continued to relate those parts of the 
myth which recount the adventures of his ancestors in the nether world, and that 
we were in danger so long as our minds remained there ; but that when we came 
to that part of the tale where the people ascend to this — the fifth and last 
world — we need no longer feel uneasy and could then take our time. His subse- 
quent actions proved that he had given an honest explanation. 

" It was near sunset one afternoon, and an hour or more before his supper time, 
that he concluded his account of the" subterranean wanderings of the Navajos and 
brought them safely through the " Place of Emergence," in the San Juan Moun- 
tains, to the surface of this world. Then he ceased to speak, rolled a cigarette, 
said he was tired, that he would not be able to tell me any more that night, and 
left me. 

" After his departure I learned that he had announced to some of his friends 
during the day that he would have to pray at night to counteract the evil effects of 
his journey through the lower world. After his supper he retired to the apartment 
among the old adobe huts at Defiance in which he had been assigned room to 
sleep. I soon followed, and, having waited in the adjoining passage half an hour 
or more a I heard the voice of the old man rising in the monotonous tones of formu- 
lated prayer. Knowing that the rules of the shaman forbade the interruption of 
any prayer or song, I abruptly entered the room and sat down on the floor near 
the supplicant." 

(Thus the prayer in question became known to the author.) 

15a. " Tune us the sitar neither low nor high." — The Light of Asia. 

16. Ha.ti.1, in Navaho, means a sacred song, a hymn or chant, — not a trivial 
song : hence the names of their great ceremonies contain this word, as dsl/ylf' d^e 
ha.ti.1 (the mountain chant) ; kleds-i hat£t (the night chant), etc. The man who 
conducts a ceremony is called (chanter or singer). As equivalents for this 
word the author uses the terms shaman, priest, medicine-man, and chanter. One 
who treats disease by drugs is called aze'-eli'ni, or medicine-maker. 

17. No antecedent. We are first told to whom "they " refers in paragraph 139. 

18. In symbolizing by color the four cardinal points, the Navahoes have two 
principal systems, as follows : — 





First System .... 
Second System . . . 





216 Notes. 

Both systems are the same, except that the colors black and white change places. 
The reasons for this change have not been satisfactorily determined. In general, 
it seems that when speaking of places over ground — lucky and happy places — 
the first system is employed ; while, when places underground — usually places of 
danger — are described, the second system is used. But there are many appar- 
ent exceptions to the latter rule. In one version of the Origin Legend (Version 
B) the colors are arranged according to the second system both in the lower and 
upper worlds. In the version of the same legend here published the first system 
is given for all places in the lower worlds, except in the house of Tie'holtsodi 
under the waters (par. 178), where the east room is described as dark and the 
room in the north as being of all colors. Yet the Indian who gave this version 
(Hati-fi Nez), in his Prayer of the Rendition (note 315), applies the second system 
to all regions traversed below the surface of the earth by the gods who come to 
rescue the lost soul. Although he does not say that the black chamber is in the 
east, he shows it corresponds with the east by mentioning it first. //a/d/i Natldi, 
in the " Story of Na/I'nes/^ani," follows the first system in all cases except when 
describing the house of Tie'holtsodi under the water, where the first chamber is 
represented as black and the last as white. Although in this case the rooms may 
be regarded as placed one above another, the black being mentioned first shows 
that it is intended to correspond with the east. In all cases, in naming the points 
of the compass, or anything which symbolizes them, or in placing objects which 
pertain to them (note 227), the east comes first, the south second, the west 
third, the north fourth. The sunwise circuit is always followed. If the zenith 
and nadir are mentioned, the former comes fifth and the latter sixth in order. 
The north is sometimes symbolized by " all colors," i. e., white, blue, yellow, and 
black mixed (note 22), and sometimes by red. In the myth of dsl/yfd^e ^a/a7 814 
(the story of Dsl'/yi' Neyani) five homes of holy people underground are described, 
in all of which the second system is used. See, also, note in, where the second 
system is applied to the house of the sun. In the story of the "Great Shell of 
Klntye'l " at the home of the Spider Woman underground, in the sky world, the 
east is represented by black and the north by white. (See par. 581 and note 40.) 

19. There are but three streams and but nine villages or localities mentioned, 
while twelve winged tribes are named. Probably three are supposed to have 
lived in the north where no stream ran, or there may have been a fourth river in 
the Navaho paradise, whose name is for some reason suppressed. 

References to the sacred number four are introduced with tiresome pertinacity 
into all Navaho legends. 

20. Version B. — In the first world three dwelt, viz. : First Man, First Woman, 
and Coyote. 

21. The swallow to which reference is made here is the cliff swallow, — Petro- 
chelidon lunifrons. 

22. The colors given to the lower worlds in this legend — red for the first, blue 
for the second, yellow for the third, and mixed for the fourth — are not in the line 
of ordinary Navaho symbolism (note 18), but they agree very closely with some 
Moki symbolism, as described by Victor Mindeleff in his " Study of Pueblo 
Architecture," 8M p. 129. The colors there mentioned, if placed in order accord- 
ing t the Navaho system (note 18), would stand thus: red (east), blue (south), 
yellow (west), white (north). Mixed colors sometimes take the place of the north 
or last in Navaho symbolism. Possibly Moki elements have entered into this 
version of the Navaho legend. (See par. 91.) 

23. Version B. — In the second world, when First Man, First Woman, and 
Coyote ascended, they found those who afterwards carried the sun and moon, and, 
beyond the bounds of the earth, he of the darkness in the east, he of the blue- 

Notes. 217 

ness in the south, he of the yellowness in the west, and he of the whiteness in the 
north (perhaps the same as White Body, Blue Body, etc., of the fourth world in 
the present version. See par. 160). Sun and First Woman were the transgres- 
sors who caused the exodus. 

24. Version B.— When the five individuals mentioned in note 23 came from the 
second world, they found the " people of the mountains " already occupying the 
third world. 

25. Version B. — The people were chased from the third world to the fourth 
world by a deluge and took refuge in a reed, as afterwards related of the flight 
from the fourth world. 

26. In the Navaho tales, when the ye"i (genii, gods) come to visit men, they 
always announce their approach. by calling four times. The first call is faint, far, 
and scarcely audible. Each succeeding call is louder and more distinct. The 
last call sounds loud and near, and in a moment after it is heard the god makes 
his appearance. These particulars concerning the gods' approach are occasion- 
ally briefly referred to ; but usually the story-teller repeats them at great length 
with a modulated voice; and he pantomimically represents the recipient of the 
visit, starting and straining his attention to discern the distant sounds. 

Nearly every god has his own special call. A few have none. Imperfect at- 
tempts have been made in this work to represent some of these calls by spelling 
them ; but this method represents the original no better than " Bob White" repre- 
sents the call of a quail. Some of the cries have been recorded by the writer 
on phonographic cylinders, but even these records are very imperfect. In the 
ceremonies of the Navahoes, the masked representatives of the gods repeat 
these calls. The calls of //astseyal/i and Hzs\.s€hog%& are those most frequently 
referred to in the tales. (Pars. 287, 378, 471, etc.) 

27. Yellow corn belongs to the female, white corn to the male. This rule is 
observed in all Navaho ceremonies, and is mentioned in many Navaho myths. 
(Pars. 164, 291, 379; note 107, etc.) 

28. An ear of corn used for sacred purposes must be completely covered with 
full grains, or at least must have been originally so covered. One having abor-- 
tive grains at the top is not used. For some purposes, as in preparing the imple- 
ments used in initiating females in the rite of kldd-s-i ^a/fa/, not only must the ear 
of corn be fully covered by grains, but it must be tipped by an arrangement of 
four grains. Such an ear of corn is called /ohono/i'ni. 

29. The Navaho word natli or nu'tle is here translated hermaphrodite, because 
the context shows that reference is made to anomalous creatures. But the 
word is usually employed to designate that class of men, known perhaps in all wild 
Indian tribes, who dress as women, and perform the duties usually allotted to 
women in Indian camps. Such persons are called berdaches (English, bardash) 
by the French Canadians. By the Americans they are called hermaphrodites 
(commonly mispronounced " morphodites "), and are generally supposed to be 

30. These so-called hermaphrodites (note 29) are, among all Indian tribes 
that the author has observed, more skilful in performing women's work than the 
women themselves. The Navahoes, in this legend, credit them with the inven- 
tion of arts practised by women. The best weaver in the Navaho tribe, for many 
years, was a ndtli. 

31. Masks made from the skins of deer-heads and antelope-heads, with or with- 
out antlers, have been used by various Indian tribes, in hunting, to deceive the 
animals and allow the hunters to approach them. There are several references 
to such masks in the Navaho tales, as in the story of Na/i'nes^ani (par. 544) and 
in the myth of " The Mountain Chant," page 391. 314 In the latter story, rites 
connected with the deer mask are described. 

218 Notes. 

32. The quarrel between First Man and First Woman came to pass in this 
way : When she had finished her meal she wiped her hands in her dress and said : 
"E'ye"he si-tsod" (Thanks, my vagina). "What is that you say?" asked First 
Man. " E'ye'he si-tsod" she repeated. " Why do you speak thus ? " he queried ; 
" Was it not I who killed the deer whose flesh you have eaten ? Why do you 
not thank me? Was it tsod that killed the deer?" " Yes," she replied ; "if it 
were not for that, you would not have killed the deer. If it were not for that, you 
lazy men would do nothing. It is that which does all the work." " Then, per- 
haps, you women think you can live without the men," he said. " Certainly we 
can. It is we women who till the fields and gather food : we can live on the 
produce of our fields, and the seeds and fruits we collect. We have no need of 
you men." Thus they argued. First Man became more and more angry with 
each reply that his wife made, until at length, in wrath, he jumped across the fire. 

33. During the separation of the sexes, both the men and the women were 
guilty 'of shameful practices, which the story-tellers very particularly describe. 
Through the transgressions of the women the anaye, alien gods or monsters, who 
afterwards nearly annihilated the human race, came into existence ; but no evil 
consequences followed the transgressions of the men. Thus, as usual, a moral 
lesson is conveyed to the women, but none to the men. 

34. 35. Notes 34 and 35 are omitted. 

36. Version A. — Water in the east, black ; south, blue ; west, yellow ; north, 
white. In the ceremony of /ioz6m /?a/a/ a picture representing Tie"holtsodi and 
the four waters is said to be made. 

37. Version A says that the nodes were woven by the spider, and that different 
animals dwelt in the different internodes. Version B says that the great reed 
took more than one day to grow to the sky ; that it grew by day and rested by 
night; that the hollow internodes now seen in the reed show where it grew by 
day, and the solid nodes show where it rested by night. Some say four reeds 
were planted to form one, others that one reed only was planted. 

38. Version B. — The Turkey was the last to take refuge in the reed, therefore 
he was at the bottom. When the waters rose high enough to wet the Turkey he 
gobbled, and all knew that danger was near. Often did the waves wash the end 
of his tail ; and it is for this reason that the tips of turkeys' tail-feathers are, to 
this day, lighter than the rest of the plumage. 

39. Version A. — First Man and First Woman called on all the digging animals 
(I'nrfatyidi daltso) to help. These were : Bear, Wolf, Coyote, Lynx, and Badger. 
First, Bear dug till he was tired ; then Coyote took his place, and so on. When 
badger was digging, water began to drip down from above : then they knew they 
had struck the waters of the upper world, and sent Locust up. Locust made a sort 
of shaft in the soft mud, such as locusts make to this day. 

40. Version A says there were four cranes ; Version B, that there were four 
swans. Both versions say that the bird of the east was black, that of the south 
blue, that of the west yellow, and that of the north white. (See note 18.) 

41. Two versions, A and B, have it that the bird passed the arrows through 
from mouth to vent, and vice versa, but all make the Locust pass his arrows 
through his thorax. Another version relates that two of the birds said : " You can 
have the land if you let us strike you in the forehead with an axe." Locust con- 
sented. They missed their aim and cut off his cheeks, which accounts for his 
narrow face now. Version A relates that the arrows were plumed with eagle- 

42. Version A. — The Locust, before transfixing himself with the arrows, shoved 
his vitals down into his abdomen ; then he changed his mind and shoved them 
high into his chest. That accounts for his big chest now. 

Notes. 2 1 9 

43. A small lake situated somewhere in the San Juan Mountains is said to be 
the place through which the people came from the fourth world to this world. It 
is surrounded, the Indians tell, by precipitous cliffs, and has a small island near its 
centre, from the top of which something rises that looks like the top of a ladder. 
Beyond the bounding cliffs there are four mountain peaks, — one to the east, one to 
the south, one to the west, and one to the north of the lake, — which are frequently 
referred to in the songs and myths of the Navahoes. These Indians fear to visit 
the shores of this lake, but they climb the surrounding mountains and view its 
waters from a distance. The place is called //a-d^i-naf, or Ni-^o-yos-Ud-ts-e, which 
names may be freely translated Place of Emergence, or Land Where They Came 
Up. The San Juan Mountains abound in little lakes. Which one of these is con- 
sidered by the Navahoes as their Place of Emergence is not known, and it is 
probable that it could only be determined by making a pilgrimage thither with a 
party of Navahoes who knew the place. Mr. Whitman Cross, of the United States 
Geological Survey, who has made extensive explorations in the San Juan Moun- 
tains, relates that Trout Lake is regarded by the Indians as a sacred lake ; that they 
will not camp near it, and call it a name which is rendered Spirit Lake. This sheet 
of water is designated as San Miguel Lake on the maps of Hayden's Survey. It 
lies near the line of the Rio Grande Southern Railroad, at the head of the South 
Fork of San Miguel River. It has no island. A small lake, which accords more 
in appearance with the Navahoes' description of their sacred lake, is Island Lake. 
This has a small, rocky island in the middle. It .is situated on a branch of the 
South Fork of Mineral Creek, three miles southeast of Ophir, Colorado, at an 
altitude of 12,450 feet. Prof. A. H. Thompson has suggested that Silver Lake, 
about five miles southeasterly from Silverton, Colorado, may be the Place of 
Emergence. This lake is 11,600 feet above sea-level, and is surrounded by four 
high mountain peaks, but it has no island. 

44. Version A. — GAnaskidi struck the cliffs with his wand. " Gong e' " it 
sounded, and broke the cliffs open. Version B. — He of the darkness of the east 
cut the cliffs with his knife shaped like a horn. 

45. Version A. — They prayed to the four Winds, — the black Wind of the east, 
the blue Wind of the south, the yellow Wind of the west, and the white Wind of the 
north, — and they sang a wind-song which is still sung in the rite of /ioz6ni 
hal&l. Version B. — They prayed to the four Winds. 

46. The Kiscini, being builders of stone houses, set up a stone wall ; the others, 
representing the Navahoes, set up a shelter of brushwood, as is the custom of the 
Navahoes now. 

47. Tsi-dl'l, or tsxn-di'l is a game played by the Navaho women. The principal 
implements of the game are three sticks, which are thrown violently, ends down, on 
a flat stone, around which the gamblers sit. The sticks rebound so well that they 
would fly far away, were not a blanket stretched overhead to throw them back to 
the players. A number of small stones, placed in the form of a square, are used 
as counters ; these are not moved, but sticks, whose positions are changed accord- 
ing to the fortunes of the game, are placed between them. The rules of the game 
have not been recorded. The other games were : dilk6n, played with two sticks, 
each the length of an arm; ats£, played with forked sticks and a ring; and 

48. Version A. — Coyote and Hasts6zim were partners in the theft of the young 
of Tie'holtsodi. When Coyote saw the water rising, he pointed with his protruded 
lips (as Indians often do) to the water, and glanced significantly at his accom- 
plice. First Man observed the glance, had his suspicions aroused, and began to 

49. Other variants of the story of the restoration of Tidholtsodi's young speak 

220 Notes. 

of sacrifices and peace offerings in keeping with the. Indian custom. Version 
A. — They got a haliotis shell of enormous size, so large that a man's encircling 
arm could barely surround it. Into this they put other shells and many precious 
stones. They sprinkled pollen on the young and took some of it off again, for it 
had been rendered more holy by contact, with the bodies of the young sea 
monsters. Then they put these also into the shell and laid all on the horns of 
Tidholtsodi ; at once he disappeared under the earth and the waters went down 
after him. The pollen taken from the young was distributed among the people, 
and brought them rain and game and much good fortune. Version B. — " At 
once they threw them (the young) down to their father, and with them a sacrifice 
of the treasures of the sea, — their shell ornaments. In an instant the waters began 
to rush down through the hole and away from the lower worlds." 

50. Some give the name of the hermaphrodite who died as NatliyilMtre, and 
say that. " she " is now the chief of devils in the lower world, — perhaps the same 
as the Woman Chief referred to in the " Prayer of a Navaho Shaman." 316 Version 
B says that the first to die was the wife of a great chief. (See note 68.) 

51. Version A describes the making of the sacred mountains thus : Soon after 
the arrival of the people in the fifth world (after the first sudatory had been built 
and the first corn planted), some one said: " It would be well if we had in this 
world such mountains as we had in the world below." " I have brought them 
with me," said First Man. He did not mean to say he had brought the whole of 
the mountains with him, but only a little earth from each, with which to start new 
mountains here. The people laid down four sacred buckskins 1S and two sacred 
baskets 5 for him to make his mountains on, for there were six sacred mountains 
in the lower world, just as there are six in this, and they were named the same 
there as they now are here. The mountain in the east, TsTsnad^i'ni, he made of 
clay from the mountain of the east below, mixed with white shell. The mountain 
of the south, Tsdtsl/, he made of earth from below mixed with turquoise. The 
mountain of the west he made of earth mixed with haliotis or abalone shell. The 
mountain of the north he made of earth mixed with cannel coal. 168 Dsi/nao#/ he 
made of earth from the similar mountain in the lower world, mixed with goods of 
all kinds (yu^i al//zasaf). Tjolfhi he made of earth from below, mixed with shells 
and precious stones of all kinds (Tnklfz al^asai). While they were still on the 
buckskins and baskets, ten songs were sung which now belong to the rites of 
koz6m hz.ti.1. The burdens of these songs are as follows : — 

1st. Long ago he thought of it. 

2d. Long ago he spoke of it. 

3d. A chief among mountains he brought up with him. 

4th. A chief among mountains he has made. 

5th. A chief among mountains is rising. 

6th. A chief among mountains is beginning to stand. 

7th. A chief among mountains stands up. 

8th. A cigarette for a chief among mountains we make. 

9th. A chief among mountains smokes. 
10th. A chief among mountains is satisfied. 
When the people came up from the lower world they were under twelve chiefs, but 
only six of them joined in the singing these songs, and to-day six men sing them. 
When the mountains were made, the god of each of the four quarters of the 
world carried one away and placed it where it now stands. The other two were 
left in the middle of the world and are there still. A pair of gods were then put to 
live in each mountain, as follows: East, Dawn Boy and Dawn Girl, called also 
White Shell Boy and White Shell Girl ; south, Turquoise Boy and Turquoise 
Girl; west, Twilight Boy and Haliotis Girl; north, Darkness (or Cannel Coal) 



Boy and Darkness Girl : at DsI/ndo/T/, All-goods (Yu^i-al/^asai) Boy and All- 
goods Girl; at Tjolfhi, All-jewels (Inkli'z-alMasaf) Boy and All-jewels Girl. 

Version B speaks of the making of only four mountains, and very briefly of 

52. Tsls-na-ds'r'n-i is the name of the sacred mountain which the Navahoes 
regard as bounding their country on the east. It probably means Dark Horizon- 
tal Belt. The mountain is somewhere near the pueblo of Jemez, in Bernalillo 
County, New Mexico. It is probably Pelado Peak, 11,260 feet high, 20 miles N. 
N. E. of the pueblo. White shell and various other objects of white — the color 
of the east — belong to the mountain. 

53. Tse'-ga-*ft-na-/i-ni A-ji-k^ (Rock Crystal Boy) and Tse'-gd-^I-na-#-ni A-t6t 
(Rock Crystal Girl) are the deities of Tslsnad^fni. They were brought up from 
the lower world as small images of stone ; but as soon as they were put in the 
mountain they came to life. 

54. Ts6-tsU, or Ts6'-dst/, from tso, great, and dsl/, a mountain, is the Navaho 
name of a peak 11,389 feet high in Valencia County, New Mexico. Its summit is 
over twelve miles distant, in a direct line, east by north, from McCarty's Station on 
the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. It is called by the Mexicans San Mateo, and 
was on September 18, 1849, named Mt. Taylor, "in honor of the President of 
the United States," by Lieut. J. H. Simpson, U. S. Army. 828 On the maps of the 
United States Geological Survey, the whole mountain mass is marked " San Mateo 
Mountains," and the name " Mount Taylor " is reserved for the highest peak. 
This is one of the sacred mountains of the Navahoes, and is regarded by them as 
bounding their country on the south, although at the present day some of the 
tribe live south of the mountain. They say that San Mateo is the mountain of 
the south and San Francisco is the mountain of the west, yet the two peaks are 
nearly in the same latitude. One version of the Origin Legend (Version B) makes 
San Mateo the mountain of the east, but all other versions differ from this. Blue 
being the color of the south, turquoise and other blue things, as named in the 
myth, belong to this mountain. As blue also symbolizes the female, she-rain be- 
longs to San Mateo. Plate III. is from a photograph taken somewhere in the 
neighborhood of Chavez Station, about thirty-five miles in a westerly direction 
from the summit of the mountain. 

55. Dot-iYrzi Za-i Na-yo-d-/i A-ji-ke', Boy Who Carries One Torquoise ; Na-/£ 
Za-i Na-yo-a-/i A/eV, Girl Who Carries One (Grain of) Corn. 

56. Do-kos-lid or Z'o-ko-os-lT'd', is the Navaho name of San Francisco Moun- 
tain, one of the most prominent landmarks in Arizona. The summit of this peak 
is distant in a direct line about twelve miles nearly north from the town of Flag- 
staff, on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, in Yavapai County, Arizona. The 
precise meaning of the Indian name has not been ascertained, but the name seems 
to contain, modified, the words to 1 and kos, the former meaning water and the 
latter cloud. It is the sacred" mountain of the Navahoes, which they regard as 
bounding their land on the west. The color of the west, yellow, and the various 
things, mostly yellow, which symbolize the west, as mentioned in the myth, are 
sacred to it. Haliotis shell, although highly iridescent, is regarded by the Nava- 
hoes as yellow, and hence is the shell sacred to the mountain. In Navaho sacred 
songs, the peak is called, figuratively, The Wand of Haliotis. Plate II. is from a 
photograph taken on the south side of the mountain, at a point close to the rail- 
road, two or three miles east of Flagstaff. 

57. The name Na-/a7-kai A-ji-kd (White Corn Boy) is from (corn), 
Izkzi (white), and ayike* or \sk6 (boy). The name Na/a/tsoi A/e7 (Yellow Corn 
Girl), comes from na/a« (corn), /ftsdi (yellow), and a/eV (girl). In paragraph 291 
mention is made of the creation of a White Corn Boy and a Yellow Corn Girl. 

222 Notes. 

It is not certain whether these are the same as the deities of Z>okoslfc/, but it is 
probable the Navahoes believe in more than one divine pair with these names. 

58. Z>epe'ntsa, the Navaho name for the San Juan Mountains in southwestern 
Colorado, is derived from two words, — dep6 (the Rocky Mountain sheep) and 
intsd (scattered all over, widely distributed). These mountains are said to bound 
the Navaho land on the north. Somewhere among them lies Ni/ioyosts6.tse, the 
Place of Emergence (note 43). Black being the color of the north,' various black 
things, such as ■pi.szlai (cannel coal), 158 blackbirds, etc., belong to these moun- 
tains. There are many peaks in this range from 10,000 to 14,000 feet high. 

59. T\\z.-d\-t'\n A-s\-k6 (Pollen Boy), A-nil-/d-ni A-/e7 (Grasshopper Girl). In 
paragraphs 290, 291, these are referred to again. In a dry-painting of fcle'd.d 
^a/a7, Grasshopper Girl is depicted in corn pollen. 

60. Dsi/-n£-o-/!/ seems to mean a mountain encircled with blood, but the Nava- 
hoes declare that such is not the meaning. They say it means the mountain that 
has been encircled by people travelling around it, and that, when Estsdnatlehi and 
her people lived there they moved their camp to various places around the base 
of the mountain. Of course this is all mythical. Had the author ever seen this 
mountain, he might conjecture the significance of the name ; but he does not even 
know its location. The name of the Carrizo Mountains, DsI/nabdsT/, meaning 
Mountain Surrounded with Mountains, is nearly the same; but when the writer 
visited the Carrizo Mountains in 1892 he was assured by the Indians that the sacred 
hill was not there. DsT/ndo/f/ is rendered in this work Encircled Mountain, which 
is only an approximate translation. It is altogether a matter of conjecture why 
goods of all kinds — yudi al//*asai (see note 61) — are thought to belong to this 

61. Yii-rtfi Nai-dl-.n'.r-i A-ji-ke', Boy who Produces Goods, or causes the increase 
of goods ; Yu-rfi Nai-di-tfr\r-i A-/e7 (Girl Who Produces Goods). Yddi or yudi is 
here translated "goods." It originally referred to furs, skins, textile fabrics, 
and such things as Indians bartered among themselves, except food and jewels. 
The term is now applied to nearly all the merchandise to be found in a trader's 

62. Tjo-li-hi, or Tso-lf«-i, is one of the seven sacred mountains of the Navaho 
country. Its location has not been determined, neither has the meaning of its 
name. Perhaps the name is derived from ts6, the spruce (Psettdotsnga taxi- 
folia). We can only conjecture what relation the mountain may have to jewels. 

63. Tsoz-gi.-1'i, a large yellow bird, species undetennined. 

64. In-kll'z Nai-di-jfj-i A-.ri-ke' (Boy Who Produces Jewels) ; In-kll'z Nai-dl- 
sVs-i A/e7 (Girl who Produces Jewels). Inklfz means something hard and brittle. 
It is here translated " jewels " for want of a better term. It is not usually applied 
to finished jewels, but to the materials out of which the Navaho jewels are made, 
such as shells, turquoise in the rough, cannel coal, and other stones, many of which 
are of little value to us, but are considered precious by the Navahoes. 

65. A-kw/a-nas-Zd-ni, signifying One-round-thing-sitting-on-top-of-another, is 
the Navaho name of an eminence called on our maps Hosta Butte, which is situ- 
ated in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 14 miles N. N. E. of Chavez Station on 
the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. This butte or mesa has an altitude of 8,837 
feet. Being surrounded by hills much lower, it is a prominent landmark. 

66. Tse'-/;a-</a-//o-ni-ge, or mirage-stone, is so called because it is thought in 
some way to look like a mirage. The writer has seen pieces of this in the pollen 
bags of the medicine-men, but never could procure a piece of it. They offered to 
exchange for another piece, but would not sell. A stone (Chinese idol) which they 
pronounced similar was analyzed by the chemists of the United States Geological 
Survey in Washington, and found to be silicate of magnesia, probably pyro- 

Notes. 223 

phyllite. Such, perhaps, is the mirage-stone. The author offered the Chinese 
idol to one of the shamans in exchange for his mirage-stone ; but, having heard 
that the stone image represented a Chinese god, the shaman feared to make the 

67. 7(5'-/a-nas-tri is a mixture of all kinds of water, i. e., spring water, snow 
water, hail water, and water from the four quarters of the world. Such water 
7\5'nenlli is supposed to have carried in his jars. Water used to-day in some of 
the Navaho rites approximates this mixture as closely as possible. 

68. The subject of the dead belonging to the Sun and the Moon is explained at 
length in the version of Naltsos Nigdhani (Version B) thus: " On the fifth day 
(after the people came up to the surface of this world) the sun climbed as usual 
to the zenith and (then) stopped. The day grew hot and all longed for the night 
to come, but the sun moved not. Then the wise Coyote said : ' The sun stops 
because he has not been paid for his work ; he demands a human life for every 
day that he labors ; he will not move again till some one dies.' At length a 
woman, the wife of a great chief, ceased to breathe and grew cold, and while they 
all drew around in wonder, the sun was observed to move again, and he travelled 
down the sky and passed behind the western mountains. . . . That night the 
moon stopped in the zenith, as the sun had done during the day ; and the Coyote 
told the people that the moon also demanded pay and would not move until it 
was given. He had scarcely spoken when the man who had seen the departed 
woman in the nether world died, and the moon, satisfied, journeyed to the west. 
Thus it is that some one must die every night, or the moon would not move across 
the sky. But the separation of the tribes occurred immediately after this, and 
now the moon takes his pay from among the alien races, while the sun demands 
the life of a Navaho as his fee for passing every day over the earth." 

69. Many of the Indians tell that the world was originally small and was in- 
creased in size. The following is the version of Naltsos Nigdhani (B) : " The 
mountains that bounded the world were not so far apart then as they are now ; 
hence the world was smaller, and when the sun went over the earth he came 
nearer to the surface than lie does now. So the first day the sun went on his 
journey it was intolerably hot ; the people were almost burned to death, and they 
prayed to the four winds that each one would pull his mountain away from the 
centre of the earth, and thus widen the borders of the world. It was done as they 
desired, and the seas that bounded the land receded before the mountains. But 
on the second day, although the weather was milder, it was still too hot, and again 
were the mountains and seas removed. All this occurred again on the third day ; 
but on the fourth day they found the weather pleasant, and they prayed no more 
for the earth to be changed." 

70. The story of the making of the stars is told in essentially the same 
way by many story-tellers. It is surprising that H?iti.l\ Nez totally omitted 
it. The following is the tale as told by Naltsos Nigdhani : " Now First Man 
and First Woman thought it would be better if the sky had more lights, for 
there were times when the moon did not shine at night. So they gathered 
a number of fragments of sparkling mica of which to make stars, and First 
Man proceeded to lay out a plan of the heavens, on the ground. He put a 
little fragment in the north, where he wished to have the star that would 
never move, and he placed near it seven great pieces, which are the seven 
stars we behold in the north now. He put a great bright one in the south, an- 
other in the east, and a third in the west, and then went on to plan various con- 
stellations, when along came Coyote, who, seeing that three pieces were red, 
exclaimed, ' These shall be my stars, and I will place them where I think best ; ' 
so he put them in situations corresponding to places that three great red stars 

224 Notes. 

now occupy among the celestial lights. Before First Man got through with his 
work, Coyote became impatient, and, saying, ' Oh ! they will do as they are,' he 
hastily gathered the fragments of mica, threw them upwards, and blew a strong 
breath after them. Instantly they stuck to the sky. Those to which locations 
had been assigned adhered in their proper places ; but the others were scattered 
at random and in formless clusters over the firmament." See " A Part of the 
Navajo's Mythology." pp. 7, 8. 306 

71. The following are some of the destroyers who sprang from this blood : — 

Tse'nag£hi, Travelling Stone. 

Tstn^iWajitso, Great Wood That Bites. 


S&nsdzol, Old Age Lying Down. 

Tse'tla^d^i/yi/, Black Under Cliffs. 

Tse'tla/zdcfodl'z, Blue Under Cliffs. 

Tse"'tla//a/tsd, Yellow Under Cliffs. 

Tsd'tlaAa/kaf, White Under Cliffs. 

Tse'tla/zdditsos, Sparkling Under Cliffs. 

Tsadida/ial/Ali, Devouring Antelope. 

Yeitso/apahi, Brown Ye'itso. 

Zokaadiktri, Slashing Reeds. 
" You see colors under the rocks, at the bottoms of the cliffs, and when you 
approach them some invisible enemy kills you. These are the same as the Tse'- 
tlayaW, or Those Who Talk Under the Cliffs." Thus said Ha/a7i Nez when 

72. Kintyel or KIntye'li. — This name (from kin, a stone or adobe house, a pueblo 
house, and tyel, broad) means simply Broad Pueblo, — one covering much ground. 
It is applied to at least two ruined pueblos in the Navaho country. One of these 
— the Pueblo Grande of the Mexicans, situated " twenty-two or twenty-three miles 
north of Navaho Springs," a station on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, in 
Arizona — is well described and depicted by Mr. Victor Mindeleff in his " Study of 
Pueblo Architecture." m The other -*- the Kmtye"l to which reference is made in 
this story — is in the Chaco Canyon, in New Mexico. With its name spelled 
" Kintail," and rendered " the Navajo name for ruin," it is mentioned by Mr. F. 
T. Bickford, 293 and one of his pictures, probably representing Klntye'l, is here re- 
produced (fig. 36). In the Journal of American Folk-Lore, April-June, 1889, 
the author says : " I have reason to believe that this pueblo is identical with that 
seen and described in 1849 by Lieut. J. H. Simpson, U. S. A., under the name of 
Pueblo Chettro Kettle." 

73. The name //as-tre"-yal-/i, spelled according to the alphabet of the Bureau of 
Ethnology " Qastceyalc,i " may be translated Talking God, or Talking Elder of 
the Gods, //astreyal/i is otherwise called. Ye'blts-ai, or the Maternal Grandfather 
of the Gods. He is a chief or leader among several groups of local divinities who 
are said to dwell at Kminae"kai, in the Chelly Canyon, at Tsg'nitre, Tsd'hihi, and at 
various other sacred places. Although called a talking god, the man who per- 
sonates him in the rites never speaks while in character, but utters a peculiar 
whoop and makes signs. In the myths, however, the god is represented as speak- 
ing, usually after he has whooped and made signs. (Par. 472.) He is a beneficent 
character, always ready to help man and rescue him from peril. He is sometimes 
spoken of and prayed to as if there were but one, but the myths show that the 
Navahoes believe in many gods of this name, and in some prayers it is distinctly 
specified which one is meant by naming his home in connection with him. In 
plate I. he is shown, as represented in the dry-paintings, carrying a tobacco bag 
made of the skin of Abert's squirrel (Sczurus aberti). In the picture the black 

Notes. 225 

tips of toes, nose, and ears, and the reddish (chestnut) spot on the back of the 
squirrel, are carefully indicated. The dry-painting shows the more important 
characters of the mask worn by the personator, — the eagle-plumes at the back, the 
owl-feathers at the base of the plume-ornament, and the peculiar symbols at mouth 
and eyes, — but it does not show the cornstalk symbol over the nose. Fig. 27, 
taken from a photograph, shows the mask trimmed with its collar of fresh spruce 
boughs, as it appears when used in the dance of naak^af on the last night of the 
ceremony of kldd-si hzii.1. The personator of /fas trey al/i has his whole person 
clothed, while the representatives of other gods go nearly naked. The proper 
covering for his back is a number of finely dressed deerskins, one over another, 
tied together in front by the skins of the legs ; but of late years the masquerader 
often appears in an ordinary calico shirt. The .symbol surrounding each of the 
holes for the eyes and mouth is this 1^31. It is said to represent the storm 
cloud hanging above, and the mist rising from below to meet it. Thus cloud 
and mist often appear in the mountains of the Navaho land during the rainy 
season, //astreyal/i or the Ydbltrai is the principal character in the great rite of 
k\6dzi hzt&l, or the night chant. Our people, who often go to witness the public 
performance of the last night in this rite, call it the Yebltyai (Yaybichy) dance. 
The songs and prayers in which //astre'yal/i is mentioned are numerous. For 
the points in which fig. 2, plate I., agree with fig. 1, plate I., see note 74. 

74. //as-tre'-^ogan, spelled with alphabet of Bureau of Ethnology, Qastce'qogan, 
may be freely translated HoUse God. . Ha.s>ts6hogaxi is one of the leading person- 
ages in each of the local groups of the ye*i, or divine beings, who dwell in caves and 
old cliff-dwellings. He is commonly spoken of as if there were but one ; but an ex- 
amination of the myths shows that the Navahoes believe in many of these gods. 
Those of Tse'gihi, Ts6 i n\hogax\, Tse*'nitre, Kininadkai, and the sacred mountains 
are the ones most commonly worshipped. In most myths he appears as second 
in authority to //astreyal/i, the Talking God, but occasionally he is represented as 
equal or even superior to the latter. He is a farm god as well as a house god. To 
him are attributed the farm-songs sung during the night chant (see note 322), and 
many other scngs. He is a beneficent character and a friend to man. There are 
many songs and prayers in his honor. In the rite of kled^i //a/a7, or the night 
chant, he is represented in the dance by a man v\ earing a collar of spruce, a blue 
mask decorated with eagle-plumes and moccasins, with shirt and leggings, which 
should be (but of late years are not always) of buckskin. He is depicted in 
the dry-paintings thus (see plate I., fig. 1) : He wears a black shirt ornamented 
with four star-like ornaments embroidered in porcupine quills, and having a 
fancy fringe of porcupine quills at the bottom ; white buckskin leggings : col- 
ored garters; quill - embroidered moccasins, tied on with white strings; long 
ear-pendants of turquoise and coral ; bracelets of the same ; an otter-skin (hang- 
ing below the right ear), from which depend six buckskin strings with col- 
ored porcupine quills wrapped around them ; a cap-like (male) mask painted 
blue, fringed with red hair, and adorned with eagle-plumes and owl-feathers. 
He carries a staff (gu) painted black (with the charcoal of four sacred plants), 
streaked transversely with white, and adorned with a single cluster of turkey 
tail-feathers arranged as a whorl, and two eagle plumes, which, like the plumes 
on the 'head, are tipped with small, downy eagle-feathers. The yellow stripe 
at the chin indicates a similar stripe on the mask actually worn, and sym- 
bolizes the yellow light of evening (na^otsdC). The neck of this as well as 
the other divine figures is painted blue, and crossed with four stripes in red. 
Some say that this indicates the larynx with its cartilaginous rings ; others say 
that it represents the collar of spruce-twigs ; others are uncertain of its meaning. 
If it does not represent the spruce collars, it represents nothing in the costume of 

226 Notes. 

the maquerader, which, in other respects, except the quill embroideries, agrees closely 
with the picture, //astreyal/i is also a dawn god, H2&\.s€hogaxi a god of evening. 

75. In the Navaho tales, men frequently receive friendly warnings or advice 
from wind gods who whisper into their ears. Some story-tellers — as in the 
version of the origin myth here given — speak of one wind god only, whom they 
call simply Nl'ltri (Wind); while others — as in the story of Na/I'nesMani — 
speak of Nl'ltri-^Ind' (Wind People) and Nu7sia>w/me'' (Little Wind People) as 
the friendly prompters. 

76. The game of n£nzoz, as played by the Navahoes, is much the same as the 
game of chungkee played by the Mandans, described and depicted by Catlin in 
his " North American Indians," 296 vol. i., page 132, plate 59. A hoop is rolled 
along the ground and long poles are thrown after it. The Mandan pole was made 
of a single piece of wood. The pole of the Navahoes is made of two pieces, 
usually alder, each a natural fathom long; the pieces overlap and are bound 
together by a long branching strap of hide called Magiblke, or turkey-claw. 

77. These shells may not be altogether mythical. Possibly they are the same 
as those described in the story of "The Great Shell of KlntyeV given in this 

78. Vague descriptions only of Be'-ko-trf-^i so far have been obtained. He is 
not represented by any masked characters in the ceremonies, or by any picture in 
the dry-paintings. No description of his appearance has been recorded, except 
that he looks like an old man. There is a myth concerning him of which a brief 
epitome has been recorded. There are four songs of sequence connected with this 
myth. If a Navaho wants a fine horse, he thinks he may get it by singing the 
second and third of these songs and praying to Be'kotrT^i. In his prayer he speci- 
fies the color and appearance of the horse desired. Some say that Be'kotrfc/i 
made all the animals whose creation is not otherwise accounted for in the myths. 
Others say that he and the Sun made the animals together. Others, again, limit 
his creation work to the larger game animals and the modern domestic animals. 
In this paragraph (228) it is said he is the god who carries the moon, while in 
paragraph 199 it is said the moon-bearer is Kle*hanoai. Perhaps these are two 
names for one character. Some say he is the same as the God of the Americans. 

79. Bayeta, Spanish for baize. The variety of baize which finds its way into 
the Navaho country is dyed some shade of crimson, and has a very long nap. It 
is supposed to be made in England especially for the Spanish-American trade, 
for each original bale bears a gaudy colored label with an inscription in Spanish. 
It takes the place in the Southwest of the scarlet strouding which used to form 
such an important article in the trade of our northern tribes. The bright red 
figures in the finer Navaho blankets, fifteen years or more ago, were all made 
of threads of ravelled bayeta. 

80. The coyote, or prairie-wolf (Cants latrans), would seem to be regarded by 
the Navahoes as the type, or standard for comparison, among the wild CanidcE of 
the Southwest. The coyote is called mai ; the great wolf, maftso, which means 
great coyote; and the kit fox (Vulpes velox) is called maidotlVz, which means blue 
or gray coyote. 

81. Some versions say there were twelve brothers and one sister in this divine 
family, making thirteen in all. In this version the narrator tells how another 
brother was created by Estsdnatlehi to make up for the loss of Zdyaneyani, 
who left the brotherhood. (Par. 417.) Although called Dln& NakidaVa, or the 
Twelve People, these brothers are evidently divinities. True, they once died ; but 
they came to life again and are now immortal. They are gifted with superhuman 

82. The sweat-house of .the Navahoes (par. 25, fig. 1 5) is usually not more than 



Fig. 38. Natural bridge, near Fort Defiance, Arizona. 

three feet high. Diaphoresis is produced on the principle of the Turkish (not the 
Russian) bath. While the Indians of the North pour water on the hot stones 
and give a steam bath, the Navahoes simply place stones, heated in a fire out- 
side, on the floor of the sweat-house, cover the entrance with blankets, and thus 
raise a high heat that produces violent perspiration. When the occupant comes 
out, if the bath is not ceremonial, he rolls himself in the sand, and, when his skin 
is thus dried, he brushes the sand away. He usually returns then to the sweat- 
house, and may repeat the operation several times in a single afternoon. If the 
sweat is ceremonial, the bath of yucca suds usually follows (see note 10), and 
the subject is dried with corn meal. 

83. One version relates that, before they entered the sudatory, Coyote proposed 
they should produce emesis by tickling their throats, — a common practice among 
the Navahoes. He placed a large piece of pine bark before each, as a dish, and 
bade YeVapahi keep his eyes shut till he was told to open them. That day Coyote 
had fared poorly. He had found nothing to eat but a few bugs and worms, while 
YeVapahi had dined heartily on fat venison. When the emesis was over, Coyote 
exchanged the bark dishes and said to YeVapahi : " Open your eyes and see what 
bad things you have had in your stomach. These are the things that make you 
sick." The giant opened his eyes and beheld on the bark a lot of bugs and 
worms. " It is true, my friend, what you tell me," he said. " How did I get such 
vile things into me ? No wonder I could „not run fast." Coyote then told the 
giant to go before him into the sudatory, and when the giant had turned his back 
the hungry Coyote promptly devoured the contents of the other dish of bark. 

84. The word /<5he (Englished thdhay), which may be interpreted stand, stick, 
or stay, is, in various rites, shouted in an authoritative tone when it is desired 
that some object shall obey the will of the conjurer. Thus in the dance of the 
standing arcs, as practised in the rite of the mountain chant, when an arc is 
placed on the head of a performer, and it is intended that it should stand without 



apparent means of support, the cry " /dhe " is frequently repeated. (See " The 
Mountain Chant," 3H p. 437.) 

85. The statement that the hair of the gods, both friendly and alien, is yellow, 
is made in other tales also. The hair of the ceremonial masks is reddish or yel- 
lowish. (See plates IV. and VII.) The hair of the gods is represented by red in 
the dry-pictures. Dull tints of red are often called yellow by the Navahoes. 
Various conjectures may be made to account for these facts. 

86. The bridge of rainbow, as well as the trail of rainbow, is frequently intro- 
duced into Navaho tales. The Navaho land abounds in deep chasms and canyons, 
and the divine ones, in their wanderings, are said to bridge the canyons by pro- 
ducing rainbows. In the myth of " The Mountain Chant," p. 399 (note 314), the 
god .//astseyal/'i is represented as making a rainbow bridge for the hero to walk 

Kip ;hK 4&* 

'WW flft wl* ■ ' 

■ i$$w- 

':'"''"*' '''*l|4. " : ",,, 

"' ^ "■ .^* \i ■'•'■" •,- 5 \»F i> J 



■'- ■ m"\ •■*. .*■ i l W flu 

*" - ■ - ( 

! .'■< : ■ 

F'g- 39- Yucca baccata. 

on. The hero steps on the bow, but sinks in it because the bow is soft ; then the 
god blows a breath that hardens the bow, and the man walks on it with ease. A 
natural bridge near Fort Defiance, Arizona, is thought by the Navahoes to have 
been originally one of the rainbow bridges of //astj-eyal/i. (See fig. 38.) 

87. The spiders of Arizona are largely of the classes that live in the ground, 
including trap-door spiders, tarantulas, etc. 

88. This legend and nearly all the legends of the Navaho make frequent allu- 
sions to yucca. Four kinds are mentioned : 1st, tsdsi or //a.fkdn. Yucca baccata 



(Torrey); 2d, tsasitsdz, or slender yucca, Yucca gIauca,(N\itta\l), Yucca angusti- 
folia (Pursh); 3d, ye'bftsasi, or yucca of the gods, probably Yucca radiosa (Tre- 
lease), Yucca elata (Engelmann) ; 4th, tsasibf/e', or horned yucca, which seems to 
be but a stunted form or dwarf variety of Yucca baccata, never seen in bloom or in 
fruit by the author. Tsasi is used as a generic name. All kinds are employed 
in the rites, sometimes indifferently ; at other times only a certain species may 
be used. Thus in the sacred game of kesltye', 176 the counters are made of the 
leaves of Y. glaucaj in the initiation into the mystery of the Ydbltrai, the candi- 
date is flogged with the leaf of Y. baccata. Fig. 
26 represents a mask used in the rites of kledzi 
//a/a7, which must be made only of the leaves of 
Y. baccata, culled with many singular observances. 
All these yuccas have saponine in their roots 
(which are known as /alawux or foam), and all 
are used for cleansing purposes. All have, in 
their leaves, long tough fibres which are utilized 
for all the purposes to which such fibres may be 
applied. One species only, Yucca baccata, has an 
edible fruit. This is called ^ajkan (from has, 
thorny, and kan, sweet), a name sometimes ap- 
plied to the whole plant. The fruit is eaten raw 
and made into a tough, dense jelly, both by the 
Navaho and Pueblo Indians. The first and sec- 
ond kinds grow abundantly in the Navaho coun- 
try ; the third and fourth kinds are rarer. Fig. 
40 represents a drumstick used in the rites of 
kUfd-d //a/a/, which must be made only of four 
leaves of Yucca baccata. The intricate observ- 
ances connected with the manufacture, use, de- 
struction, and sacrifice of this drumstick have 
already been described by the author. 321 

89. The cane cactus is Opuntia arborescens 

90. Tjike' Sas Natlehi means literally Young 
Woman Who Changes to a Bear, or Maid Who 
Becomes a Bear. To judge from this tale, it might 
be thought that there was but one such character 
in the Navaho mythology and that she had died. 
But it appears from other legends and from ritu- 
als that the Navahoes believe in several such 
maidens, some of whom exist to this day. The hill 
of T^ujkai (note 9) is said in the myth of dsiiyl'dze 
//a/a/ to be the home of several of the T.rike' Sas 
Ndtlehi now. It would seem from the songs of 
dsl/yl'd-sre hz.ti.1 that the Maid Who Becomes a 
Bear of later days is not considered as malevolent as the first of her kind. Her 
succor is sought by the sick. 

91. See par. 26. From the language of this story, the conclusion may be drawn 
that death is not the only thing that renders a house haunted or evil but that, if 
great misfortune has entered there, it is also to be avoided. 

92. This remark must refer only to the particular group whose story is traced. 
According to the legend, other bands of Z>Ine'', who had escaped the fury of the 
alien gods, existed at this time, and when they afterwards joined the Navahoes 

Fig. 40. Drumstick made of 
Yucca leaves. 

2 30 Notes. 

they were known as dlni' rflgini (holy or mystic people). (See pars. 385 and 


93. The gods, and such men as they favor, are represented)in the tales as making 
rapid and easy journeys on rainbows, sunbeams, and streaks of lightning. Such 
miraculous paths are called e/I'n */Igfni, or holy trails. They are also represented 
as using sunbeams like rafts to float through the air. 

94. Compare this account with the creation of First Man and First Woman. 
(Pars. 162-164.) ** 

95. Es-tsd-na-tle-hi (par. 72) is never represented in the rites by a masquerader, 
and never depicted in the sand-paintings, as far as the author has been able to 
learn. Other versions of the legend account for her creation in other ways. Ver- 
sion A. — First Man and First Woman stayed at Dsllnao/I/ and camped in various 
places around the mountain. One day a black cloud descended on the mountain 
of T-solihi, and remained there four days. First Man said : " Surely something 
has happened from this ; let some one go over there and see." First Woman 
went. She approached the mountain from the east, and wound four times around 
it in ascending it. On the top she found a female infant, who was the daughter 
of the Earth Mother (Naestsan, the Woman Horizontal) and the Sky Father 
( Ya^fl/yl/, the Upper Darkness). She picked up the child, who till that moment 
had been silent ; but as soon as she was lifted she began to cry, and never ceased 
crying until she got home to DsI/nao/I/. Salt Woman said she wanted the child. 
It is thought the sun fed the infant on pollen, for there was no one to nurse it. In 
twelve days she grew to be a big girl, and in eighteen days she became a woman, 
and they held the nubile ceremony over her. Twelve songs belong to this cere- 
mony. Version B only says that First Woman found the infant lying on the 
ground and took it home to rear it. (See " Some Deities and Demons of the 
Navajos," 313 pp. 844, 846.) 

96. Yo/-kaf Es-tsan signifies White Shell Woman. Yo/kaf is derived by syn- 
cope from yo (a bead, or the shell from which a bead is made) and /akai (white). 
Estsin means woman. As far as known, she is not represented bv a character in 
any of the ceremonies, and not depicted in the dry-paintings. 

97. Note omitted. 

98. 7(5'-ne-nMi or 7<5-ne-nMi, Water Sprinkler, is an important character in 
Navaho mythology. He is a rain-god. In the dry-paintings of the Navaho rites 
he is shown as wearing a blue mask bordered with red, and trimmed on top with 
life-feathers. Sometimes he is represented carrying a water-pot. In the rite of 
kle'dzi hzti.1, during the public dance of the last night, he is represented by a 
masked man who enacts the part of a clown. While other masked men are dan- 
cing, this clown performs various antics according to his caprice. He walks along 
the line of dancers, gets in their way, dances out of order and out of time, peers 
foolishly at different persons, or sits on the ground, his hands clasped across his 
knees, his body rocking to and fro. At times he joins regularly in the dance ; 
toward the close of a figure, and when the others have retired, pretending he is 
unaware of their departure, he remains, going through his steps. Then, feigning 
to suddenly discover the absence of the dancers, he follows them on a full run. 
Sometimes he carries a fox-skin, drops it on the ground, walks away as if uncon- 
scious of his loss ; then, pretending to become aware of his loss, he turns around 
and acts as if searching anxiously for the skin, which lies plainly in sight. He 
screens his eyes with his hand and crouches low to look. Then, pretending to 
find the skin, he jumps on it and beats it as if it were a live animal that he seeks 
to kill. Next he shoulders and carries it as if it were a heavy burden. With 
such antics the personator of 7<5'nenfli assists in varying the monotony of the 
long night's performance. Though shown as a fool in the rites, he is not so 
shown in the myths. 

Notes. 231 

99. They manipulated the abdominal parietes, in the belief that by so doing 
they would insure a favorable presentation. This is the custom among the Nava- 
hoes to-day. 

100. Among the Navahoes, medicine-men act as accoucheurs. 

101. Other versions make Estsanatlehi the mother of both War Gods, and give 
a less imaginative account of their conception. Version A. — The maiden Estsa- 
natlehi went out to get wood. She collected a bundle, tied it with a rope, and 
when she knelt down to lift it she felt a foot pressed upon her back ; she looked 
up and saw no one. Three times more kneeling, she felt the pressure of the foot. 
When she looked up for the fourth time, she saw a man. " Where do you live ? " 
he asked. " Near by, 1 ' she replied, pointing to her home. " On yonder mountain," 
he said, " you will find four yuccas, each of a different kind, cut on the north side to 
mark them. Dig the roots of these yuccas and make yourself a bath. Get meal 
of /ohono/I'ni corn (note 28), yellow from your mother, white from your father 
(note 27). Then build yourself a brush shelter away from your hut and sleep 
there four nights." She went home and told all this to her foster parents. They 
followed all the directions of the mysterious visitor, for they knew he was the Sun. 
During three nights nothing happened in the brush shelter that she knew of. On 
the morning after the fourth night she was awakened from her sleep by the sound 
of departing footsteps, and, looking in the direction that she heard them, she saw 
the sun rising. Four days after this (or twelve days, as some say) Nay6nSzgani 
was born. Four days later she went to cleanse herself at a spring, and there she 
conceived of the water, and in four days more 70'badzlstrfni, the second War 
God, was born to her. Version B. — The Sun (or bearer of the sun) met her in the 
woods and designated a trysting place. Here First Man built a corral of branches. 
Sun visited her, in the form of an ordinary man, in the corral, four nights in 
succession. Four days after the last visit she gave birth to twins, who were 
Naye*nezgani and 7b'bad^Istjfni. (See " A Part of the Navajos' Mythology," 808 
pp. 9, 10.) 

102. Version A thus describes the baby basket of the elder brother : The child 
was wrapped in black cloud. A rainbow was used for the hood of the basket and 
studded with stars. The back of the frame was a parhelion, with the bright spot 
at its bottom shining at the lowest point. Zigzag lightning was laid on each side 
and straight lightning down the middle in front. Nlltsat/o/ (sunbeams shining 
on a distant rainstorm) formed the fringe in front where Indians now put strips of 
buckskin. The carrying-straps were sunbeams. 

103. The mountain mahogany of New Mexico and Arizona is the Cercocarpus 
parvtfolius, Nutt. It is called by the Navahoes Tsd'estagi, which means hard as 

104. Round cactus, one or more species of Mammilaria. Sitting cactus, 
Cereus phceniceus, and perhaps other species of Cereus. 

105. Yd-i-tso (from ye*i, a god or genius, and tso, great) was the greatest and 
fiercest of the anaye, or alien gods. (Par. 80, note 7.) All descriptions of him are 
substantially the same. (See pars. 323, 325, 326.) According to the accounts of 
Hz.ti.ri N6z and Torlino, his father was a stone ; yet in par. 320 and in Version B 
the sun is represented as saying that Ye*itso is his child. Perhaps they mean he 
is the child of the sun in a metaphysical sense. 

106. This part of the myth alludes to the trap-door spiders, or tarantulae of the 
Southwest, that dwell in carefully prepared nests in the ground. 

107. By life-feather or breath-feather (hylnd bfltsds) is meant a feather taken 
from a live bird, especially one taken from a live eagle. Such feathers are sup- 
posed to preserve life and possess other magic powers. They are used in all the 
rites. In order to secure a supply of these feathers, the Pueblo Indians catch 

232 Notes. 

eaglets and rear them in captivity (see pars. 560 et seq.) ; but the Navahoes, like 
the wild tribes of the north, catch full-grown eagles in traps, and pluck them while 
alive. This method of catching eagles has been described by the author in his 
" Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians." *° 5 

108. Pollen being an emblem of peace, this is equivalent to saying, " Put your 
feet down in peace," etc. 

109. Version A in describing the adventure with Spider Woman adds: There 
were only four rungs to the ladder. She had many seats in her house. The elder 
brother sat on a seat of obsidian ; the younger, on a seat of turquoise. She 
offered them food of four kinds to eat ; they only accepted one kind. When they 
had eaten, a small image of obsidian came out from an apartment in the east and 
stood on a serrated platfonn, or platform of serrate knives. The elder brother 
stood on the platform beside the image. Spider Woman blew a strong breath 
four times on the image in the direction of the youth, and the latter became thus 
endowed with the hard nature of the obsidian, which was to further preserve him 
in his future trials. From the south room came a turquoise image, and stood on 
a serrated platform. The younger brother stood beside this. Spider Woman 
blew on the turquoise image toward him, and he thus acquired the hard nature of 
the blue stone. To-day in the rites of hoz6m ha.ti.1 they have a prayer concern- 
ing these incidents beginning, " Now I stand on pe'jdblgas." (See note 264.) 

1 10. In describing the journey of the War Gods to the house of the Sun, version 
A adds something. At 7\5'saA> or Hot Spring (Ojo Gallina, near San Rafael), the 
brothers have an adventure with Tie"holtsodi, the water monster, who threatens 
them and is appeased with prayer. They encounter Old Age People, who treat 
them kindly, but bid them not follow the trail that leads to the house of Old Age. 
They come to //ayo/ka/, Daylight, which rises like a great range of mountains 
in front of them. (Songs.) They fear they will have to cross this, but Daylight 
rises from the ground and lets them pass under. . . . They come to T.ra/ye7, Dark- 
ness. Wind whispers into their ears what songs to sing. They sing these songs 
and T.ra/ye7 rises and lets them pass under. They come to water, which they 
walk over. On the other side they meet their sister, the daughter of the Sun, who 
dwells in the house of the Sun. She speaks not, but turns silently around, and 
they follow her to the house. 

in. According to version A, there were four sentinels of each kind, and they 
lay in the passageway or entrance to the house. A curtain hung in front of each 
group of four. In each group the first sentinel was black, the second blue, the 
third yellow, the fourth white. The brothers sang songs to the guardians and 
sprinkled pollen on them. 

1 1 2. Version A gives the names Of these two young men as Black Thunder and 
Blue Thunder. 

113. The teller of the version has omitted to mention that the brothers, when 
they entered the house, declared that they came to seek their father, but other 
story-tellers do not fail to tell this. 

114. Four articles of armor were given to each, and six different kinds of 
weapons were given to them. The articles of armor were : pejke' (knife mocca- 
sins), pejlstle' (knife leggings), peje' (knife shirt), and pejt.s4 (knife hat). The 
word " pes," in the above names for armor, is here translated knife. The term 
was originally applied to flint knives, and to the flakes from which flint knives 
were made. After the introduction of European tools, the meaning was extended 
to include iron knives, and now it is applied to any object of iron, and, with quali- 
fying suffixes, to all kinds of metal. Thus copper is pe^/Ityf, or red metal, and 
silver, per/akaf, or white metal. Many of the Navahoes now think that the mythic 
armor of their gods was of iron. Such the author believed it to be in the earlier 

Notes. 233 

years of his investigation among the Navahoes, and he was inclined to believe 
that they borrowed the idea of armored heroes from the Spanish invaders of the 
sixteenth century. Later studies have led him to conclude that the conception of 
armored heroes was not borrowed from the whites, and that the armor was sup- 
posed to be made of stone flakes such as were employed in making knives in the 
prehistoric days. The Mokis believe that their gods and heroes wore armor of 

1 1 5. The weapons were these : — 
atsinikll'jka (chain-lightning arrows) 
/^atfflkl'jka or ha.d\\\n\' skz. (sheet-lightning arrows) 
jra'bitldlka (sunbeam arrows) 

natsill'/ka (rainbow arrows) 

pestel (stone knife-club) 

/ia.tsoil/ia.1, which some say was a thunderbolt, and others say was a great 
stone knife, with a blade as broad as the hand. Some say that only one stone 
knife was given, which was for Naydnezgani, and that only two thunderbolts were 
given, both of which were for Tb'bacb'Istjfni. The man who now personates 
Nayenezgani in the rites carries a stone knife of unusual size (plate IV.) ; and he 
who personates 7b'bad.sristnni carries in each hand a wooden cylinder (one black 
and one red) to represent a thunderbolt. (Plate VII.) 

116. Version A adds that when they were thus equipped they were dressed 
exactly like their brothers Black Thunder and Blue Thunder, who dwelt in the 
house of the Sun. 

117. The man who told this tale explained that there were sixteen poles in the 
east and sixteen in the west to join earth and sky. Others say there were thirty- 
two poles on each side. The Navahoes explain the annual progress of the sun by 
saying that at the winter solstice he climbs on the pole farthest south in rising ; that 
as the season advances he climbs on poles farther and farther north, until at the 
summer solstice he climbs the pole farthest north ; that then he retraces his way, 
climbing different poles until he reaches the south again. He is supposed to spend 
about an equal number of days at each pole. 

118. Many versions relate that the bearer of the sun rode a horse, or other pet 
animal. The Navaho word here employed is l\n, which means any domesticated 
or pet animal, but now, especially, a horse. Version A says the animal he rode 
was made of turquoise and larger than a horse. Such versions have great diffi- 
culty in getting the horse up to the sky. Version A makes the sky dip down and 
touch the earth to let the horse ascend. Of course the horse is a modern addition 
to the tale. They never saw horses until the sixteenth century, and previous to 
that time it is not known that any animal was ridden on the western continent. 
Version B merely says that the Sun " put on his robe of cloud, and, taking one 
of his sons under each arm, he rose into the heavens." 

119. Version B says they all ate a meal on their journey to the sky-hole. Ver- 
sion A says that they ate for food, at the sky-hole, before the brothers descended, 
a mixture of five kinds of pollen, viz. : pollen of white corn, pollen of yellow corn, 
pollen of dawn, pollen of evening twilight, and pollen of the sun. 11 These were 
mixed with /6'/anastri, all kinds of water. 87 

120. 7\5'-sa-/o or Warm Spring is at the. village of San Rafael, Valencia County, 
New Mexico. It is about three miles in a southerly direction from Grant's, on the 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, five miles from the base and eighteen miles from 
the summit of Mount Taylor, in a southwesterly direction from the latter. The 
lake referred to in the myth lies about two miles southeast of the spring. 

121. According to Version A, the monsters or anaye were all conceived in the 
fifth world and born of one woman (a granddaughter of First Woman), who 

234 Notes. 

travelled much and rarely stayed at home. According to Version B, the monsters 
were sent by First Woman, who became offended with man. 

122. Version A gives, in addition to Tsdtsl/, the names of the other three hills 
over which Ye*itso appeared. These were: in the east, Sa'akeV; in the south, 
Dsl/sitrf (Red Mountain) ; in the west, Tse7paina7i (Brown Rock Hanging Down). 

123. Version A. — " Hragh ! " said he, with a sigh of satisfaction (pantomimically 
expressed), " I have finished that." 

124. Yinike/6ko ! No etymology has been discovered for this expression. It 
is believed to be the equivalent of the " Fee Fa Fum ! " of the giants in our 
nursery tales. 

125. Version B. — This bolt rent his armor. 

126. It is common in this and all other versions to show that evil turns to good 
(see pars. 338, 345, 349, et a/.), and that the demons dead become useful to man in 
other forms. How the armor of Ye"itso became useful to man, the narrator here 
forgot to state ; but it may be conjectured that he should have said that it furnished 
flint flakes for knives and arrow-heads. 

127. Other versions state, more particularly, that, in accordance with the In- 
dian custom, these names were given when the brothers returned to their home, 
and the ceremony of rejoicing (the " scalp-dance ") was held for their first victory. 
Naye*ngzgani is derived from na, or ana (alien or enemy : see note 7) ; ye*i, ye 
or ge (a genius or god ; hence anaye, an alien god or giant : see par. 80) ; nezgd' (to 
kill with a blow or blows, as in killing with a club) ; and the suffix ni (person). 
The name means, therefore, Slayer of the Alien Gods, or Slayer of Giants. As 
the sounds of g and y before e are interchangeable in the Navaho language, the 
name is heard pronounced both Naydnezgani and Nage"ngzgani, — about as often 
one way as the other. In previous essays the author has spelled it in the latter 
way ; but in this work he gives preference to the former, since it is more in har- 
mony with his spelling of other names containing the word " ye " or " ye*i." (See 
par. 78.) 7b'-ba-cbfe-trf-ni is derived from /o' (water), ba (for him), darlstjfn (born), 
and the suffix ni. The name therefore means, literally, Born for the Water ; but 
the expression bad^Istn'n (born for him) denotes the relation of father and child, 
— not of a mother and child, — so that a free translation of the name is Child 
of the Water. The second name of this god, Nafc/iklji, is rarely used. 

128. About 40 miles to the northeast of the top of Mt. San Mateo there is a 
dark, high volcanic hill called by the Mexicans El Cabezon, or The Great Head. 
This is the object which, according to the Navaho story-tellers, was the head of 
Ye*itso. Around the base of San Mateo, chiefly toward the east and north, there 
are several more high volcanic peaks, of less prominence than El Cabezon, which 
are said to have been the heads of other giants who were slain in a great storm 
raised by the War Gods. (See pars. 358, 359.) Plate V. shows six of these vol- 
canic hills. The high truncated cone in the distance (17 miles from the point of 
view) is El Cabezon. Captain Clarence E. Dutton, U. S. A., treats of the geologic 
character of these cones in his work on Mount Taylor. 299 Plate V. is taken from 
the same photograph as his plate XXI. In Lieut. Simpson's report, 828 p. 73, 
this hill is described under the name Cerro de la Cabeza, and a picture of it is 
given in plate 17 of said report. It is called " Cabezon Pk." on the accompanying 

129. To the south and west of the San Mateo Mountains there is a great plain 
of lava rock of geologically recent origin, which fills the valley and presents plainly 
the appearance of having once been flowing. The rock is dark and has much 
resemblance to coagulated blood. This is the material which, the Navahoes 
think, was once the blood of Ye*itso. In some places it looks as if the blood 
were suddenly arrested, forming high cliffs ; here the war god is supposed to have 

Notes. 235 

stopped the flow with his knife. Plate VI. shows this lava in the valley of the 
Rio San Jose", from a photograph supplied by the United States Geological Survey. 

130. Version A adds some particulars to the. account of the return of the brothers 
to their home, after their encounter with Ye*itso. They first went to Azfhi, the 
place at which they descended when they came from the sky, and then to Kainip6hi. 
On their way home they sang twenty songs — the Ni</o/atsogisIn — which are sung 
to-day in the rites of hozom hz.ti.1. Near Dsl/nao/i/, just at daybreak, they met 
i/'yal/i and //astreV^o^an, who embraced them, addressed them as grand- 
children, sang two songs, now belonging to the rites, and conducted the young 
heroes to their home. 

131. 7'd-el-ge/, 7e-el-ge'-/i and Z?£l-ge7 are various pronunciations of the name 
of this monster. In the songs he is sometimes called Bl-/e'-Sl-gS-/i, which is merely 
prefixing the personal pronoun " his " to the name. The exact etymology has not 
been determined. The name has some reference to his horns ; te, or /e, meaning 
horns, and bi/6, his horns, in Navaho. All descriptions of this anaye are much 
alike. His father, it is said, was an antelope horn. 

132. Arabis holbollii (Hornemann), a-ze-/a-dfil-/e'-he, "scattered" or "lone 
medicine." The plants grow single and at a distance from one another, not in 
beds or clusters. (See " Navajo Names for Plants," 812 p. 770.) 

133. Version A relates that they sang, while at work on these kethawns, six 
songs, which, under the name of Atsds Bigi'n, or Feather Songs, are sung now in 
the rite of hoz6n\ hz.ti.1. 

134. Version A says that the horns of 7¥elge/ were like those of an antelope, 
and that Naye'nezgani cut off the short branch of one as an additional trophy. 

135. Tse'na'-ha-le. These mythic creatures, which in a previous paper, "A 
Part of the Navajos' Mythology," 806 the author calls harpies, from their analogy 
to the harpies of Greek mythology, are believed in by many tribes of the South- 
west. According to /fa/a/i N6z they were the offspring of a bunch of eagle 

136. Tse*'-bl-/a-i, or Winged Rock, is a high, sharp pinnacle of dark volcanic 
rock, rising from a wide plain in the northwestern part of New Mexico, about 12 
miles from the western boundary of the Territory, and about 20 miles from the 
northern boundary. The Navahoes liken it to a bird, and hence the name of 
Winged Rock, or more literally Rock, Its Wings. The whites think it resembles 
a ship with sails set, and call it Ship Rock. Its bird-like appearance has probably 
suggested to the Navahoes the idea of making it the mythic home of the bird-like 

137. There are many instances in Navaho language and legend where, when 
two things somewhat resemble each other, but one is the coarser, the stronger, or 
the more violent, it is spoken of as male, or associated with the male ; while the 
finer, weaker, or more gentle is spoken of as female, or associated with the female. 
Thus the turbulent San Juan River is called, by the Navaho, Zb'bakd, or Male 
Water; while the placid Rio Grande is known as 7Vbaad, or Female Water. 
A shower accompanied by thunder and lightning is called nlltsabakd, or male 
rain ; a shower without electrical display is called nfltsabaad, or female rain. In 
the myth of Na/fnesMani the mountain mahogany is said to be used for the male 
sacrificial cigarette, and the cliff rose for the female. These two shrubs are much 
alike, particularly when in fruit and decked with long plumose styles, but the 
former (the " male ") is the larger and coarser shrub. In the myth of Dsl/yi' Neyani 
another instance may be found where mountain mahogany is associated with the 
male, and the cliff rose with the female. Again, in the myth of Na/I'nesMani a 
male cigarette is described as made of the coarse sunflower, while its associated 
female is said to be made of the allied but more slender Verbesina. Instances of 

2 36 Notes. 

this character might be multiplied indefinitely. On this principle the north is 
associated with the male, and the south with the female, for two reasons: 1st, 
cold, violent winds blow from the north, while gentle, warm breezes blow from the 
south ; 2d, the land north of the Navaho country is more rough and mountainous 
than the land in the south. In the former rise the great peaks of Colorado, while 
in the latter the hills are not steep and none rise to the limit of eternal snow. A 
symbolism probably antecedent to this has assigned black as the color of the north 
and blue as the color of the south ; so, in turn, black symbolizes the male and 
blue the female among the Navaho. (From " A Vigil of the Gods.") 328 

138. Version A. — The young birds were the color of a blue heron, but had bills 
like eagles. Their eyes were as big as a circle made by the thumbs and middle 
fingers of both hands. Naye'nezgani threw the birds first to the bottom of the 
cliff and there metamorphosed them. 

139. The etymology of the word Tre'-da-ni (Englished, chedany) has not been 
determined. It is an expression denoting impatience and contempt. 

140. On being asked for the cause of this sound, the narrator gave an explana- 
tion which indicated that the " Hottentot apron " exists among American Indians. 
The author has had previous evidence corroborative of this. 

141. Version B here adds: "Giving up her feathers for lost, she turned her 
attention to giving names to the different kinds of birds as they flew out, — names 
which they bear to this day among the Navajos, — until her basket was empty." 

142. Tse'-/a-^o-trTl-/£'-/i is said to mean He (Who) Kicks (People) Down the 
Cliff. Some pronounce the name Tse'-/a-yT-Uil-#L'-/i. 

143. In versions A and B, the hero simply cuts the hair of the monster and allows 
the latter to fall down the cliff. 

144. Na-tsis-a-in is the Navaho Mountain, an elevation 10,416 feet high, ten 
miles south of the junction of the Colorado and San Juan rivers, in the State 
of Utah. 

145. Thus does the Navaho story-teller weakly endeavor to score a point against 
his hereditary enemy, the Pah Ute. But it is poor revenge, for the Pah Uteis said 
to have usually proved more than a match for the Navaho in battle. In Version 
A, the young are transformed into Rocky Mountain sheep ; in Version B, they 
are changed into birds of prey. 

146. This is the place at which the Bifnaye Ahi.n\ were born, as told in par. 
203. The other monsters mentioned in Part II. were not found by Naye'nezgani 
at the places where they were said to be born. 

147. Other versions make mention, in different places, of a Salt Woman, or god- 
dess of salt, Aj-ihi Estsln ; but the version of //a/a7i Nez does not allude to her. 
Version A states that she supplied the bag of salt which Naye'nezgani carried on his 

148. TsI-df/-A5-i means shooting or exploding bird. The name comes, perhaps, 
from some peculiarity of this bird, which gives warning of the approach of an 

149. Hos-t6-d'\ is probably an onomatopoetic name for a bird. It is said to be 
sleepy in the daytime and to come out at night. 

150. Version B says that scalps were the trophies. 

151. In all versions of this legend, but two hero gods or war gods are promi- 
nently mentioned, viz., Naye'nezgani and Tb'bad.zlstrini ; but in these songs four 
names are given. This is to satisfy the Indian reverence for the number four, and 
the dependent poetic requirement which often constrains the Navaho poet to put 
four stanzas in a song. Zdyaneyani, or Reared Beneath the Earth (par. 286), is 
an obscure hero whose only deed of valor, according to this version of the legend, 
was the killing of his witch sister (par. 281). The deeds of Tsdwenatlehi, or the 

Notes. 237 

Changing Grandchild, are not known to the writer. Some say that Zeyaneyani 
and Tsriwenatlehi are only other names for Naydnezgani and To'Dacblstrmi ; but 
the best authorities in the tribe think otherwise. One version of this legend says 
that Estsdnatlehi hid her children under the ground when YeMtso came seeking to 
devour them. This may have given rise to the idea that one of these children 
was called, also, Reared Beneath the Earth. 

1 52. The following are the names of places where pieces were knocked off the 
stone : — 

Bls^a, Edge of Bank. 

7b'kohokddi, Ground Level with Water. (Here Naydnezgani chased the stone 
four times in a circle ; the chips he knocked off are there yet.) 

Daatsl'ndaheo/, Floating Corn-cob. 

Nita/I's, Cottonwood below Ground. s 

■5aydests£', Gaping Bear. 

Beikl^atyel, Broad Lake. 

Nanmdlin, Make Nanarosr Sticks. 

AkrWahalkaf, Something White on Top (of something else). 

Anddsl/, Enemy Mountain. 

*S"a>bi/o', Bear Spring (Fort Wingate). 

Tse'tyeHskrW, Broad Rock Hill. 

Tjadi^dbltm, Antelope Trail Ascending. 

Kmhitsdi, Much Sumac. 

Trujkai (Chusca Knoll). 

Zestriafelkai, Streaks of White Ashes. 

DsT/naodsI/, Mountain Surrounded by Mountains (Carrizo Mountains.). 

71sndspas, Circle of Cottonwood. 

The above, it is said, are all places where constant springs of water (rare in the 
Navaho land) are to be found. Some are known to be such. This gives rise to 
the idea expressed in note 8. There is little doubt that the Navahoes believe in 
many of the Tidholtsodi. Probably every constant spring or watercourse has its 
water god. 

153. Version A adds an account of a wicked woman who dwelt at KVndolWz 
and slew her suitors. Naye*nezgani "kills her. It also adds an account of vicious 
swallows who cut people with their wings. Version B omits the encounter with 
*Sajnalk£hi and Ts^'nagahi. 

1 54. Possibly this refers to Pueblo legends. 

155. Version B, which gives only a very meagre account of this destructive 
storm, mentions only one talisman, but says that songs were sung and dances per- 
formed over this. 

156. Such pillars as the myth refers to are common all over the Navaho land. 

157. Version A makes Naydnezgani say here: " I have been to ni'nWahazlago 
(the end of the earth); to /o'mrfahazlago (the end of the waters); to yalWahazlago 
(the end of the sky) ; and to dsT/mdahazlago (the end of the mountains), and I 
have found none that were not my friends." 

158. Pds-sifn-i is the name given by the Navahoes to the hard mineral substance 
which they use to make black beads, and other sacrifices to the gods of the north. 
Specimens of this substance have been examined by Prof. F. W. Clark of the 
United States Geological Survey, who pronounces it to be a fine bituminous coal 
of about the quality of cannel coal ; so it is, for convenience, called cannel coal 
in this work. It is scarce in the Navaho land and is valued by the Indians. 

159. This refers to large fossil bones found in many parts of Arizona and New 

160. .//a-^aV*o-ni-ge-^I-ne' (Mirage People), //a-</a-^o-nes-/irf*/I-ne' (Ground- 

238 Notes, 

heat People). HadAJtonesfid is translated ground-heat, for want of a more con- 
venient term. It refers to the waving appearance given to objects in hot weather, 
observed so frequently in the arid region, and due to varying refraction near the 
surface of the ground. 

161. The ceremony at Tjlnli (Chinlee Valley) was to celebrate the nubility of 
Estsanatlehi. Although already a mother, she was such miraculously, and not 
until this time did she show signs of nubility. Such a ceremony is performed for 
every Navaho maiden now. The ceremony at San Francisco Mountain occurred 
four days after that at Trfnlf. It is now the custom among the Navahoes to hold 
a second ceremony over a maiden four days after the first. On the second cere- 
mony with Estsanatlehi they laid her on top of the mountain with her head to the 
west, because she was to go to the west to dwell there. They manipulated her 
body and stretched out her limbs. Thus she bade the people do, in future, to all 
Navaho maidens, and thus the Navahoes do now, in the ceremony of the fourth 
day, when they try to mould the body of the maiden to look like the perfect form of 
Estsanatlehi. Version A makes the nubile ceremony occur before the child was 

162. Dsl/-/r-£rl'n, or Dsl//tel'ni (Black Mountain), is an extensive mesa in 
Apache County, Arizona. The pass to which the myth refers is believed to be 
that named, by the United States Geological Survey, Marsh Pass, which is about 
60 miles north of the Moki villages. The name of the mesa is spelled " Zilh-le- 
jlni " on the accompanying map. 

163. Tb'-yS't-li (Meeting Waters) is the junction of two important rivers some- 
where in the valley of the San Juan River, in Colorado or Utah. The precise 
location has not been determined. It is a locality often mentioned in the Navaho 
myths. (See par. 477.) 

164. The following appeared in the " American Naturalist " for February, 1887 : — 
" In the interesting account entitled ' Some Deities and Demons of the Nava- 

jos,' by Dr. W. Matthews, in the October issue of the " Naturalist " (note 306), he 
mentions the fact that the warriors offered their sacrifices at the sacred shrine of 
Thoyetli, in the San Juan Valley. He says that the Navajos have a tradition 
that the gods of war, or sacred brothers, still dwell at Thoyetli, and their reflec- 
tion is sometimes seen on the San Juan River. Dr. Matthews is certain the last 
part is due to some natural phenomenon. The following account seems to furnish 
a complete explanation of this part of the myth. Several years ago a clergyman, 
while travelling in the San Juan Valley, noticed a curious phenomenon while 
gazing down upon the San Juan River as it flowed through a deep canyon. Mists 
began to arise, and soon he saw the shadows of himself and companions reflected 
near the surface of the river, and surrounded by a circular rainbow, the ' Circle of 
Ulloa.' They jumped, moved away, and performed a number of exercises, to be 
certain that the figures were their reflections, and the figures responded. There 
was but slight color in the rainbow. Similar reflections have no doubt caused the 
superstitious Indians to consider these reflections as those of their deities." — G. 
A. Brennan, Roseland, Cook County, Illinois, January 12, 1887. 

165. Tse'-gf-hi is the name of some canyon, abounding in cliff-dwellings, north 
of the San Juan River, in Colorado or Utah. The author knows of it only from 
description. It is probably the McElmo or the Mancos Canyon. It is supposed 
by the Navahoes to have been a favorite home of the y6\ or gods, and the ruined 
cliff-houses are supposed to have been inhabited by the divine ones. The cliff 
ruins in the Chelly Canyon, Arizona, are also supposed to have been homes of the 
gods; in fact, the gods are still thought to dwell there unseen. Chelly is but 
a Spanish orthography of the Navaho" name Tsd'gi, Tseyi or Ts6yi. When a 
Navaho would say "in the Chelly Canyon," he says Tsdyigi. The resemblance 

Notes. 239 

of this expression to Tse'gfhi (g and y being interchangeable) led the author at 
first to confound the two places. Careful inquiry showed that different localities 
were meant. Both names have much the same meaning (Among the Cliffs, or 
Among the Rocks). 

166. The expression used by the story-teller was,- "seven times old age has 
killed." This would be freely translated by most Navaho-speaking whites as 
"seven ages of old men." The length of the age of an old man as a period of 
time is variously estimated by the Navahoes. Some say it is a definite cycle of 
102 years, — the same number as the counters used in the game of kesitre* (note 
176); others say it is "threescore years and ten; " while others, again, declare it 
to be an indefinite period marked by the death of some very old man in the tribe. 
This Indian estimate would give, for the existence of the nuclear gens of the 
Navaho nation, a period of from five hundred to seven hundred years. In his 
excellent paper on the " Early Navajo and Apache," 801 Mr. F. W. Hodge arrives 
at a much later date for the creation or first mention of the Tse'cUmkr'ni by com- 
puting the dates given in this legend, and collating the same with the known dates 
of Spanish-American history. He shows that many of the dates given in this 
story are approximately correct. While the Tse'd-stokfrn is, legendarily, the nu- 
clear gens of the Navahoes, it does not follow, even from the legend, that it is the 
oldest gens ; for the d\x& dXglni, or holy people (see note 92), are supposed to have 
existed before it was created. 

167. Tse'-dsta-kr'n-i is derived from tse' (rock), date (black, dark), and kin (a 
straight-walled house, a stone or adobe house, not a Navaho hut or hogixi). Tse' 
is here rendered "cliffs," because the house or houses in question are described as 
situated in dark cliffs. Like nearly all other Navaho gentile names, it seems to be 
of local origin. 

168. The rock formations of Arizona and New Mexico are often so fantastic 
that such a condition as that here described might easily occur. 

169. The author has expressed the opinion elsewhere 818 that we need not sup- 
pose from this passage that the story-teller wishes to commiserate the Tse'tlini 
on the inferiority of their diet; he may merely intend to show that his gens had 
not the same taboo as the elder gentes. The modern Navahoes do not eat ducks 
or snakes. Taboo is perhaps again alluded to in par. 394, where it is said that 
the 7M'paha ate ducks and fish. The Navahoes do not eat fish, and fear fish in 
many ways. A white woman, for mischief, emptied over a young Navaho man a 
pan of water in which fish had been soaked. He changed all his clothes and 
purified himself by bathing. Navahoes have been known to refuse candies that 
were shaped like fish. 

170. A common method of killing deer and antelope in the old days was this: 
They were driven on to some high, steep-sided, jutting mesa, whose connection 
with the neighboring plateau was narrow and easily guarded. Here their retreat 
was cut off, and they were chased until constrained to jump over the precipice. 

171. The name To l -do-]a6n-zi is derived from two words, — /o' (water) and 
dokdnz (here translated saline). The latter word is used to denote a distinct but 
not an unpleasant taste. It has synonyms in other Indian languages, but not in 
English. It is known only from explanation that the water in question had a 
pleasant saline taste. 

172. The arrow-case of those days is a matter of tradition only. The Indians 
say it looked something like a modern shawl-strap. 

173. In the name of this gens we have possibly another evidence of a former 
existence of totemism among some of the Navaho gentes. ^TajkanAatso may 
mean that many people of the Yucca gens lived in the land, and not that many 
yuccas grew there. 

240 Notes. 

174. From the description given of this tree, which, the Indians say, still stands, 
it seems to be a big birch-tree. 

175. Tsln-a-dsl'-ni is derived by double syncopation from tsln (wood), na (hori- 
zontal), dzin (dark or black), and the suffix ni. The word for black, dsln, in com- 
pounds is often pronounced zXn. There is a place called TsI'nad^In somewhere 
in Arizona, but the author has not located it. 

176. Ke-sl-tye", or kesitre*, from ke (moccasins), and sitae" (side by side, in a row), is 
a game played only during the winter months, at night and inside of a lodge. A 
multitude of songs, and a myth of a contest between animals who hunt by day and 
those who hunt by night, pertain to the game. Eight moccasins are buried in the 
ground (except about an inch of their tops), and they are filled with earth or sand. 
They are placed side by side, a few inches apart, in two rows, — one row on each 
side of the fir.. A chip, marked black on one side (to represent night), is tossed 
up to see which side should begin first. The people of the lucky side hold up a 
screen, to conceal their operations, and hide a small stone in the sand in one of 
the moccasins. When the screen is lowered, one of the opponents strikes the 
moccasins with a stick, and guesses which one contains the stone. If he guesses 
correctly, his side takes the stone to hide and the losers give him some counters. 
If he does not guess correctly, the first players retain the stone and receive a cer- 
tain number of counters. (See note 88.) A better account of this game, with an 
epitome of the myth and several of the songs, has already been published. 316 

177. There are many allusions in the Navaho tales to the clothing of this peo- 
ple before the introduction of sheep (which came through the Spanish invaders), 
and before they cultivated the art of weaving, which they probably learned from 
the Pueblo tribes, although they are now better weavers than the Pueblos. The 
Navahoes represent themselves as miserably clad in the old days (par. 466), and 
they tell that many of their arts were learned from other tribes. (Par. 393.) 

178. Allusion is here made to the material used by Indians on the backs of 
bows, for bow-strings, as sewing-thread, and for many other purposes, which is 
erroneously called " sinew " by ethnographers and travellers. It is not sinew in the 
anatomical or histological sense of the word. It is yellow fibrous tissue taken 
from the dorsal region, probably the aponeurosis of the trapezius. 

179. The Navaho country abounds in small caves and rock-shelters, some of 
which have been walled up by these Indians and used as store-houses (but not as 
dwellings, for reasons elsewhere given, par. 26). Such store-houses are in use 
at this day. 

180. The legends represent the Navahoes not only as poorly clad and poorly 
fed in the old days, but as possessing few arts. Here and elsewhere in the 
legends it is stated that various useful arts became known to the tribe through 
members of other tribes adopted by the Navahoes. 

181. Another version states that when the Western immigrants were travelling 
along the western base of the Lukachokai Mountains, some wanted to ascend the 
Tse'Inli// valley ; but one woman said, " No ; let us keep along the base of the 
mountain." From this they named her Base of Mountain, and her descendants 
bear that name now. This explanation is less likely than that in par. 393. 

182. This statement should be accepted only with some allowance for the fact 
that it was made by one who was of the gens of Zh^'paha. 

183. Punishments for adultery were various and severe among many Indian 
tribes in former days. Early travellers mention amputation of the nose and other 
mutilations, and it appears that capital punishment for this crime was not uncom- 
mon. If there is any punishment for adultery among the Navahoes to-day, more 
severe than a light whipping, which is rarely given, the author has never heard of 
it. The position of the Navaho woman is such that grievous punishments would 

Notes. 241 

not be tolerated. In the days of G6«tso even, it would seem they were scarcely 
less protected than now, for then the husband, although a potent chief, did not 
dare to punish his wives — so the legend intimates — until he had received the 
consent of their relatives. 

184. For the performance of these nine-days' ceremonies the Navahoes now 
build temporary medicine-lodges, which they use, as a rule, for one occasion only. 
Rarely is a ceremony performed twice in the same place, and there is no set day, 
as indicated by any phase of any particular lunation, for the beginning of any 
great ceremony. Many ceremonies may be performed only during the cold 
months, but otherwise the time for performance is not defined. There is a 
tradition that their customs were different when they lived in a compact settle- 
ment on the banks of the San Juan River (before they became shepherds and scat- 
tered over the land) ; that they then had permanent medicine-lodges, and exact 
dates for the performance of some ceremonies. In paragraph 41 1 we hear of a 
ceremony which lasted all winter. 

185. For a description of this ceremony see " The Mountain Chant : a Navaho 
Ceremony," 3U by the author. It is an important healing ceremony of nine days' 
duration. The rites, until the last night, are held in the medicine-lodge and are 
secret. Just after sunset on the last day, a great round corral, or circle of ever- 
green branches, is constructed, called i/ndsds-m, or the dark circle of branches. 
This is about forty paces in diameter, about eight feet high, with an opening in 
the east about ten feet wide. From about eight p. M. on the last night of the cere- 
mony until dawn next morning, a number of dances, dramatic shows, medicine 
rites, and tricks of legerdemain are performed in this corral, in the presence of a 
large group of spectators, — several hundred men, women, and children. No 
one is refused admittance. Fig. 37 shows the dark circle of branches as it ap- 
pears at sunrise when the rites are over, and, in addition to the original opening 
in the east, three other openings have been made in the circle. Fig. 30 shows the 
alii (rite, show, or ceremony) of nahikai", which takes place on this occasion, and 
it is designed largely for the entertainment and mystification of the spectators. 
The performers march around (and very close to) the great central fire, which 
emits an intense heat. Their skin would probably be scorched if it were not 
heavily daubed with white earth. Each actor carries a short wand, at the tip of 
which is a ball of eagle-down. This ball he must burn off in the fire, and then, by 
a simple sleight-of-hand trick, seem to restore the ball again to the end of his 
wand. When this is accomplished, he rushes out of the corral, trumpeting like 
a sand-hill crane. In " The Mountain Chant " this is called a dance, but the 
movements of the actors are not in time to music. Nahikdi" signifies " it becomes 
white again," and refers to the reappearance of the eagle-down. The show is 
very picturesque, and must be mystifying to simple minds. 

186. Tse'-.srnWi-ai signifies Black Rock Standing (like a wall). It might mean 
an artificial wall of black rock ; but as the result of careful inquiry it has been 
learned that the name refers to a locality where exists the formation known to 
geologists as trap-dyke. It cannot be averred that it is applied to all trap-dyke. 

187. Slaves were numerous among the Navahoes, and slavery was # openly recog- 
nized by them until 1883, when the just and energetic agent, Mr. D. M. Riordan, 
did much to abolish it. Yet as late as 1893, when the writer was last in the 
Navaho country, he found evidence that the institution still existed, though very 
occultly, and to a more limited extent than formerly. 

188. Some translate //altso as Yellow Valley, and give a different myth to ac- 
count for the name. As most Navaho gentile names are undoubtedly of local 
origin, there may be a tendency to make all gentile names accord with the gen- 
eral rule. 

242 Notes. 

189. The word here translated pet(/i«) means also a domestic animal and a per- 
sonal fetich. (See par. 63.) 

190. Although this name, BWa'-ni, seems so much like that of Bftani that one 
might think they were but variants of the same word, they are undoubtedly dis- 
tinct names and must not be confounded. 

191. This is believed to be the notable landmark called by the whites Sunset 
Peak, which is about ten miles east of San Francisco Peak, in Yavapai County, 
Arizona. Sunset Peak is covered with dark forests nearly to its summit. The 
top is of brilliant red rock capped by a paler stratum, and it has the appearance, 
at all hours of the day, of being lighted by the setting sun. 

192. This locality is in Apache County, Arizona, about sixty miles from the 
eastern boundary and twelve miles from the northern boundary of the Territory. 
A sharp volcanic peak, 6,825 feet high above sea-level, which marks the place from 
afar, is called " Agathla Needle " on the maps of the United States Geological 
Survey, and on the accompanying map, which was compiled from the government 
maps by Mr. Frank Tweedy of the Geological Survey. 

193. The Navahoes are aware that in lands far to the north there are kindred 
tribes which speak languages much like their own. They have traditions that 
long ago some of their number travelled in search of these tribes and found them. 
These distant kinsmen are called by the Navaho Din& Na^otldni, or Navahoes in 
Another Place. 

194. A version has been recorded which says that, on the march, one woman 
loitered behind at Deer Spring for a while, as if loath to leave ; that for this reason 
they called her Deer Spring, and that her descendants became the gens of that 
name. The same version accounts in a similar manner for the names given at 
the magic fountains. The women did not call out the names of the springs, but 
they loitered at them. 

195. The story of the Deer Spring People affords, perhaps, the best evidence in 
favor of the former existence of totemism to be found in the legend. Assuming 
that the immigrants from the west had once totemic names, we may explain this 
story by saying that it was people of the Deer gens who stayed behind and gave 
their name to the spring where they remained ; that in the course of time they 
became known as People of the Deer Spring ; and that, as they still retain their 
old name in a changed form, the story-teller is constrained to say that the fate of 
the deer is not known. Perhaps the name of the Mai/d'dflfae' (par. 428) may be 
explained in somewhat the same way. (See "The Gentile System of the Navajo 
Indians," p. 107. 818 ) 

196. The more proper interpretation of //b-na-ga'-ni seems to be People of the 
Walking Place, from ho (locative), naga (to walk), and ni (people). It is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that, like nearly all other Navaho gentile names, this name 
has a local meaning, and that the story here told to account for its origin is 
altogether mythical. 

197. This episode indicates that kindness and pity are sentiments not unknown 
to the Navahoes, and that (though there are many thieves) there are honest men 
and women among them. 

198. Na-nay-/e'-.dtt, the Navaho name for the Zufii Indians, is said to be derived 
from ana (an alien or an enemy), nas/e (a horizontal stripe), and z\n (black). 
Some say it refers to the way the Zunians cut their hair, — " bang " it, — straight 
across the forehead ; others say it is the name of a locality. 

199. Kiw-a-a'-ni, or Ki#-ya-a'-ni, means People of the High Pueblo House, — 
the high wall of stone or adobe. The name ki«aa' might with propriety be 
applied to any one of hundreds of ruins in the Navaho country, but the only one 
to which the name is known to be given is a massive ruin six or seven stories high 

Notes. 243 

in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, about seventeen miles in a northerly direction 
from Chaves Station, on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. This ruin consists of 
unusually large fragments of stone, and looks more like a ruined European castle 
than other old Indian dwellings. It seems too far east and south, and too far away 
from the settlements on the San Juan, where the western immigrants finished 
their journey, to be the place, as some say it is, from which the gens of Ki«aa'ni 
derived its name. The high stone wall which the immigrants passed en route, 
mentioned in par*. 435 in connection with the gens of Ki»aa'ni, may be the place 
to which the legend originally ascribed the origin of the name. There are many 
pueblo remains around San Francisco Mountain. The name is written " Kin-ya- 
a-ni " on the accompanying map. 

200. Plate I., fig. 1, shows a ydbaad, or female ye'i or goddess, as she is usually 
represented in the dry-paintings. The following objects are here indicated : (1) 
A square mask or domino, which covers the face only (see fig. 28), is painted blue, 
margined below with yellow (to represent the yellow evening light), and elsewhere 
with lines of red and black (for hair above, for ears at the sides), and has downy 
eagle-feathers on top, tied on with white strings ; (2) a robe of white, extending 
from the armpits to near the knees, adorned with red and blue to represent sun- 
beams, and fringed beautifully at the bottom ; (3) white leggings secured with 
colored garters (such as Indians weave); (4) embroidered moccasins; (5) an orna- 
mental sash ; (6) a wand of spruce-twigs in each hand (sometimes she is shown 
with spruce in one hand and a seed-basket in the other) ; (7) jewels — ear-pendants, 
bracelets, and necklaces — of turquoise and coral ; (8) long strips of fox-skin orna- 
mented at the ends, which hang from wrists and elbows. (For explanation of blue 
neck, see note 74.) In the dance of the nahika'i, there are properly six ydbaad in 
masquerade ; but sometimes they have to get along with a less number, owing to 
the difficulty in finding suitable persons enough to fill the part. The actors are 
usually low-sized men and boys, who must contrast in appearance with those who 
enact the part of males. Each ye'baad actor wears no clothing except moccasins 
and a skirt, which is held on with a silver-studded belt ; his body and limbs are 
painted white ; his hair is unbound and hangs over his shoulders ; he wears the 
square female mask and he carries in each hand a bundle of spruce twigs, which 
is so secured, by means of strings, that he cannot carelessly let it fall. Occasion- 
ally females are found to dance in this character : these have their bodies fully 
clothed in ordinary woman's attire ; but they wear the masks and carry the wands 
just as the young men do. While the male gods, in plate I. ; except Dsaha^bld^a, 
are represented with white arms, the female is depicted with yellow arms. This 
symbolism is explained in Rote 27. 

201. The exact etymology of the word Na-/I'n-cs-/^a-ni has not been deter- 
mined. The idea it conveys is : He who teaches himself, he who discovers for 
himself, or he who thinks out a problem for himself. We find the verb in the 
expression nasmi/in, which means, " Teach me how to do it." Here the second 
and third syllables are pronouns. Although the hero has his name changed after 
a while, the story-teller usually continues to call him Natf'nesMani to the end of 
the story. Often he speaks of him as the man or the Navaho. 

202. The eighteen articles here referred to are as follows : 1, white shell; 2, tur- 
quoise ; 3, haliotis shell ; 4, pds-sini or cannel coal ; 5, red stone ; 6, feathers of the 
yellow warbler ; 7, feathers of the bluebird ; 8, feathers of the eagle ; 9, feathers of 
the turkey; 10, beard of the turkey; n, cotton string; 12, i'yiflfcznd; u 13, white 
shell basket; 14, turquoise basket; 15, haliotis basket; 16, passim basket; 17, 
rock crystal basket ; 18, sacred buckskin. (See note 13.) These were the sacred 
articles which the gods were said to require in the myths of kle'dsi hataX and 
atsdsidse hat&l. In the myths of the former rite they are mentioned over and 

244 Notes. 

over again, to the weariness of the hearer. They are all used to-day in the rites 
mentioned, except the five baskets. Now ordinary sacred baskets (note 5, par. 
28) are used ; the jeweled baskets are legendary only. 

203. The knowledge of domestic or pet turkeys is not new to the Navahoes. 
The Pueblo Indians of the Southwest have kept them for centuries. The Nava- 
hoes declare that in former years they kept pet turkeys themselves ; but this 
seems doubtful, considering their mode of life. A conservative^ avaho will not 
now eat turkey flesh, although he will not hesitate to shoot a wild turkey to sell it 
to a white man. 

204. In the Navaho dry-paintings the rainbow is usually depicted with a head 
at one end and legs and feet at the other. The head is represented with a square 
mask to show that it is a goddess. It is apotheosized. (See fig. 29.) In one of 
the dry-paintings of the mountain chant the rainbow is depicted without limbs or 
head, but terminating at one end with five eagle-plumes, at the other end with 
five magpie-plumes, and decorated near its middle with plumes of the bluebird 
and the red-shafted woodpecker. (See " The Mountain Chant," p. 450. 314 ) 

205. This magic cup figures in many other Navaho myths. (See paragraph 

206. //as-tje"-ol-/o-i means the Shooting Hasts6 (par. 78), or Shooting Deity. 
As the personator of this character always wears a female mask (fig. 28), it would 
seem that this divinity of the chase, like the Roman Diana, is a goddess. The 
personator (a man) carries a quiver of puma skin, a bow, and two arrows. 
The latter are made of reed, are headless, and are feathered with the tail and 
wing feathers of the red-tailed buzzard {Buteo borealis), tied on with fibrous tissue. 
The tips of the arrows are covered with moistened white earth and moistened 
pollen. Each arrow is at least two span6 and a hand's-breadth long ; but it must 
be cut off three finger-widths beyond a node, and to accomplish this it may be 
made a little longer than the above dimensions. There are very particular rules 
about applying the feathers. The man who personates //astreol/oi, in a rite of 
succor in the ceremony of the night chant, follows the personators of the War 
Gods. While the patient stands on a buffalo robe in front of the medicine-lodge, 
the actor waves with the right hand one arrow at him, giving a peculiar call ; then, 
changing the arrows from one hand to another, he waves the other arrow at the 
patient. This is done east, south, west, and north. The actor repeats these 
motions around the lodge; all then enter the lodge; there the patient says a 
prayer, and, with many formalities, presents a cigarette to the personator (after he 
has prayed and sacrificed to the War Gods). The three masqueraders then go to 
the west of the lodge to deposit their sacrifices (that of //astre'ol/'oi is put under 
a weed, — Gutierrezia euthamice, if possible). When this is done, they take off 
their masks, don ordinary blankets, — brought out by an accomplice, — hide the 
masks under their blankets, and return to the lodge in the guise of ordinary 
Indians. Some speak as if there were but one Hasts6otioi, and say she is the 
wife of Naye*nezgani. Others speak as if there were one at every place where the 
ydi have homes. 

207. The G&H-a.s-kX-di are a numerous race of divinities. Their chief home is 
at a place called Z>epe7/a/*a/i/ (Tries to Shoot Sheep), near Tse'gihi, north of the 
San Juan ; but they may appear anywhere, and, according to the myths, are often 
found in company with the y6i and other gods. They belong to the Mountain 
Sheep People, and often appear to man in the form of Rocky Mountain sheep. 
Inthe myths of the night chant it is said that they captured the prophet of the 
rites, took him to their home, and taught him many of the mysteries of the night 
chant. In the treatment accompanying these, the tendo-achillis of a mountain 
sheep is applied to an aching limb to relieve pain; the horn is pressed to an 

Notes. 245 

aching head to relieve headache ; and water from the sheep's eye is used for sore 
eyes. The Ga«askfc/i are gods of plenty and harvest gods. A masquerader, 
representing one of these, sometimes appears in an act of succor about sundown 
on the last day of the night chant, following representatives of ■//astve'yalri and 
Usaha^/old^a. He wears the ordinary blue mask of a ydbaka with the fringe of 
hair removed. He carries a crown or headdress made of a basket from which the 
bottom has been cut, so that it may fit on the head. The basket crown is adorned 
with artificial horns ; it is painted on the lower surface black, with a zigzag streak 
to represent lightning playing on the face of a black cloud ; it is painted red on 
the upper surface (not shown in picture), to indicate the sunlight on the other side 
of the cloud ; and it is decorated with radiating feathers, from the tail of the red- 
shafted woodpecker {Colaptes mexicanus), to represent the rays of the sun stream- 
ing out at the edge of the cloud. The god is crowned with the storm-cloud. The 
horns on the crown are made of the skin of the Rocky Mountain sheep (sewed 
with yucca fibre); they are stuffed with hair of the same, or with black wool ; 
they are painted part black and part blue, with white markings ; and they are 
tipped with eagle-feathers tied on with white string. On his back the actor car- 
ries a long bag of buckskin, which is empty, but is kept distended by means of a 
light frame made of the twigs of aromatic sumac, so as to appear full ; it is deco- 
rated at the back with eagle-plumes, and .sometimes also with the plumes of the 
red-shafted woodpecker ; it is painted on the sides with short parallel white lines 
(12 or 16), and at the back with long lines of four colors. This bag represents a 
bag of black cloud, filled with produce of the fields, which the god is said to carry. 
The cloudy bag is so heavy, they say, that the god is obliged to lean on a staff, 
bend his back, and walk as one bearing a burden ; so the personator does the 
same. The staff, or gis, which the latter carries, is made of cherry (new for each 
occasion) ; it is as long as from the middle of the left breast to the tip of the out- 
stretched right hand ; it is painted black with the charcoal of four sacred plants ; 
it bears a zigzag stripe in white to represent lightning, and it is trimmed with 
many turkey-feathers in two whorls, and one eagle-feather. These properties 
and adornments are conventionally represented in the dry-paintings. (See plate I., 
fig. 5.) The red powder thinly sprinkled over the eagle-plumes at the back repre- 
sents pollen. The cloud bag is tied on the god, says the myth, with rainbows. 
The yellow horizontal line at the chin in the picture represents a yellow line on 
the mask which symbolizes the evening twilight. The actor wears a collar of fox- 
skin (indicated by mark under right ear) and ordinary clothing. The elaborate 
ceremony of succor will not be described here. Ga«askik/i means Humpback. 
The name is sometimes given Na//askfo/i. 

208. The only KX'ruiottz, or KF n^o/llz (Blue House), the writer knows of is a 
ruined pueblo of that name in the Chaco Canyon ; but this can hardly be the Blue 
House referred to in the myth. There is probably another ruin of this name on 
the banks of the San Juan. 

209. The DsahaflTold^a, or Fringe-mouths, are a class of divine beings of whom 
little information has been gained. They are represented in the rite of kldd-d 
7/a/aY by sand-paintings, and by masqueraders decked and masked as shown in 
the pictures. There are two kinds, — Fringe-mouths of the land and Fringe-mouths 
of the water (plate I., fig. 3), or 77;astlatri Dsahadbldsd ; the latter are the class 
referred to in this story. The zigzag lines on their bodies shown in the pictures 
represent the crooked lightning, which they used as ropes to lift the log. On the 
mask (shown in the dry-painting) the mouth is surrounded by white radiating 
lines ; hence the name Fringe-mouths. The actor who represents the Fringe- 
mouths of the land has one half of his body and one half of his mask painted 
black, the other half red. He who represents the Fringe-mouths of the water 

246 Notes. 

has his body painted half blue and half yellow, as shown in plate I., fig. 3. Both 
wear a similar mask and a similar crown or headdress. The crown consists of a 
basket from which the bottom has been cut, so that it may fit on the head ; the 
lower surface is painted black, to represent a dark cloud, and is streaked with 
white to represent lightning ; the upper surface (not shown in the painting) is 
colored red, to represent the sunlight of the back of the cloud ; and feathers of 
the red-shafted woodpecker are attached to the edge, to represent sunbeams. So 
far, this crown is like that worn by Gawaskfa'i (note 207). Ascending from the 
basket crown is a tripod of twigs of aromatic sumac, painted white ; between the 
limbs of the tripod finely combed red wool is laid, and a downy eagle-feather tips 
each stick. The actor carries in his left hand a bow adorned with three eagle- 
plumes and two tufts of turkey feathers, and in his right hand a white gourd 
rattle, sometimes decorated with two whorls of feathers. His torso, arms, and 
legs are naked, but painted. He wears a shirt around his loins, and rich neck- 
laces and ear pendants. All these things are plainly indicated in the dry-paint- 
ings. The fox-skin collar which he wears is vaguely shown by an appendage at 
the right ear. The angles of the white lightning on the chest and limbs of the 
actor are not as numerous as in the paintings. 

210. Tie/ftt are ferocious pets that belong to Tie'holtsodi, the water monster, and 
guard the door of his dwelling. They are said to have blue horns. 

211. Na-tsi-ll7 a-kd-di (short rainbow), the fragmentary or incomplete rain- 

212. H2&\s€-z\a.-\ signifies Black ffastsg, or Black God. There are several of 
them (dwelling at Tseni'/zodfi/yl/, near Tse'gihi), but the description will be given 
in the singular. He is a reserved, exclusive individual. The yei at other places 
do not visit him whenever they wish. He owns all fire; he was the first who 
made fire, and he is the inventor of the fire-drill. It is only on rare occasions that 
he is represented by a masquerader at a ceremony. When it is arranged to give 
a night chant without the public dance of the last night (and this seldom occurs), 
Black God appears in a scene of succor 206 on the evening of the ninth day in 
company with three other gods, — Naydnezgani, 70'bad^Istrfni, and //astreol/oi. 
It is said that the personator is dressed in black clothes ; wears a black mask, 
with white marks and red hair on it, and a collar of fox-skin ; and that he carries 
a fire-drill and a bundle of cedar-bark. The author has never seen /fasts6zlni 
represented either in a dry-painting or in masquerade, and he has therefore never 
witnessed the scene or ceremony of succor referred to. This ceremony, which is 
very elaborate, has been described to the author by the medicine-men. The actor 
has to be well paid for his tedious services, which occupy the whole day from sun- 
rise to sunset, though the act of succor lasts but a few minutes. 

213. The fire-drill is very little used by the Navahoes at the present time, — 
matches and flint-and-steel having taken its place ; but it is frequently mentioned 
in the myths and is employed in the ceremonies. Of the many aboriginal fire- 
drills, described and depicted by Dr. Walter Hough in his excellent paper on 
" Fire-making Apparatus," 802 that of the Navahoes is the rudest. It looks like a 
thing that had been made to order. 

214. Tsm-tli'-zi signifies hard, brittle wood. 

215. It is probable that the various peculiar acts described in this paragraph 
have reference to agricultural rites still practised, or recently practised, by the 
Navahoes, but the writer has never witnessed such rites. 

216. The Navahoes now universally smoke cigarettes, but they say that in 
ancient days they smoked pipes made of terra-cotta. Fragments of such pipes 
are often picked up in New Mexico and Arizona. The cliff-dwellers also had 
pipes, and these articles are still ceremonially used by the Mokis. The Navahoes 

Notes. 247 

now invariably, in ceremonies, sacrifice tobacco in the form of cigarettes. But 
cigarettes are not new to the Southwest : they are found in ancient caves and other 
long-neglected places in New Mexico and Arizona. 

217. Ni-no-ka-^I-ne' (People up on the Earth) may mean people living up on 
the mountains, in contradistinction to those dwelling in canyons and valleys ; but 
other tribes use a term of similar meaning to distinguish the whole Indian race 
from the whites or other races, and it is probable that it is used in this sense here 
and in other Navaho myths. The people whom Na/fnes/^ani now meets are 
probably supposed to be supernatural, and not Indians. 

218. The plants mixed with the tobacco were these : trohodzflai', jilatso (my 
thumb), a poisonous weed, azdbini', and aze"tloi. It has not been determined what 
plants these are ; but the Navaho names are placed on record as possibly assist- 
ing in future identification. 

219. In the Navaho ceremonies, when sacred cigarettes are finished, and before 
they are deposited as offerings to the gods, they are symbolically lighted with sun- 
beams. (See par. 94.) The statement made here, that the hero lighted his pipe 
with the sun, refers probably to this symbolic lighting. 

220. Ke'tlo is a name given to any medicine used externally, i. e., rubbed on the 
body. Atsosi ke'tlo means the liniment or wash of the atsdsi /iat£/, or feather 
ceremony. It is also called atsdsi aze" (feather medicine), and atsosi trf/ (feather 

221. Ya.-d\-di-ml, the incense of the Navaho priests, is a very composite sub- 
stance. In certain parts of the healing ceremonies it is scattered on hot coals, 
which are placed before the patient, and the latter inhales actively the dense 
white fumes that arise. These fumes, which fill with their odor the whole medi- 
cine-lodge, are pungent, aromatic, and rather agreeable, although the mixture is 
said to contain feathers. The author has obtained a formula for y&didim/, but 
has not identified the plants that chiefly compose it. 

222. These are the animals he raises and controls, as told in par. 527. 

223. The Navahoes say they are acquainted with four kinds of wild tobacco, 
and use them in their rites. Of these the author has seen and identified but two. 
These are Nicotiana attetiuata, which is the dsi'/nalo, or mountain tobacco ; and 
Nicotiana palmeri, which is the depdnafo, or sheep tobacco. N. attenuata grows 
widely but not abundantly in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona. N. 
palmeri is rare ; the writer has seen it growing only in one spot in the Chelly Can- 
yon. It has not been learned what species are called weasel tobacco and cloud 
tobacco ; but one or more of the three species, N. rustica, A\ quadrivalvis, and 
N. trigonopliylla, are probably known to the Navahoes. 

224. The description of these diseases given by the narrator of this tale is as 
follows : " Patients having these diseases are weak, stagger, and lose appetite ; 
then they go to a sweat-house and take an emetic. If they have /I'tso, or the 
yellow disease, they vomit something yellow (bile ?). If they have /I/-/it£, or 
cooked blood disease, they vomit something like cooked blood. Those having 
the yellows have often yellow eyes and yellow skin. Thzffit, or slime disease, 
comes from drinking foul water full of green slime or little fish (tadpoles ?). Tsos, 
worms, usually come from eating worms, which you sometimes do without know- 
ing it ; but tsT'lgo, tapeworm, comes from eating parched corn." Probably the 
last notion arises from the slight resemblance of the joints of Tcznia solium to 
grains of corn. This little chapter in pathology from Ha/a/i Natloi is hardly in 
accordance with the prevalent theory that savages regard all disease as of de- 
moniac origin. 

225. The adjective yaa-oni, orya^dni, here used, which is translated" beautiful," 
means more than this : it means both good (or useful) and beautiful. It contains 

248 Notes. 

elements of the words ya/f, good, and of Insrdni, nfedni, and ^o^rdni, which signify 

226. According to the Navaho myths and songs, the corn and other products 
in the gardens of the ydi or divine ones grow and mature in a very short time. 
The rapid growth of the crops in Na/I'nesMani's farm is supposed to result from 
the divine origin of the seed. 

227. The order in which Na/I'nesMani lays down the ears of corn is the order 
in which sacrificial cigarettes, kethawns, and other sacred objects, when colored, 
are laid down in a straight row. The white, being the color of the east, has pre- 
cedence of all and is laid down first. The blue, the color of the south, comes 
next, for when we move sunwise (the sacred ceremonial circuit of the Navahoes) 
south follows immediately after east. Yellow, the color of the west, on the same 
principle, comes third ; and black (in this case mixed) comes fourth. Mixed is 
properly the coloring of the upper region, and usually follows after black ; but it 
sometimes takes the place of black. These apparently superfluous particulars of 
laying down the corn have a ceremonial or religious significance. In placing 
sacred objects ceremonially in a straight row, the operator proceeds southward 
from his starting-point, for this approximates the sunwise circuit, and he makes 
the tip ends point east. 

228. Pin-i-az bl-tsd (fawn-his-cheese), or fawn-cheese, is a substance found in the 
abdomen of the fawn. A similar substance is found in other young mammals. 
They say it looks like curds, or cottage cheese, and that it is pleasant to the taste. 
They eat it raw. The author has not determined by observation what this sub- 
stance is. Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of the Department of Agriculture, suggests that 
it is the partly digested milk in the stomach of the fawn, and this is probably the 

229. The dish offered to Na/fnes/'/zani is called by the Navahoes atyd#, which 
is here translated " pemmican." It consists of dried vension pounded on a stone 
and fried in grease. 

230. To make di-t\6-gi kle-s£n, cut the grain off the ear, grind it to a pulp on 
a metate, spread out the embers, lay a number of green corn leaves on them, 
place the pulp on the leaves, put other leaves on top of the pulp, rake hot embers 
over all, and leave it to bake. 

231. Z>Rld-gTn M-df-kd-i is made of a pulp of green corn ground on a metate, 
like <#tldgi klesan. The pulp is encased in husks, which are folded at the ends, 
and is then placed between leaves and hot coals to bake. 

232. 77/a-bI-tra (three-ears) is made also of pulp of green corn. This is placed 
in folded cones made of husks ; three cones being made of one complete husk, 
whose leaves are not removed from their stem. It looks like three ears fastv 
together, whence the name. It is boiled in water. 

233. The story-teller said: "about as far as from here to Jake's house," — a 
distance which the writer estimated at 300 yards. 

234. Over the east door, one cigarette, that for the male, was made of moun- 
tain mahogany (tsd'e^/agi, Cercocarpus parvifolius), perforated, painted blue, and 
marked with four symbols of deer-tracks in yellow ; the other cigarette, that for 
the female, was made of cliff rose (awdtsal, Cowania mexicana), painted yellow 
and marked with four symbols of deer-fracks in blue. Over the south door the 
cigarette for the male was made of sunflower (In^/Kgili), painted yellow and dotted 
with four symbols of antelope-tracks in blue ; the cigarette for the female was 
made of "strong-smelling sunflower" (maflgfli niltrdni, Verbesina enceloides), 
painted white and dotted with four symbols of antelope-tracks in black. Over 
the west door, the cigarettes were of the same material as those in the east ; but 
one was painted black with symbols of deer-tracks in blue, and the other was 

Notes. 249 

painted blue with symbols of deer-tracks in black. At the bottom of the steps, 
one of the cigarettes was painted black and dotted with four symbols of fawn- 
tracks in yellow ; the other was painted yellow and dotted with four symbols of 
fawn-tracks in black. The above was written from the description of the narra- 
tor. The writer has never seen such cigarettes ; but they are said to be employed 
in some Navaho ceremonies at the present time. In this series of cigarettes the 
colors are not in the usual order, 18 but there maybe a special symbolism for these 
animals, or the variation may arise because they are the cigarettes of a wizard and 
therefore unholy. 

235. When driving game to a party in ambush, the Navahoes often imitate the 
cry of the wolf. In this myth the old man is supposed to give the cry. not to 
drive the bears, but to make Natf' nesMani believe that deer are being driven. 

236. The name Tra-na-naf is derived from tran, which means dung. Tje'-sko-^ 
means Spread-foot. The narrator said the other bears had names, but he could 
not remember them. 

237. "He did not even thank his son-in-law " is an instance of sarcasm. 

238. The bear is a sacred animal with the Navahoes ; for this reason the hero 
did not skin the bears or eat their flesh. The old man, being a wizard, might do 

239. JfA-la.-dzl-m ? means " What are you doing ? " but it is a jocose expression, 
used only among intimate relations, or relations by marriage. In employing this 
interrogatory the Navaho gave the old man to understand that he was recognized. 

240. This episode of the twelve bears is the weakest and least artistic in the 
tale. Moreover, it details a fifth device on the part of Deer Raiser to kill his son- 
in-law. Under ordinary circumstances we should expect but four devices. It 
seems an interpolation, by some story-teller less ingenious than he who composed 
the rest of the tale, introduced to get the men out together once more, so that, on 
their way home, the incident of the burnt moccasins might occur. The latter 
incident has been previously recorded by the writer in another connection. (See 
note 242.) 

241. Among the Navahoes, when a person dies, the suffix ni, or ini, is added to 
his (or her) name, and thus he is mentioned ever afterwards. 

242. Before the story of Nart'nes/^ani was obtained, the writer had already 
recorded this tale of the burnt moccasins in a version of the Origin Legend. In 
the latter connection it is introduced as one of the Coyote tales. The mischiev- 
ous Coyote is made to try this trick on his father-in-law ; but the latter, warned 
by the Wind, foils the Coyote. 

243. The ridge which he crosses in the east and also those which he crosses 
later in the south, west, and north are colored according to the regular order of 
Navaho symbolism. 

244. The narrator described the bird called tsT-das-A5-i thus : When a man 
passes by where this bird is sitting, the latter does not fly off, but sits and looks at 
the man, moving its head in every direction. It is about the size of a screech-owl. 

245. It must not be supposed that in this and the following paragraph, when 
pale-faced people are mentioned, any allusion is made to Caucasians. The ref- 
erence is merely symbolic. White is the color of the east in Navaho symbol- 
ism : hence these people in the east are represented as having pale faces. For 
similar reasons the man in the south (par. 551) is said to have a blue face, the 
man in the west (par. 552) a yellow face, and the man in the north (par. 553) a 
dark face. (See note 18.) 

246. Bl-xra (his treasure), something he specially values ; hence his charm, his 
amulet, his personal fetich, his magic weapon, something that one carries to 
mysteriously protect himself. Even the divinities are thought to possess such 



charms. The songs often mention some property of a god which they say is 
" Bi'za.-yedigi'ngo " (The treasure which makes him holy or sacred). (See par. 367 
and note 280.) 

247. These medicines are still in use among the Navahoes. The medicine 
made of gall consists mostly of gall of eagles. If a witch has scattered evil medi- 
cine on you, use this. If there are certain kinds of food that disagree with you, 
and you still wish to eat them, use the vomit medicine. Hunters obtain the 
materials when they go out hunting. All the totemic animals named (puma, blue 
fox, yellow fox, wolf, and lynx, see par. 548) vomit when they eat too much. So 
said the narrator. 

248. Buteo borealis. The tail is described as red ("bright chestnut red," 
Coues) by our ornithologists; but the Navahoes consider it yellow, and call the 
bird atseVftsdi, or yellow-tail. 

249. A-tso-si-d-ze /Ja-/a7, or a-tso-si /*a-/a/, means feather chant or feather cere- 
mony. The following particulars concerning the ceremony were given by the 
narrator of the story. Dry-paintings are made on the floor of the medicine-lodge 
much like those of the kldd^i //a/a/, and others are made representing different 
animals. It is still occasionally celebrated, but not often, and there are only four 
priests of the rite living. It lasts nine days, and it has more stories, songs, and 
acts than any other Navaho ceremony. A deer dance was part of the rite in the 
old days, but it is not practised now. The rite is good for many things, but 
especially for deer disease. If you sleep on a dry, undressed deer-skin or foul 
one, or if a deer sneezes at you or makes any other marked demonstration at you, 
you are in danger of getting the deer disease. 

250. Y6-i /<a-/a7, or yoi-d^e /ia.-fal (bead chant), is a nine days' ceremony, which 
is becoming obsolete. The author has been informed that there is only one 
priest of the rite remaining ; that he learned it from his father, but that he does 
not know as much about it as his father did. 

251. The device of setting up forked sticks to assist in locating fires seen by 
night and in remembering the position of distant objects is often mentioned in 
the Navaho tales. (See pars. 382 and 497.) 

252. Equisetnvi hiemale, and perhaps other species of Equisetum, or horse-tail. 

253. [" Klfa-ka', the arrow-snake, is a long slender snake that moves with great 
velocity, — so great that, coming to the edge of a cliff when racing, he flies for some 
distance through the air before reaching the ground again. The Navahoes be- 
lieve he could soar if he wanted to. He is red and blue on the belly, striped on 
the back, six feet long or longer. Sometimes moves like a measuring-worm."] 
From the above description Dr. H. C. Yarrow, formerly curator of reptiles in the 
Smithsonian Institution, is of the opinion that the arrow-snake is Bascaniwn 


254. Accipiter coofierii, called gfni by the Navahoes. 

255. Compare with description of Spider Woman and her home in paragraph 
306. It would seem that the Navahoes believe in more than one Spider Woman. 
(May be they believe in one for each world.) In paragraph 581 we have an in- 
stance of black being assigned to the east and white to the north. (See note 18.) 

256. There are several plants in New Mexico and Arizona which become 
tumble-weeds in the autumn, but the particular weed referred to here is the Ama- 
ratiius albus. It is called tlo/Ahi nagT'si, or rolling tlo/ahi, by the Navahoes. 
Tlo/dhi is a name applied in common to several species of the Ainarantacece and 
allied Chenopodiacecp. (See " Navaho Names for Plants." ?,n ) The seeds of plants 
of these families formerly constituted an important part of the diet of the Nava- 
hoes, and they still eat them to some extent. 

257. Tj-H-^Il-gl'-si is said to mean frightened-weed, scare-weed, or hiding-weed, 

Notes. 251 

and to be so named because snakes, lizards, and other animals hide in its dense 
foliage when frightened. It is a yellow-flowered composite, Gutierrezia euthamice 
(T. and G.), which grows in great abundance in Arizona and New Mexico. It is 
used extensively in the Navaho ceremonies in preparing and depositing sacri- 
fices, etc. 

258. Whirlwinds of no great violence are exceedingly common throughout the 
arid region. One seldom looks at an extensive landscape without seeing one or 
more columns of whirling dust arising. 

"" 259. In the full myth of ydi ha.ta.1, as told by a priest of the rite, a complete 
account of the ceremonies, songs, and sacrifices taught to the Navaho would here 
be given ; but in this account, told by an outsider, the ritual portion is omitted. 

260. In the myth of the " Mountain Chant," 3H p. 410, it is stated, as in this 
tale, that the wanderer returning to his old home finds the odors of the place 
intolerable to him. Such incidents occur in other Navaho myths. 
._ 261. In the rite of the kleVLri /za^a/, or the night chant, the first four masked 
characters, who come out to dance in the public performance of the last night, are 
called atsd'/ei. From this story it would seem that a similar character or char- 
acters belong to the ydi h&t&l. 

262. These great shells are perhaps not altogether mythical. Similar shells 
are mentioned in the Origin Legend (pars. 211, 213, 226), in connection with the 
same pueblos. Shells of such size, conveyed from the coast to the Chaco Canyon, 
a distance of 300 miles or more, before the introduction of the horse, would have 
been of inestimable value among the Indians. 

263. In the myth recorded in " The Mountain Chant : a Navaho Ceremony," 314 
p. 413, there is an account of a journey given by a courier who went to sum- 
mon some distant bands to join in a ceremony. From this account the following 
passage is taken : u I . . . went to the north. On my way I met another mes- 
senger, who was travelling from a distant camp to this one to call you all to a 
dance in a circle of branches of a different kind from ours. When he learned my 
errand he tried to prevail on me to return hither and put off our dance until an- 
other day, so that we might attend their ceremony, and that they might in turn 
attend ours ; but I refused, saying our people were in haste to complete their 
dance. Then we exchanged bows and quivers, as a sign to our people that we 
had met, and that what we would tell on our return was the truth. You observe 
the bow and quiver I have now are not those with which I left this morning. We 
parted, and I kept on my way toward the north.'' In par. 597 of " The Great 
Shell of Klntydl" reference is made to the same identical meeting of couriers. It 
is interesting to observe how one legend is made to corroborate the other, — each 
belonging to a different rite. 

264. P&rdblgas is here translated serrate knife. A saw is called benitnhi, but 
in describing it the adjective dblgcis is used for serrate. The pe\sv/olgas is men- 
tioned often in song and story. It is said to be no longer in use. Descriptions 
indicate that it was somewhat like the many-bladed obsidian weapon of the an- 
cient Mexicans. 

265. The cliff-ruin known as the White House, in the Chelly Canyon, Arizona, 
has been often pictured and described. It is called by the Navahoes Kin-i-na-e- 
kai, which signifies Stone House of the White Horizontal Streak (the upper story 
is painted white). The name White House is a free translation of this. The 
Navaho legends abound in references to it, and represent it as once inhabited by 
divinities. (See par. 78 and fig. 22.) 

266. Hi.t-dz.s-tsi-s'1 is a divinity who is not depicted in the dry-paintings, and 
whose representative the author has not seen. He appears rarely in the cere- 
monies and is thus described : The actor wears an ordinary Navaho costume, and 



an ordinary ye"baka mask adorned with owl-feathers, but not with eagle-plumes. 
He carries on his back an entire yucca plant with the leaves hanging down, and a 
large ring, two spans in diameter, made of yucca leaves (to show that he is a great 
gambler at nansros-). He carries a whip of yucca leaves, and goes around among 
the assembled crowd to treat the ailing. If a man has lumbago he bends over 
before the actor and presents his back to be flagellated ; if he has headache he 
presents his head. When the actor has whipped the ailing one, he turns away 
from him and utters a low sound (like the lowing of a cow). When he can find 
no more people to whip, he returns to the medicine-lodge and takes off his mask. 
The cigarette (which the author has in his possession) appropriate to this god is 
painted black, and bears rude figures of the yucca ring and the yucca plant. It is 
buried east of the lodge beside a growing yucca. Ten songs are sung when the 
cigarette is being made, and a prayer is repeated when the work is done. The 
yucca which the actor carries must have a large part of its root-stock over 
ground. It is kicked out of the ground, — neither pulled nor cut. The principal 
home of the divinity is at Tsasitsozsak&f {Yucca Glauca, Standing), near the 
Chelly Canyon. 

267. The following is a list of the twenty-one divinities represented by masks in 
the ceremony of the kleldjsi hzt&l: — 


r. //astre'yal/i. 



2. GcLwaskfaTi. 


//a^fastrtri. 266 

3. To'nenfli. 


//asts-eVtri. 271 

4. Naydnezgani. 



5. 7b'bad-srlstrini. 


Kldhanoai, or Tle*hanoai, 

6. Dsahadbld-sd. 



7. //astre'.srmi. 

Each, for the first seven, wears a 

different mask. 

The last six wear masks 

pattern, that of ye*baka. (See plate I, 

,fig. 1.) 


14. //astre'ol/oi. 15 to 21. /fastre'baad, or goddesses. 

All the female characters wear masks of one kind. (See fig. 28 and plate I., 

fig- 3-) 

268. The language of the Eleventh Census is quoted here, although it differs 

slightly from the official report of the count of 1869, made by the acting agent, 
Capt. Frank T. Bennett,' U. S. A. Captain Bennett says the count was made on 
two separate days, October 2d and 18th, and gives the number of Indians actu- 
ally counted at 8,181. (Report of Commission of Indian Affairs for 1869, p. 

2 37 .298) 

269. Plate IV. represents a man dressed to personate Naydnezgani, or Slayer of 
the Alien Gods, as he appears in an act of succor in the ceremony of the night 
chant, on the afternoon of the ninth day, in company with two other masquerad. 
ers (70'bad-srifstrini 270 and //astre'olfoi 206 ). The personator has his body painted 
black with charcoal of four sacred plants, and his hands painted white. He wears 
a black mask which has a fringe of yellow or reddish hair across the crown and 
an ornament of turkey's and eagle's feathers on top. Five parallel lines with five 
angles in each, to represent lightning, are painted on one cheek of the mask 
(sometimes the right, sometimes the left). Small, diamond-shaped holes are cut 
in the mask for eyes and mouth, and to the edge of each hole a small white shell 
is attached. On his body there are drawn in white clay the figures of eight 
bows ; six are drawn as shown in the picture and two more are drawn over the 



shoulder-blades. All these bows are shown as complete (or strung) except those 
on the left leg and left side of the back, which are represented open or unstrung, 
as shown in the plate and fig. 41. The symbol at the left leg is made first, 
that on the left shoulder last of all. All the component lines of the symbol are 
drawn from above downward ; fig. 41 shows the order in which they must be 
drawn. The symbols must all turn in one direction. The personator wears a 
collar of fox-skin, a number of rich necklaces of shell, turquoise and coral, a fine 
skirt or sash around his loins (usually scarlet baize, bayeta, but velvet or any 
rich material will do), a belt decorated with silver, and ordinary moccasins. He 
carries in his right hand a great stone knife, with which, in the scene of succor, he 
makes motions at the patient and at the medicine-lodge to draw out the disease. 
The patient prays to him, and gives him a cigarette painted black and decorated 
with the bow - symbols in white. This cigarette is preferably deposited under a 

Fig. 41. Diagram 
of the bow-symbol 
on the left leg of the 
personator of Na- 

v'*"-^, li^iy 

Fig. 42. Diagram of queue-sym- 
bol on the left leg of the personator 
of Tb'badsisUini. 

pifion-tree. A dry-painting of this god has never been seen by the author, and 
he has been told that none is ever made. 

270. Plate VII. represents the personator of the War God, To'bad-rfstn'ni, or 
Child of the Water,, as he appears in the act of succor described in notes 206 and 
269. His body and limbs are painted with a native red ochre ; his hands are 
smeared with white earth ; and eight symbols are drawn in his body in white, — 
two on the chest, two on the arms, two on the legs, and two on the back, partly 
over the shoulder-blades. As with the bow-symbols of Nayenezgani (note 269), 
two of the symbols are left open or unfinished, — that on the left leg (painted first) 
and that over the left shoulder-blade (painted last), to indicate (some say) that the 
labors of the god are not yet done. Fig. 42 shows the order and direction in 
which each component line of the .symbol must be drawn. The symbols repre- 

254 Notes. 

sent a queue, such as the Navahoes now wear (fig. 31). Some say these figures 
represent the queue of the god's mother, others say they represent the scalps of 
conquered enemies ; the latter is a more probable explanation. The personator 
wears a mask painted also with red ochre (all except a small triangular space over 
the face, which is colored black and bordered with white) ; and it is decorated both 
in front and behind with a number of queue-symbols (the number is never the 
same in two masks, but is always a multiple of four). The mask has a fringe of 
red or yellow hair, and a cockade of turkey-tail and a downy eagle-feather. The 
holes for the eyes and mouth are diamond-shaped, and have white shells attached 
to them. The actor carries in his left hand a small round cylinder of cedar- 
wood painted red, and in his right a cylinder of pifion painted black. With these, 
in the scene of succor, he makes motions at the patient and at the lodge. Like 
his companion, the personator of Nayenezgani, he wears a collar of fox-skin 
( Vulpes velox) ; rich necklaces of shell, turquoise, and coral ; a skirt or sash of 
bay eta, or some othef rich material ; a belt adorned with plaques of silver ; and 
ordinary moccasins. The sacrificial cigarette which he receives is painted red, 
marked with the queue-symbols, and deposited under a cedar-tree. No dry-paint- 
ing of To'bad.zist.nni has been seen by the author, and he has been assured that 
none is made. 

271. The name //as-tyeV-tri (Red God) is derived from /fasts6 (God, see par. 
78) and iitsi (red). The Red God, it is said, is never depicted in dry-paintings. 
The author has never seen the character in masquerade ; it seldom appears, — 
only on the rare occasions when there is no dance of the naak/jaf on the last night 
of the night chant. He seems to be a god of racing. The following account of 
him is from verbal description : Red God is one of the ydi, and dwells wherever 
other ye'i dwell (hence there are many). His representative never appears in 
an act of succor and never helps the patient. A fast runner is chosen to play 
the part. He goes round among the assembled Indians and challenges men, 
by signs and inarticulate cries, to race with him. If he wins, he whips the 
loser with two wands of yucca leaves (culled with special observances) which he 
carries. If he loses, the winner must not whip him. If the loser begs him to 
whip softly he whips hard, and vice versa. His body is painted red and has queue- 
symbols drawn on it, like those of Zb'bad^Isti-fni (plate VII.). His mask, which 
is a domino and not a cap, is painted red and marked with circles and curves in 
white. His cigarette is prepared on the fourth day, but it is not given to him to 
sacrifice ; it is placed by other hands. Song and prayer accompany the prepara- 
tion and sacrifice of the cigarette. The latter is painted red, and decorated in 
white with queue-symbols, either two or four ; if four, two are closed or complete, 
and two open or incomplete. (Note 270.) 



272. The twenty-eight songs which I have transcribed from phonographic 
records made by Dr. Washington Matthews have very great scientific interest 
and value, inasmuch as they throw much light on the problem of the form spon- 
taneously assumed by natural folk-songs. Primitive man, expressing his emo- 
tions, especially strongly excited feeling, in song, without any rules or theories, 
must, of course, move spontaneously along the lines of least resistance. This is 
the law under which folk-melodies must necessarily be shaped. The farther back 
we can get toward absolutely primitive expression of emotion in song, the more valu- 
able is our material for scientific purposes ; because we can be certain that it is 
both spontaneous and original, unaffected by contact with civilized music and by 

Notes. 255 

any and all theories. In such music we may study the operation of natural 
psychical laws correlated with physical laws, working freely and coming to spon- 
taneous expression through the vocal apparatus. 

These Navaho songs are especially valuable because they carry us well back 
toward the beginnings of music-making. One only needs to hear them sung, or 
listen to them in the admirable phonographic records of Dr. Matthews, to be con- 
vinced of this from the very quality of tone in which they are sung. In all of 
them the sounds resemble howling more than singing, yet they are unmistakably 
musical in two very important particulars: (1) In their strongly marked rhythm; 
(2) In the unquestionably harmonic relations of the successive tones. I shall deal 
with them, therefore, under the two heads of Rhythm and Harmonic Melody. 

1. Rhythm. — Mr. Richard Wallascheck, the distinguished author of " Primitive 
Music," has lately called attention to the importance of sonant rhythm. Not only 
does the rhythmic impulse precede the other musical elements, but the superiority 
of sonant rhythm is such as to serve as an incitement to tone-production. 
Rhythm tends to set the voice going ; and of course vocal sounds, which consti- 
tute the first music, do not become music until they are rhythmically ordered. 
They tend to become so ordered by a natural law of pulsation which need not be 
discussed here. The regularly recurring pulsations, which specially show them- 
selves in all prolonged emissions of vocal sounds, tend also to form themselves in 
metrical groups ; speaking broadly, these metrical groups are usually twos or threes, 
or simple multiples of twos or threes. This is so, for the most part, in savage 
folk-music, in our most advanced culture-music, and in all the development which 
comes between. The metrical grouping into fives or sevens is comparatively 
rare ; but I have found it more frequently by far in savage folk-music than in 
our music of civilization. 

The most striking characteristic of the metrical grouping of tones in the 
Navaho songs here given is the freedom with which the singer changes from one 
elementary metre to the other; /. e. from twos to threes and vice versa. So in 
the compound metres : two twos and three twos, or two threes and three threes, 
are intermingled with the utmost freedom, so that few of them can be marked in 
the notation with a single-time signature. Or, if they are, there is almost sure to 
be an exceptional measure or two here and there which varies from the funda- 
mental metrical type. Thus, the first song on cylinder No. 38 has metrical group- 
ings of three threes and* of two threes ; i. e. \ and \ time. The two songs on 
cylinder No. 41 have three twos and two twos, treating the eighth note as a unit; 
or, better, •£ and \ metre, mingled at the pleasure of the singer. Nearly all the 
songs vary the metre in this way. The one on cylinder No. 62 has an exception- 
ally rich variety of metrical arrangement; while the second one, on cylinder No. 
38, is exceptionally simple and monotonous in metre and rhythm. A few of them, 
like No. 25, recorded on cylinder No. 143, are singularly irregular. This song 
would seem to be based on a grouping of simple twos (f time, equal to |) as its 
fundamental metrical conception ; yet a great many measures contain only three 
eighth notes, and some contain five or even six. The song numbered 28, on cylinder 
No. 144, has a •§ metre as its foundation, but varied by f, equal to -|. In respect 
of metrical grouping, these Navaho songs do not differ in any essential character- 
istic from the songs of the Omahas, the Kwakiutls, the Pawnees, the Otoes, the 
Sioux, and other aboriginal folk-music, nor from that of other nations and races, 
including our own. The complexity of metrical arrangement has been carried 
much farther by some other tribes, notably the Omahas and the Kwakiutls, than 
by the Navahoes, so far as appears from the present collection of songs. There 
is no record here of an accompanying drum-beat, so that, if the combinations of 
dissimilar rhythms which are so common in the two above-named tribes exist 
among the Navahoes, they are yet to be recorded and transcribed. 

256 Notes. 

2. Harmonic Melody. — These songs seem to be a real connecting link be- 
tween excited shouting and excited singing. In quality of tone they are shouts 
or howls. In pitch-relations they are unmistakably harmonic. Some of them 
manifest this characteristic most strikingly. For example, the two songs on 
cylinder No. 41 contain all the tones which compose the chord of C major, and 
no others. The second one on cylinder No. 38 has the tones D and F sharp and 
no others, except in the little preliminary flourish at the beginning, and here there 
is only a passing E, which fills up the gap between the two chord-tones. D is 
evidently the key-note, and the whole melody is made up of the Tonic chord in- 
complete. The first song on the same cylinder is similarly made up of the incomplete 
Tonic chord in C minor ; only the opening phrase has the incomplete chord of E 
flat, the relative major. Cylinder No. 49 has nothing but the Tonic chord in C 
major, and the chord is complete. No. 61 has the complete chord of B flat minor 
and nothing else. No. 62 is made up mainly of the. chord of F major complete. 
It has two by-tones occasionally used, G and D, the former belonging to the 
Dominant and the other to both the Sub-dominant and Relative minor chords. 
Song No. 9 on cylinder No. 100 has the incomplete chord of D sharp minor, with 
G sharp, the Sub-dominant in the key, as an occasional by-tone. The last tone 
of each period, the lowest tone of the song, sounds in the phonograph as if the 
singer could not reach it easily, and the pitch is rather uncertain. It was prob- 
ably meant for G sharp ; but a personal interview with the singer would be neces- 
sary to settle the point conclusively. Song No. 10, on the same cylinder, has the 
complete Tonic chord in D sharp minor and nothing else except the tone C sharp, 
which is here not a melodic by-tone, but a harmonic tone, a minor seventh added 
to the Tonic chord. This is curiously analogous to some of the melodies I heard 
in the Dahomey village at the World's Fair, and also to some of the melodies of 
our own Southern negroes. Song No. n, on the same cylinder, has the same 
characteristics as No. <j. Nos. 12 and 13, on cylinder No. 135, contain the com- 
plete chord of D flat and nothing else. The two songs on cylinder No. 138 con- 
tain the complete chord of C major and nothing else, except at the beginning, 
where A, the relative minor tone, comes in, in the opening phrase. As a rule, 
whatever by-tones there are in these songs are used in the preliminary phrase or 
flourish of the song, and then the singer settles down steadily to the line of the 
Tonic chord. The two songs recorded on No. 139 have the complete major 
chord of B flat, with G v the relative minor, as a by-tone. The two songs on No. 
143 are in C sharp minor and embody the Tonic chord, with F sharp, the Sub- 
dominant, as a by-tone. Only the first of the two begins with the tone B, which does 
not occur again. Song No. 27, on cylinder No. 144, embodies only the complete 
chord of C sharp minor. No. 28 has the same chord, with F sharp as a by-tone. 
The two songs on No. 145 are in D minor and are made up mainly of the Tonic 
chord. The by-tones used are G and B flat, which make up two thirds of the 
Sub-dominant chord, and C, which belongs to the relative major. No. 32, on 
cylinder No. 146, has more of diatonic melody. It is in G major, and embodies 
the chord of the Tonic wiih by-tones belonging to both the Dominant and Sub- 
dominant chords, one from each chord. No. 33, on the same cylinder, is less 
melodious, but has the same harmonic elements. Cylinder 147 has two songs in 
D major which embody the Tonic chord complete, with slight use of a single by- 
tone, B, the relative minor. The same is true of song No. 36, on cylinder No. 
148. Song No. 37, on the same cylinder, has the major chord of C and nothing 

There are two striking facts in all this : (1) When these Navahoes make music 
spontaneously, — make melodies by singing tones in rhythmically ordered succes- 
sion, — there is always a tone which forces itself on our consciousness as a key- 

Notes. 257 

note, or Tonic, and this tone, together with the tones which make up its chord 
(whether major or minor), invariably predominates overwhelmingly; (2) When- 
ever by-tones are employed, they invariably belong to the chords which stand in 
the nearest relation to the Tonic. 

I do not care at present to go into any speculations as to why this is so. No 
matter now what may be the influence of sonant rhythm ; what may be the rela- 
tions of the psychical, physiological, and physical elements ; how sound is related 
to music ; how men come to the conception of a minor Tonic when only the major 
chord is given in the physical constitution of tone. All these questions I wish to 
waive at this time and only to insist on this one fact, viz. : That, so far as these 
Navaho songs are concerned, the line of least resistance is always a harjnonic line. 
If we find the same true of all other folk-melodies, I can see no possible escape from 
the conclusion that ham/ionic perception is the formative principle hi folk-melody. 
This perception may be sub-conscious, if you please ; the savage never heard a 
chord sung or played as a simultaneous combination of tones in his life ; he has 
no notion whatever of the harmonic relations of tones. But it is not an accident 
that he sings, or shouts, or howls, straight along the line of a chord, and never 
departs from it except now and then to touch on some of the nearest related 
chord-tones, using them mainly as passing-tones to fill up the gap between the 
tones of his Tonic chord. Such things do not happen by accident, but by law. 

That these Navahoes do precisely this thing, no listener can doubt who knows 
a chord when he hears it. But the same thing is true of all the folk-music I have 
ever studied. Hundreds of Omaha, Kwakiutl, Otoe, Pawnee, Sioux, Winnebago, 
Iroquois, Mexican Indian, Zufii, Australian, African, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, 
Hindoo, Arab, Turkish, and European folk-songs which I have carefully studied, 
taking down many of them from the lips of the native singers, all tell the same 
story. They are all built on simple harmonic lines, all imply harmony, are all 
equally intelligible to peoples the most diverse in race, and consequently owe their 
origin and shaping to the same underlying formative principles. 

Mr. Wallascheck has called attention to the fact that the rhythmic impulse 
precedes the musical tones, and also to the part played by sonant rhythm in set- 
ting tone-production going. The rhythmic impulse is doubtless the fundamental 
one in the origination of music. But when the tone-production, is once started by 
the rhythmic impulse, it takes a direction in accordance with the laws of harinonic 
perception. I was long ago forced to this conclusion in my study of, the Omaha 
music ; and these Navaho songs furnish the most striking corroboration of it. 
How else can we possibly account for the fact that so many of these songs contain 
absolutely nothing but chord tones ? How can we escape the conclusion that the 
line of least resistance is a harmonic line ? Is it not plain that, in the light of this 
principle, every phenomenon of folk-music becomes clear and intelligible ? Is 
there any other hypothesis which will account for the most striking characteristics 
of folk-music ? Every student must answer these questions for himself. But I, 
for my part, am wholly unable to resist the conviction that the harmonic sense is 
the shaping, formative principle in folk-melody. 

[In the numbers of The Land of Sunshine (Los Angeles, Cal.), for October and 
November, 1896, under the title of " Songs of the Navajos," the poetry and music 
of this tribe have already been discussed by Professor Fillmore and the author. 
All the music which follows (see pp. 258, 279-290), except that of the "Dove 
Song," was written by Professor Fillmore.] 



( See par. 50. ) 


273. DOVE SONG. 

Music by Christian Barthelmess. 

1 jinn 





War woj nai-</i - la 

a, Woj woj nai-^i 


-00 ~p \ g — m 7 ] 

Woj woj nai - di - la 

a, Tsi - nol - ka - z\ nai -</i - la a a, 


s^ n .H n 1 j j j' fl 



Ke - /i - tri - tji nai - d'\ - la 

a, Woj woj nai-<f 1 - lo o 


Naestsan bayantsln. 

Earth (Woman Horizontal), for it I am ashamed. 

YaVl/ytf bayantsin. 

Sky (dark above), for it I am ashamed. 
HayoWz&l bayantsln. 
Dawn, for it I am ashamed. 

Na^otsdi bayantsln. 

Evening (Land of Horizontal for it I am ashamed. 

NaJiodotlYzi bayantsln. 

Blue sky (Land or Place of for it I am ashamed. 
Horizontal Blue), 

T.ra/ye'/ baydntsfa. 

Darkness, for it I am ashamed. 

T.r6hanoai bayantsln. 

Sun, for it I "am ashamed. 

Si slzfni beyar/f'yi bayantsln. 

In me it stands, with me it talks, for it I am ashamed. 


7b'biy/*asklWigi ^addsre /akafgo /aTnaft/Zo; tri« dsi/fwla trT'ni. 

Water with Hill Central in to the east white uprose; day they thought it they say. 

Sada&dze doM'zgo /a'lWi//o; /dbltri« Ynd^Tl/e trl'ni. Inidze 

To the south blue up rose ; still their day they went around they say. To the west 

/rtsogo /a'TWY//*?; i«i«a7a 4'le trl'ni. Akdgo ni/^okosd^e dllyY/eo 

yellow up rose ; evening always it showed they say. Then to the north dark 

ta'lWr7/o ; akdgo dazlntsA didztlkos trf'ni. 

up rose ; then they lay down they slept they say. 

7b'bT//*askY'd'i /o'altsdhazlin ; /iaidze /a ilfn, sada&go /a ilin, /a 

Water with Hill Central water flowed from in to the east one flowed, at the south one flowed, one 
different directions ; 



in&Azz iKn trl'ni. 

to the west flowed they say. 

IfaZdze ilfnigi ba# kd^odstti ; sadaAdze e/A5' ; 

To the east where it flowed its border place where to the south also ; 

they dwelt ; eltd' ba« kd/iodslti trl'ni. 

to the west also its border place where they say. 
they dwelt 

//aacbe Tan holgi ; sadaAdze Nahodbdla ho\g€ ; in&dze 

To the east Corn a place called ; to the south Nahorfoola a place called ; to the west 

Zdkatsosaka^ ^olgd. Lfa&dze Asa/ai Mlgd ; ja^aad^e To'Mdzlfil 

Reed Great Standing a place called. To the east Pot One a place called ; to the south Water They Come 

for Often 

inAdze DsWitsibenqgan ho\g€. //aacke L6ya.noga.11 

to the west Mountain Red Made of a place called. To the east Earth under House 

Tstltsi'ntna, Aolgd ; inAdze Tse7ltribe^oga» 

Aromatic Sumac a place called ; to the west Rock Red Made of House 

no\g6 ; 

a place called ; 

no\g6 ; 

a place called ; 


to the south 


a place called. 

Holatsi DilyX'le kd/fcati Intd. Holatsi LXtsi kd^ati 

Ants Dark lived there. Ants Red lived 

kd^ati Ifntd. T\raltrs£ tehaW Intd. Wolntll'zi kd/fcati 

lived there. (Yellow beetles) lived there. Beetles (?) hard lived 





kd^ati Intd 

lived there, 





Maitrdn kd^ati Intd. 

Coyote-dung lived there, 

WonlstriVi kd^ati Intd. 

Locusts lived there. 

kd-fcati Intd. Kln/I'sln kd/fcati 

lived there. Bugs black lived 

7btsd' ke^ati 

(White-faced lived 

kd^ati Intd. Nakid&fogo dln€ l aisi dezd€\. 

lived there. Twelve people these started (in life). 

HaAdze handle /o'slgl'n trl'ni ; sada&dzt /o'slgl'n trl'ni ; 

To the ast extended 
trf'ni ; na^okosctee 

they say ; to the north 

si/f« tfl'ni. Na/dni 

lay they say. Chief 




Stone carriers 

AndX'ta Tapani 

Besides Bats 

WonlstriWi Ka£ 

Locusts White 

inAdze fo'slgl'n 

ocean they say ; to the south ocean they say ; to the west ocean 

/o'slgl'n trl'ni. HaAdze /o'slgl'n bfgi Tidholtsodi 

ocean they say. To the east 
Inlf#go ; nanarxt£i trl'ni. 

he was ; Chief of the people they say, 

ocean within Tidholtsodi 

SadaAdze to'slgl'n bfgi 

To the south ocean within 

77*altldhale si/f« rtsl'ni. Na/dni Inli«'go; /fcanan/ai trf'ni. InAdze 

Blue Heron lay they say. Chief he was ; chief of the people they say. To the west 

/o'slgl'n bfgi Tsal sitin trl'ni. Na/ani Inlf«go ; Aanantdi 

ocean within Frog ' lay they say. Chief he was ; chief of the people 

Na^okosda-e /o'slgl'n bfgi Iafaf'dsl/kai sitin trl'ni; nananiAX trl'ni. 

To the north ocean within Thunder Mountain lay they say ; chief of the they say. 


Tigx itdgo ifcazago kdda^atsitigo ; 

In this way they quarrelled around where they 

lived ; 

E'hyirfelnago estsani altsan /atrlkfd 

With one another women several committed crime they say. To banish it they failed 

Tidholtsodi haAdze ' Hat6go\a dol€la! Hwehdya holdA l oda\.a ( la." SadaAdze 

Tieholtsodi to the east " In what way shall we act ? Their land the place they dislike." To the south 

77«altldhale ^alm trl'ni. InAdze "Ka/ si dokoni Vehadzitidolel" 

Blue Heron spoke to them they say. To the west " Now I (say) not here shall they dwell," 

Tsdl 7/atsf. NatAni Inll'ni, ^atsf trPni. Nd^okosdse Idhf'dsl/kai 

Frog he said. Chief he was, he said they say. To the north Thunder Mountain White 

"Ta'kadA' Mdzeta aTahiWlnolidi " trf'ni. 

" Quickly elsewhere they must depart " they say. 

they say. 


d'hyidfelnago aMdazfdge trl'ni. 

with one another they committed they say. 

trl'ni. Yuwe trd>&alni 

To banish it 


they say. 



among themselves 
again fought 

//addze Tieholtsodi a^dna*/aarafeyago alkinatridid 

To the east Tieholtsodi when again they 

committed adultery 

SadaAdze Z^altidhale /a/o^anantsu/a tyfni. \niAzz. 

To the south Blue Heron again said nothing to them they say. To the west 

Inllndni /a/o^anantsu/a tyfni. Nd^okosd.sre I</nf'dsi/kai 

he formerly again said nothing to they say. To the north Thunder Mountain 


tyfni. T6\Hlt2ihozovidalz. trl'ni. 

they say. Not with pleasant ways, one they say. 

T\n naikdlago /akondhotsa tyfni. 

Four again ends of again the same they say. 
nights happened 

tyfni ; kinatridsd tsf ni. 

they say ; again they fought they say 


toha\s>\ tyfni. 

nothing he said they say. 

Tsa./ na/dni 

Frog chief 


again said nothing 
to them 


To the south 

ke/zod-zltini / 

the dwellers did the same again 


To the east 

Int£; ty^o^fneltra, tyfni. 

there ; they were driven they say. 

Intd ; tyend^o^flneltya tyfni. 

there ; again they were they say. 


again they were 
driven out 

trencWodftneltra tyl'ni. 

again they were they say 

driven out 

la estsdnigo /a dto6go yahaUaasr 

one woman one man tried to enter two 


SadaAdze 7/fcaltldhale sitinedze yahandtyatas 1 

To the south Blue Heron to where he lay again they tried to enter 

two together 

Inddze Tsa/ na/ani Inlfneds-e yahandtyata.? 

To the west Frog chief to where he was again they tried to enter 

two together 

Na^okosd^-e tyend^o^/Ineltya. u T6ta nf'yi/a. 

To the north again they were " Not one of you. 

again they were 
driven out. 

Dainokd' Mdzeta," ho'^onf trl'ni. 

Keep on going elsewhere," thus he spoke they say. 

bal'n^ad-sritigo iskd' /a/oas/etsdda trl'ni. 

they discussed it the end of the night they did not decide they say 

AndI7a aibltle" 

Besides the same night 


After dawn 

hayUti tyl'ni. 

began to talk they say. 

ni'yila' tedzela 

all of you elsewhere 
kodoni tyl'ni. 

thus he said they say. 

Estsdnigo tin 

Among the women four 

" Todadotsdda 

You pay no attention 

/anelida : 
must go ; 




all I said to you 

/6/a ti' ni 

not this earth 




upon stand in 





tad'xdotsil ; 

you will disobey ; 

kat /67a ; " 

now not; " 

iskdgo basa^atrildgo 

ends of nights, they talked about it 


they say. 



nazdfitse Inte* tyfni, 

as they were rising there they say, 

sadaddze e//6' /aigdnil 

also it appeared 

nd^okosd^e e//6 

to the north also 

to the south 




it stretched 


ends of in the morning 

^add^re hatisi /akdigo /aigdnil tyl'ni ; 

to the east something white it appeared they say ; 

tyl'ni; naako«£ i«ddsre e//<5' /aigdnil 

they say ; again here to the west also it appeared 

taigdnil tyfni. DsT/ ahydna'a' 



tyfni ; 

they say ; 


it appeared they say. Mountains rising up around like 

tyfni ; /a/obl/d'hazani. 

they say ; without opening. 

ta/6dIzaatego ahydfntyflin tyfni. 

not to be climbed flowed all around they say. 

Ahydfl/dgo nihi;dn7<? tyfni ; 

They went around in thus they went they say ; 

7b'ahy£Intril trf ni ; 

Water all around they say; 

7"dako tahadilt6l trl'ni, 

At once they started they say. 


water not to be crossed. 





they looked 



they went to the sky 

tyfni ; to 1 
they say ; water 

Nitd konde la hazxiol&xs. 

There from here one stuck out 

tyfni ; " K6«ne," trni<*, 
they say ; " In here," he said, 

f naa^iltlayewgi ; 

where it had risen ; 

trf ni ; tri 

they say ; head 

" ^addzego 

" to the eastward 


they say. 

to 1 




aA6 L sa/a " 

a nole " 


It was smooth. 



toahot€h\da tyfni. 

nothing else there they say. 

I6i ; ^atsotsf 

it had ; he called to them 

tyfni. Akd«ne 

they say. In here 

Notes. 261 

oofl/d tyfni; blnakd' \\t€ tyfni bagi.n6\zt hasti trfni. 

they went they say ; through it they went they say ; to the upper surface they came out they say. 

DotVL'zem Hasts6s'\d\r\& i ati'nla trfni. Hasts6sld^D.&'■ k€\. tyfni. 

The blue one Swallow People belonged to they say. Swallow People lived there they say. 

Hogi.riixi /ogdlgo naznf 1, trfni ; h&hosi 1 yild' tyfni. Bfla/Adds-e 

The houses rough (lumpy) scattered they say ; a great many were placed they say. Toward their tops 

dahatsdzgo; £de yahadahaztya' trfni. Hdhoji' dlxi€ i altyf 

they tapered ; from that gave entrance an they say. A great many people collected 


ko/gd trfni. //aa/ahazlfw trl'ni. 

together they say. They crowded together they say. 



(No meaning.) 

Ed e£ aid aheea afa eeeafa aind. 

(A meaningless prelude twice repeated.) 


I. v Ydinaezgani .ra' niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Nayenezgani for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

2. Ka/ Bl/eelge/i sa l niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Now Teelge* forme he brings, (meaningless.) 

3. TsVda /a bld^rai sa 1 niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Truly one his lung for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

4. Dine 1 nahostlf rfi. Sa 1 niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

People are restored, for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

Haia afna aiydya aina. 

(Meaningless refrain after each stanza.) 

1. Ka/ 7o'bacUTstnni ja' niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Now To'badzisUfni for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

2. Tseninaholfji sa 1 niyl'nigi, yeyeydna. 

Tse'nahale for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

3. TsVda /a bi/Ai, ja' niyl'nigi, yeyeydna. 

Truly one his wing, for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

4. Z>Tnd' nahostWi. Sa 1 niyl'nigi, yeyeydna. 

People are restored. For me he brings, (meaningless.) 

1. Ka/ Zeyaneyani sa. 1 niyfnigi, yeyeyena. 

Now Zeyaneyani for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

2. Tse'/a/jotrfl/a'/i sa 1 niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

TseVaAotril&'fl for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

3. Tsf da bJ/lapf /e sa' niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Truly his side-lock for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

4. Z?lne' nahostlf</i. Sa' niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

People are restored. For me he brings, (meaningless.) 

1. Ka/ Tsdwenatlehi ja' niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

Now Tsowenatlehi for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

2. Bindye T-ragani sa 1 niyfnigi, yeyeydna. 

BInaye AAani for me he brings, (meaningless.) 

262 Notes. 

3. Tsl'*fa /a blnal ja' niyl'nigi, yeyeye"na. 

Truly one his eye for me hearings, (meaningless.) 

4. -Cine"' nahostll'di. Sa. 1 niyl'nigi, yeyeye'na. 

People are restored. For me he brings, (meaningless.) 

In line 1, stanza L, Naydnezgani is changed to Ydinaezgani, and in line 1, stanza 
IV., BInaye A^ani is changed to BInaye Tj-agani. NahostH'<fi in the last line of 
each stanza is rendered here " restored," but the more exact meaning is, not that 
the original people are called back to life, but that others are given in place of 
them. This verb is used if a man steals a horse and gives another horse as 
restitution for the one he stole. 


Atse* Estsan Naydngzgani yil^aholnl'^, 

Atse Estsan Nayenezgani began to tell her of, 

Bl/delge/i yil^aholnr'^, 

ye'elget began to tell her of, 

Nayd holdde yil^aholm"?. 

Anaye from where they are began to tell her of. 


Estsanatlehi 7o'bad.zfetnni yil^aholnt'jsr, 

Estsanatlehi 7b'bad!rlstrfni began to tell her of, 

Tse'nahaleji yil^aholnl'*, 

Tse'nahale began to tell her of, 

Naye* ho\6de yil#aholnI'.sr. 

Anaye from where they are began to tell her of. 


Atsd Estsan Zdyaneyani yiUaholnl'z, 

Atse' Estsan Z.e'yaneyani began to tell her of, 

Tse7a^ot.rflta'/i yiLfcaholnl'.?, ' 

TseVaAottlltaTi began to tell her of, 

Naye* ho\6de yiUaholm"*. 

Anaye from where they are began to tell her of. 

Estsinatlehi Tsdwenatlehi yilAaholnf^, 

Estsinatlehi Ts6wenatlehi began to tell her of, 

BInaye Tjagani yil^aholnl'^, 

BInaye AAani began to tell her of, 

Naye* holdde yilAaholnl'.?. 

Anaye from where they are began to tell her of. 

Prelude, refrain, and meaningless syllables are omitted from this text. 


Kat NayenSzgani koanfgo rflgini, 

Now Slayer of the Alien Gods thus he says a holy one, 

Ka/ Trdhanoai koanfgo, 

Now The Sun thus he says, 

Z?IgI'n yika' sTzfni koanfgo. 
Holy thereon he stands thus he says. 

Notes. 263 


Ka/ Tb'bad-zYstrfni koanfgo dtgini, 

Now Child of the Water thus he says a holy one, 
Ka/ Klehanoai koanfgo, 
Now The Moon thus he says, 

Digi'n yika' /io\6si koanfgo. 

Holy thereon he goes forth thus he says. 

Ka/ Zdyaneyani koanfgo dlgini, 

Now Reared under the Earth thus he says a holy one, 
Ka/ Tsdhanoai koanfgo, 
Now The Sun thus he says, 

ZJlgl'n yik£' slzmi koanfgo. 

Holy thereon he stands thus he says. 

Ka/ Tsdwenatlehi koanfgo dfifgfni, >, 

Now Changing Grandchild thus he says a holy one, 

v Kat Kidhanoai koanfgo, 

Now The Moon thus he says, 

DlgVn yika' ^ol&ri koanfgo. 

Holy thereon he goes forth thus he says. 

Meaningless parts omitted. Koanfgo is from kdnigo, which is the prose form. 


Ka/ Ydnaezgani /a </Mtsaya. 

Now Slayer of the Alien Gods one I hear him. 

Ya bemkisde /a aftsftsaya. 

Sky through from one I hear him. 

Bfniye tyfye tl'snlsad lde. 

His voice sounds in every direction (no meaning). 

Bfniye trfye ^fgini le*e. 

His voice sounds holy, divine (no meaning). 

Ka/ 7 , o < bada , Istnni /a iffeftsaya. 

Now Child of the Water one I hear him. 

To' benikaWe /a dttsltsaya. 

Water through from one I hear him. 

Bfniye tyfye /I'snfsa^/ Ide. 

His voice sounds in every direction (no meaning). 

Bfniye trfye digini lde. 

His voice sounds divine (no meaning). 


Ka/ Zdyaneyani /a dts\ts&ya. 

Now Reared under the Ground one I hear him. 

Ni' benika\s*/e _/a </Isftsaya. 

Earth through from one I hear him. 

264 Notes. 

Biniye tn'ye /Tsnlsa^ lde. 

His voice sounds in every direction (no meaning). 

Biniye tn'ye *figini le"e. 

His voice sounds divine (no meaning). 

Ka/ Tsdwenatlehi /a */IsItsaya. 

Now Changing Grandchild one I hear him. 

Kos benikarde /a ^/Isltsaya. 

Clouds through from one I hear him. 

Biniye tn'ye rt'snlsa^ lee. 

His voice sounds in every direction (no meaning). 

Biniye tn'ye digini le"e. 

His voice sounds divine (no meaning). 

Nayenezgani changed to Ye"naezgani ; bind (his voice) changed to biniye ; dtgt'n. 
changed to digini, for poetic reasons. Preludes and refrains omitted. 


Ka/ Naydnezgani na^aniya, 

Now Slayer of the Alien Gods he arrives, 

Pts dXlyXTi bekoginla. Ssde na^aniya, 

Knives dark a house made of from he arrives, 

Per dilyVli <tfa'homhe £sde na^anfya. 

Knives dark dangle high- from he arrives. 

Ni.sra>a ^flnlgini, jfka /<5/a. 

Your treasures you holy one, for my sake not. 

Ka/ Tb'bad.zlstrihi na^aniya, 

Now Child of the Water he arrives, 

Pej dolgasi be^o^an/a Asde na/fcaniya, 

Knives serrate a house made of from he arrives, 

Per dolgAsi ^a'honfhe &sde naAaniya. 

Knives serrate dangle high from he arrives. 

Nisra^a attnigmi, j-ika /6/a. 

Your treasures you holy one, for my sake not. 

Ka/ Zeyaneyani na^am'ya, 

Now Reared under the Earth he arrives, 

Per al/^asaf be^o^4n/a na^anfya, 

Knives of all kinds a house made of from he arrives, 

Per al//$asai ^/a'honihe £sde na/zaniya. 

Knives of all kinds dangle high from he arrives. 

NizAza. dftnigini, j-fka /67a. 

Your treasures >ou holy one, for my sake not. 

Ka/ Tsdwenatlehi na^anfya, 

Now Changing Grandchild he arrives, 

Pes /Its<5i be^qg-an/a Asde na/*anfya, 

Knives yellow a house made of from he arrives. 

Notes. 265 

Per /ftsdi da'honihe &sdz na^anfya. 

Knives yellow dangle high from he arrives. 

NLsraza dXnXgim, s\ka t6ta. 

Your treasures you holy one, for my sake not. 

In endeavoring to explain the meaning of this song, the singer related that 
Naydnezgani said to his mother, " You are the divine one, not I." She replied, 
" No, you are the divine one." They were exchanging compliments. Then he 
said, " Not for my sake, but for yours, were these treasures (weapons, etc.) given 
by the Sun. They are yours." For the meaning of bfea (his treasure), see note 
246. N\z£ or nl'za. means your treasure ; the last syllable is here repeated per- 
haps as a poetic plural. The houses of knives are said to be the different cham- 
bers in the house of the Sun. Meaningless syllables are omitted in this text. 



Ka/ Naye'nezgani .rlV/eya'iye, 

Now Slayer of the Alien Gods I come (or approach) with, 

Per dilyl'Fi bthogi.nd& .rfc/eyai'ye, 

Knives dark from house made of I come with, 

Per dllyl'l'i da'honide .rtaeyai'ye, 

Knives dark from where they dangle high I come with, 

Sa l alili j-Weydi'ye, anWoyele anieyahi aind. 

For me an implement I come with, to you dreadful (no meaning). 
of the rites 


Ka/ 7b'bad.srTstrini sXdey&iye, 

Now Child of the Water I come with, 

Per dolgAsi 264 behogande sXdeyilie, 

Knives serrate from house made of I come with, 

Pe.r dblgasi da'/ionide sldey£iye, 

Knives serrate from where they dangle high I come with, 

.Sa* alili sXdeyaiye, anu/iginle aineyahi aind. 

For me an implement I come with, to you sacred (no meaning), 
of the rites (divine, holy) 


Kat Zdyaneyani .rWeyai'ye, 

Now Reared Beneath the Earth, I come with, 

Per alf/iasai be/iqga'nde s\dey£iye, 

Knives of all kinds from house made of I come with, 

Ves al//*asai da'/tonide .rlrfeyaiye, 

Knives of all kinds from where they dangle high I come with, 

Sa' alfli .rWeyai'ye, anMoydle, aineyahi aind. 

For me an implement I come with, to you dreadful, (no meaning) . 
of the rites 


Ka/ Tsdwenatlehi .rTrteyaiye, 

Now Changing Grandchild I come with, 

Per /ftsdi be/iogande s\dey£iye, 

Knives yellow from house made of I come with, 

Per /ftsdi da'/ionide sldeyaiye, 

Knives yellow from where they dangle high 1 come with, 

Sa' alili sideyaiiye, anfr/iginle aineyahi aind. 

For me an implement I come with, to you sacred (no meaning.) 
of the rites 

266 Notes. 

Alfl or alfli means a show, dance, or other single exhibition of the rites (see 
%• 3°)- I* a ' so means a wand or other sacred implement used in the rites. It is 
thought that the colored hoops for raising a storm, described in par. 355, are the 
alfli referred to in this song. 


iSTfni' ee* deyd ad, dsyi. ad, 

My mind approaches, approaches, 

TViwhanoai ee* deyd ad, 

The Sun God approaches, 

Ni'nmela' ee" deyi. ad, 

Border of the Earth approaches, 

Estsdnatleri bigdni yunid^e dfeyd ad, 
Estsanatlehi her house toward the hearth approaches, 

Sd«a nagdi ee* dtyi. ad, 

In old age walking approaches, 

Bike* /ioz6ni ee" deyi. ad. 

His trail beautiful approaches. 

Sini* e6 deyS. ad, deya ad. 

My mind approaches, approaches. 

•STfnP ee* deyd ad, deyi. ad, 

My mind approaches, approaches, 

Kldhanoai ee* dey£ ad, 

The Moon God approaches, 

Ni'nlnela' ee deyA ad, 

Border of the Earth approaches, 

Yo/kaf Estsdn bi^dni yunid-s-e dtyi. ad, 

Yo/kaf Estsan her house toward the hearth approaches, 

Sd«a nagdi e6 dey£ ad, 

In old age walking approaches, 

Bike" /ioz6ni ec* deyd ad. 

His trail beautiful approaches. 

•STfnP ee* deyA ad deyi. ad. 

My mind approaches, approaches. 

Yuni, here translated hearth, is a certain part of the floor of the Navaho lodge. 
Yunid^e means in the direction of the yuni. 

The expressions Sd«a nagdi and BTke* hoz6 ni appear in many songs and 
prayers, and are always thus united. Their literal translation is as given above ; 
but they are equivalent to saying, " Long life and happiness ; " as part of a prayer, 
they are a supplication for a long and happy life. Hos6m means, primarily, 
terrestrially beautiful ; but it means also happy, happily, or, in a certain sense, 

Estsdnatlehi is often called, in song, Estsanatleri, and Trdhanoai is often called 
(apparently with greater propriety) T.rf#hanoai. •S"mf < =*SYni. 

The syllables not translated are meaningless. 


First Song : — Tsm nfcdni sa.' nifniMa. 

Tree beautiful for me they fell, 
flog, stick) 

Notes. 267 

Second Song : — Tsln nfedni sa l haf^ile. 

Tree beautiful for me they prepare or trim. 

Third Song : — Tsln nlsrdni sa l haiyfafrla'. 

Tree beautiful for me they have prepared. 

Fourth Song : — Tsln nfeoni site. 1 yidM'yi'. 
Tree beautiful with me they carry. 

Fifth Song : — Tsln nlzdni sili.' thi.\yiy'i\xn. 

Tree beautiful with me they put in the water. 

The word for beautiful is usually pronounced In-srdni, not nfcdni as above. 


First Song : — Tsln nfedni jlTa' neyflgdV 

Tree beautiful with me they push. 

Second Song : — Tsln nls-dni jl7a' yidiseV. 

Tree beautiful with me floats. 

Third Song: — Tsln nfcrdni jl/a' yiyi/d/. 

__ Tree beautiful with me moves floating. 


Aha\An\ s\&z ! E'ydhe siAz ! Nftsfli /a /oadainlnl'Wa, Z>onikf. 

Greeting, my child ! Thanks, my child ! Your younger down you did not throw, Ztanikf. 




Adodo aii-hend an an a«aid awaid. 

(Meaningless prelude.) 

Ki«nakfye ydye jaaiyista an an, 

Ki/tnakfye there he sits, 

Hayaaaa' ydye jaaiyista an an, 

When he rises, there he sits, 

Yiltsd ad ydye jaai'yista an an, 

We shall see, there he sits, 

7a/pf/ ai. ydye jaafyista an an. 

He will flap, there he sits. 

Aiadojeye aia</osdye an an an o^aneyd. 

(Meaningless refrain.) 

Ki«nakfye= Kiranfki. The vocables not translated have no meaning now. 


Aid do do do he, do do do do he. 

(Meaningless prelude.) 

1. TsVnatan a/kai ed ed, 

Plant of corn white, 

2. Bidagi tso fnya» ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

268 Notes. 

3. Nan/4. a«a« \os6 toid. 

Stay down. 

Tos6 eyd eyd. 


(Repeat prelude as in stanza 1.) 

1. Tsl'natan dotl\'zz€z6, 

Plant of corn blue, 

2. Bidagi tso inyan ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

3. Nan/d a«d« tare tos6. 

Stay down. 

(Repeat refrain as in stanza 1.) 

(Repeat prelude.) 

1. Tsl'natan a/tsdi ed ed, 

Plant of corn yellow, 

2. Bidagi tso inyan ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

3. Nan/a an&n tasd tojd. 

Stay down. 

(Repeat refrain.) 


(Repeat prelude.) 

1. Tjl'na/aa ^I'ni ed ed, 

Plant of corn black, 

2. Bidagi tso inyan ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

3. Nan/a andn tos6 tojd. 

Stay down. 

(Repeat refrain.) 

(Repeat prelude.) 

1. Tjfna/ al///asai ed ed, 

Plant of corn all kinds 
or colors, 

2. Bidagi tso inyan ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

3. Nan/d an&n tose tos6. 

Stay down. 

(Repeat refrain.) 


(Repeat prelude.) 
1. T-ri'na/att ^Ttsdl ed ed, 

Plant of corn round 

Notes. 269 

2. Bidagi tso inyzn ed. 

Its ear sticks great to eat. 
up in 

3. Nan/a a«a# to-ve" X.os6. 

Stay down. 

(Repeat refrain. 

Great changes are made in seme of the words in this song for prosodic reasons. 
Tjl'na/a«, Wna/aa, and tri'na/ (1st lines) are all from t?I7 (plant) and na/a« (corn), 
Bidagi (2d lines) is from bidi (its ear), id' (it sticks up), and gi (in). A/kai (line 1, 
stanza I.) = /akai. A/tsdi (line 1, stanza III.)=/ftsdi. 


i. Tse'gfhigi, 

Tse'gfhi in 

2. //ayo/ka/ be^ojangi, 

Dawn made of house in, 

3. Na^otsdi be/zo^angi, 

Evening twilight made of house in, 

4. ¥L6sdlly\l be/iqgang\, 

Cloud dark made of house in, 

5. Nlltsabakd be^o^angi, 

Rain male made of house in, 

6. A'dXlyXl be/iogangi, 

Mist dark made of house in, 

7. Nlltsabaad be/^o^angi, 

Rain female made of house in, 

8. T/iaditin be^o^angi, 

Pollen made of house in, 

9. Anfl/ani be^q^angi, 

Grasshoppers made of house in, 

10. A'dWyXl dzd\n\i.g\, 

Mist dark at the door, 

11. Natsfll/ blked.se7in, 

Rainbow his trail the road, 

12. Atsmiklfji yfki dasizini, 

Zigzag lightning on it high stands, 

13. Niltsabaka yfki dasizini, 

Rain male on it high stands, 

14. i/astye'baka, 

Deity male, 

15. K6sdily\l nflcdgo na^afniya'. 

Cloud dark your moccasins come to us. 

16. K6sdX/yil nlskldgo na^afniya*. 

Cloud dark your leggings come to us. 

17. K6sdilyll nidgo na^afniya'. 

Cloud dark your shirt come to us. 

18. K6sd\ly\l nitsago na^afniya'. 

Cloud dark your headdress come to us. 

19. K.6sdily\l bininmlago naAainiya'. 

Cloud dark your mind en- come to us. 

20. Nlkl'ds-e \dva i d\ly\l dah\t£go naAafniya'. 

You above thunder dark high flying come to us. 

270 Notes, 

21. Kosistrin bik^go dah\t£.go na^ainiya'. 

Cloud having a shape at feet high flying come to us. 

22. Intsekaafo \a6sd\ly\l beatradksydlgo <fehi/ago na^afniya'. 

Your head over cloud dark made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

23. fntseka^o nlltsabakd beatya^asy&go dahi/Ago na^ainiya'. 

Your head over rain male made of far darkness high flyiDg come to us. 

24. Intsekaafo aVl/yl/ beatradasydlgo dahi/ago na^afniya'. 

Your head over mist dark made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

25. intsekddfo nfltsabadd beatyadasy&go dahU&go nahafniya'. 

Your head over rain female made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

26. Intsekdrfb atslnikll'ji hadaJiaiX'lgo <a?ahi/ago na^ainiya'. 

Your head over zigzag lightning high out flung high flying come to us. 

27. fntseldWb natsflW a^ahazlago dahi&go na/zafniya'. 

Your head over rainbow high hanging high flying come to us. 

28. ' NT/a'laMaVo kdsdX/yll beat.radasy£lgo dahi/ago na^afniya'. 

Your wings on ends of cloud dark made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

29. Nl/a'laMd'^b nlltsabakd beatra</asydlgo da.hit6.go na^ainiya*. 

Your wings on ends of rain male made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

30. NI/a'la/M'do ifdXlytf beatradasy^lgo <s?ahi/ago na/fcafniya*. 

Your wings on ends of mist dark made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

31. NI/a'laMa'rfb nlltsabaad beatya^zasydlgo dahit&go na^afniya'. 

Your wings on ends of rain female made of far darkness high flying come to us. 

32. NT/a'la/>fc&'d?o atslnikll'ji AadakatVlgo </ahi/ago na^afniya'. 

Your wings on ends of zigzag lightning high out flung high flying come to us. 

33. NI/a'la/M'db natsfll/ a^ahazlago </ahi7ago na^afniya*. 

Your wings on ends of rainbow high hanging high flying come to us. 

34. K6sdUy\l, nlltsabaka, a\'d\ly\l, nfltsabaad bi/ benatsidasy&go na/fcafniya*. 

Cloud dark, rain male, mist dark, rain female with it made of near darkness come to us. 

35. Ni'gu/asydl na^amiya'. 

On the earth darkness come to us. 

36. Afbe na/dtso vAta.dt€l biagi tdlaway yi//o'lfn eyfnosln. 

With the same great com floating over at bottom foam with water flowing that I wish. 

37. Nig^l uld'. 

Your sacrifice I have made. 

38. Na^ hila'. 

For you smoke I have prepared. 

39. SW€ sa.i.dW\\l. 

My feet for me restore (as they were). 

40. S\\si.t sxkdWXxl. 

My legs for me restore. 

41. SXtsis sai.dW\U. 

My body for me restore. 

42. SX'm saAdltWl. 

My mind for me restore. 

43. SXn€ saAdltWL 

My voice for me restore. 

44. Ad\sts'\n nalfl sa&d'xkl. 

This day your spell for me take out. 

45. Adlstsin nalfl jaanl'nla'. 

This day your spell for me remove (take away). 

46. .STftsddsre /ahYWlnla'. 
Away from me you have taken it. 

47. Nlzago sltsa ; n^nla'. 

Far off from me it is taken. 

48. NTzago nastlf«. 

Far off you have done it. 

Notes. 271 

49. Hozdgo nadzdzs\£l. 

Happily (in a I recover, 
way of beauty) 

50. Hozdgo Ji/aha^lnokdl. 

Happily my interior becomes cool. 

51. Hoz6go s\n&. nahodbtldl. 

Happily my eyes, I regain (the power of). 

52. Hozdgo sWsd aflnokdl. 

Happily my head becomes cool. 

53. Hozdgo s\tsa\t nahodbtldl. 

Happily my limbs I regain. 

54. Hozdgo narfe^estsfl. 

Happily again I hear. 

55. Hozdgo siharfadoltd*. 

Happily for me it is taken off. 

56. Hozogo nzsAdo. 

Happily I walk. 

57. Tcwohodbdelnfgo nasa\do. 

Impervious to pain I walk. 

58. SU6.ha.go sdlago nas£.do. 

My interior light I walk. 

59. .Sand' nislingo nar&do. 

My feelings lively I walk. 

60. Hozdgo kds</i/yfl jenahotl&fo. 

Happily (in clouds dark I desire (in abundance), 
terrestrial beauty) 

61. Hozdgo aVl/yl/ jenahotlddb. 

Happily mists dark I desire. 

62. Hoz6go jedaahuiltyfdo senahot\6do. 

Happily passing showers I desire. 

63. Hozdgo nanisd jenahotlddb. 

Happily plants of all kinds I desire. 

64. Hozogo thad'itin jenahotlddb. 

Happily pollen. I desire. 

65. Hozdgo datd 1 senahot\6do. 

Happily dew I desire. 

66. Hozdgo na/a7kai yaydni ni'rfahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily com white good beautiful to the end of the earth may (it) come with you. 

67. Hozdgo na/aVtsoi yardni ni'dahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily corn yellow good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

68. Hozdgo natadotlfzi yajdni ni'<fahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily corn blue good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

69. Hozdgo na^aal/^asaf yajdni ni'/tfahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily corn of all kinds good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

70. Hozdgo nanisd yardni ni'dahazlago ni'yilokaf. 
Happily plants of all kinds good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

71. Hozdgo yudi al///asaf yardni ni'rfahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily goods of all kinds good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

72. Hozdgo Inkll'z althasai yaxdni ni'rfahazlago ni'yilokaf. 

Happily jewels of all kinds good beautiful to the end of the earth may come with you. 

73. 7"fbe ni'yitslWe hozdgo ni'yilokaf. 

With these before you happily may come with you. 

74. Tibe ni'yikdde hozdgo ni'yilokaf. 

With these behind you happily may come with you. 

75. T'fbe ni'yiyagi hozdgo ni'yilokaf. 

With these below you happily may come with you. 

272 Notes. 

76. Tibe ni'yikigi hozdgo ni'yilokai. 
With these above you happily may come with you. 

77. Tibe ni'yinagidaltso /ioz6go ni'yilokai. 

With these all around you happily may come with you. 

78. T'ibikdgo hoz6go nahoafo/aY. 

In this way happily you accomplish your tasks. 

79. Hoz6go naj/uwi» ^a'nljhyf/Inoli/. 

Happily old men they will look at you. 

80. Hoz6go sAni /a'nfahyiVlnoli/. 

Happily old women they will look at you. 

81. Hozogo tsflkd /a'nlrhyiVlnoli/. 

Happily young men they will look at you. 

82. Hoz6go tslkd /a'nlj-hyiV Inoli/. 

Happily young women they will look at you. 

83. Hoz6go arikd /a'nfrhyi/Tnoli/. 

Happily boys they will look at you. 

84. Hozogo a.t€te /a'nlrhyf/Inoli/. 

Happily girls they will look at you. 

85. Hozdgo altn'ni ^a'nijhyf/ Inoli/. 

Happily children they will look at you. 

86. Hoz6go Intani/ai' /a'nfahyfrhioli/. 

Happily chiefs they will look at you. 

87. Hozdgo taXdolti. 1 /a'nfahyiVInoli/. 

Happily scattering in different they will look at you. 

88. Hozdgo ni/ail/£ /a'nijhyf/lnoli/. 

Happily getting home they will look at you. 

89. Hozdgo thadititike etingo nitailtdde. 

Happily pollen trail on road they get home. 

90. Hozdgo nina^'ahidoka. 

Happily may they all get back. 

91. Hozdgo na.s£do. 

Happily (or in beauty) I walk. 

92. ^ltsl'd^e ^o-s-dgo 

Me before toward happily I walk. 

93. Stkdde hozdgo nasa\do. 

Me behind from happily I walk. 

94. 6"iyagi ^os-dgo nas&do. 

Me below in happily I walk. 

95. SWiX'&zz hozdgo 

Me above toward happily I walk. 

96. Slni. d&Xtso hozdgo 

Me around all happily I walk. 

97. Hozdna. hast\6, 

In happiness (or it is finished (or done), 
beauty) again 

98. Hozdna. hastU, 

In beauty again it is finished, 

99. Hozdna. hast\6, 

In beauty again it is finished, 

100. Hozdna. ^astld. 

In beauty again it is finished. 

Notes. 273 


1. In Tsegfhi (oh you who dwell !) 

2. In the house made of the dawn, 

3. In the house made of the evening twilight, 

4. In the house made of the dark cloud, 

5. In the house made of the he-rain, 

6. In the house made of the dark mist, 

7. In the house made of the she-rain, 

8. In the; house made of pollen, 

9. In the house made of grasshoppers, 

10. Where the dark mist curtains the doorway, 

11. The path to which is on the rainbow, 

12. Where the zigzag lightning stands high on top, 

13. Where the he-rain stands high on top, 

14. Oh, male divinity ! 

15. With your moccasins of dark cloud, come to us. 

16. With your leggings of dark cloud, come to us. 

17. With your shirt of dark cloud, come to us. 

18. With your headdress of dark cloud, come to us. 

19. With your mind enveloped in dark cloud, come to us. 

20. With the dark thunder above you, come to us soaring. 

21. With the shapen cloud at your feet, come to us soaring. 

22. With the far darkness made of the dark cloud over your head, come to 

us soaring. 

23. With the far darkness made of the he-rain over your head, come to us 


24. With the far darkness made of the dark mist over your head, come to us 


25. With the far darkness made of the she-rain over your head, come to us 


26. With the zigzag lightning flung out on high over your head, come to us 

soaring. „ 

27. With the rainbow hanging high over your head, come to us soaring. 

28. With the far darkness made of the dark cloud on the ends of your wings, 

come to us soaring. 

29. With the far darkness made of the he-rain on the ends of your wings, 

come to us soaring. 

30. With the far darkness made of the dark mist on the ends of your wings, 

come to us soaring. 

31. With the far darkness made of the she-rain on the ends of your wings, 

come to us soaring. 

32. With the zigzag lightning flung out on high on the ends of your wings, 

come to us soaring. 

33. With the rainbow hanging high on the ends of your wings, come to us 


34. With the near darkness made of the dark cloud, of the he-rain, of the 

dark mist, and of the she-rain, come to us. 

35. With the darkness on the earth, come to us. 

36. With these I wish the foam floating on the flowing water over the roots 

of the great corn. 

37. I have made your sacrifice. 

38. I have prepared a smoke for you. 

2 74 Notes. 

39. My feet restore for me. 

40. My limbs restore for me. 

41. My body restore for me. 

42. My mind restore for me. 

43. My voice restore for me. 

44. To-day, take out your spell for me. 

45. To-day, take away your spell for me. 

46. Away from me you have taken it. 

47. Far off from me it is taken. 

48. Far off you have done it. 

49. Happily I recover. 

50. Happily my interior becomes cool. 

51. Happily my eyes regain their power. 

52. Happily my head becomes cool. 

53. Happily my limbs regain their power. 

54. Happily I hear again. 

55. Happily for me (the spell) is taken off. 

56. Happily I walk. 

57. Impervious to pain, I walk. 

58. Feeling light within, I walk. 

59. With lively feelings, I walk. 

60. Happily (or in beauty) abundant dark clouds I desire. 

61. Happily abundant dark mists I desire. 

62. Happily abundant passing showers I desire. 

63. Happily an abundance of vegetation*" I desire. 

64. Happily an abundance of pollen I desire. 

65. Happily abundant dew I desire. 

66. Happily may fair white corn, to the ends of the earth, come with you. 

67. Happily may fair yellow corn, to the ends of the earth, come with you. 

68. Happily may fair blue corn, to the ends of the earth, come with you. 

69. Happily may fair corn of all kinds, to the ends of the earth, come with 


70. Happily may fair plants of all kinds, to the ends of the earth, come with 


71. Happily may fair goods of all kinds, to the ends of the earth, come with 


72. Happily may fair jewels of all kinds, to the ends of the earth, come with 


73. With these before you, happily may they come with you. 

74. With these behind you, happily may they come with you. 

75. With these below you, happily may they come with you. 

76. With these above you, happily may they come with you. 

77. With these all around you, happily may they come with you. 

78. Thus happily you accomplish your tasks. 

79. Happily the old men will regard you. 

80. Happily the old women will regard you. 

81. Happily the young men will regard you. 

82. Happily the young women will regard you. 

83. Happily the boys will regard you. 

84. Happily the girls will regard you. 

85. Happily the children will regard you. 

86. Happily the chiefs will regard you. 

87. Happily, as they scatter in different directions, they will regard you. 

Notes. 275 

88. Happily, as they approach their homes, they will regard you. 

89. Happily may their roads home be on the trail of pollen (peace). 

90. Happily may they all get back. 

91. In beauty (happily) I walk. 

92. With beauty before me, I walk. 

93. With beauty behind me, I walk. 

94. With beauty below me, I walk. 

95. With beauty above me, I walk. 

96. With beauty all around me, I walk. 

97. It is finished (again) in beauty, 

98. It is finished in beauty, 

99. It is finished in beauty, 
100. It is finished in beauty. 


This prayer is addressed to a mythic thunder-bird, hence the "reference to 
wings ; but the bird is spoken of as a male divinity, and is supposed to dwell with 
other ye"i at Tse'gihi. The prayer is said at the beginning of work, on the last 
night of the kl^ds-i hz.ti.1. The shaman speaks it, verse by verse, as it is here 
recorded, and one of the atsa'/ei or first dancers, repeats it, verse by verse, after 

The word hoz6 means, primarily, terrestrial beauty. Its derivative ^O-s-dgo 
means in a beautiful earthly manner. Hoz6m means beautiful on the earth, 
locally beautiful (m^rdni refers to the beauty of objects and persons) ; Hozona. 
signifies again beautiful. But the meanings of these words, and others of similar 
derivation, have been extended to mean happy, happiness, in a happy or joyful 
manner, etc. In a free translation they must be rendered by various English 

The four final verses have been previously recorded by the author as ^o.s'dni 
/zasle' (Qojoni qasle), but he now regards the form koz6n?L /zastle' as more correct. 289 
This expression, repeated twice or four times, according to circumstances, ends all 
Navaho prayers, yet recorded. It is analogous to the Christian Amen. 

289. In a few instances,, in this work, a Navaho word may be found spelled or 
accentuated with slight differences in different places. It must not be inferred 
from this that one form is correct and the other not. As 'usage varies in the 
languages of the most cultured races, so does it vary (only in greater degree) in 
the languages of the unlettered. A word was often heard differently pronounced 
and was therefore differently recorded by the author. An effort has been made 
to decide on a single standard of form and always to give preference to this ; but, 
in a few cases, variations may have been overlooked. Words sometimes undergo 
great changes when they become parts of compound words. Where the form of 
a word in this work varies from that presented in previous works by the author 
the variation may be accounted for, in some cases by the difference in the alpha- 
bets used, and in others by the changes of opinion which have come to him in 
time, as the result of a more extended experience or a more advanced study of 
the language. 

290. Note 290 is omitted. 



For the convenience of the reader, a list of the principal works referred to in this book, and of all papers on 
the subject of the Navahoes written by the author, is here given. 

Backus, E. An account of the Navajoes of 
New Mexico. (In Schoolcraft, Informa- 
tion respecting the history, condition and 
prospects of the Indian tribes of the 
United States, part iv. pp. 209-215, 
Philadelphia, 1854.) 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The native 
races of the Pacific states of North 
America, vol III., New York, 1875. 

Bickford, F. T. Prehistoric cave-dwellings. 
(In Century Illustrated Monthly Maga- 
zine, New York, voL XL. No. 6, pp. 896- 
911, October, 1890.) 

Bourke, John Gregory. Snake Dance 
of the Moquis of Arizona, New York, 


The Medicine-men of the Apache. 

(In ninth annual report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, pp. 443-595, Washington, 


Catlin, George. • Letters and notes on 
the manners, customs, and condition of 
the North American Indians, etc., two 
vols., London, 1841. 

Census. Report on Indians taxed and 
Indians not taxed in the United States 
(except Alaska) at the eleventh census : 
1890, Washington, 1894 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Re- 
port of, to the Secretary of the Interior, 

for the year 1867, Washington, 1868. The 
same for 1870, Washington, 1870. 

Dutton, Clarence E. Mount Taylor 
and the Zuni plateau. (In sixth annual 
report of the U. S. Geological Survey, pp. 
105-198, Washington, 1886.) 

Eaton, J. H. Description of the true state 
and character of the New Mexican tribes. 
(In Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, part IV. 
pp. 216-221, Philadelphia, 1854.) 

Hodge, Frederick Webb. The early 
Navajo and Apache. (In American An- 
thropologist, vol. viii. No. 3, pp. 223-240, 
Washington, July, 1895.) 

Hough, Walter. Fire-making apparatus 
in the United States National Museum. 
(In report of National Museum 1887-88. 
PP- 53 I- S87, Washington, 1890.) 

Letherman, Jona. Sketch of the Navajo 
tribe of Indians, territory of New Mexico. 
(In Smithsonian report for 1855, pp. 283- 
297, Washington, 1856.) 

Mason, Otis Tufton. Cradles of the 
American Aborigines. (In report of Na- 
tional Museum 1886-87, pp. 161-235, 
Washington, 1889.) 

Matthews, Washington. Ethnography 
and philology of the Hidatsa Indians. 
(Department of the Interior, United 

Bibliographic Notes, 


States Geological and Geographical Sur- 
vey, miscellaneous publications No. 7, 
Washington, 1877.) 


A part of the Navajo's mythology. 

(In American Antiquarian, vol. v. No. 3, 
pp. 207-224, Chicago, April, 1883.) 


Navajo Silversmiths. (In second 

annual report of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, pp. 169-178, Washington, 1883.) 


A night with the Navajos. By Zay 

Elini. (In Forest and Stream, vol. xxni. 
pp. 282-283, New York, Nov. 6, 1884.) 


Navajo weavers. (In third annual 

report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 
37 I ~39 I » Washington, 1884.) 


The origin of the Utes. A Navajo 

myth. (In American Antiquarian, vol. 
vii. No. 5, pp. 271-274, Chicago, Septem- 
ber, 1885.) 


Mythic dry-paintings of the Navajos. 

(In American Naturalist, vol. xix. No. 10, 
pp. 931-939, Philadelphia, October, 1885.) 


' Navajo names Aor plants. (In 

American Naturalist, vol. XX. pp. 767- 
777, Philadelphia, September, 1886.) 


Some deities and demons of the 

Navajos. (In American Naturalist, vol. 
xx. pp. 841-850, Philadelphia, October, 

— — The mountain chant : a Navajo cere- 
mony. (In fifth annual report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 379-467, Wash- 
ington, 1887.) 


The prayer of a Navajo shaman. 

(In American Anthropologist, vol. 1. No. 
2, pp. 149-170, Washington, April, 1888.) 


Navajo gambling songs. (In Ameri- 
can Anthropologist, vol. 11. No. 1, pp. 
1-19, Washington, January, 1889.) 


Noqollpi, the gambler : a Navajo 

myth. (In Journal of American Folk- 
Lore, vol. 11. No. ii. pp. 89-94, Boston and 
New York, April-June, 1889.) 


. The gentile system of the Navajo 

Indians. (In Journal of American Fo!k- 
Lore, vol. in. No. ix. pp. 89-110, Boston 
and New York, April-June, 1890.) 


A study in butts and tips. (In Ameri- 
can Anthropologist, voL v. No. 4, pp. 
345-350, Washington, October, 1892.) 


Some illustrations of the connection 

between myth and ceremony. (In Me- 
moirs of the International Congress of 
.Anthropology, pp. 246-251, Chicago, 



The basket drum. (In American 

Anthropologist, vol. vn. No. 2, pp. 202- 
208, Washington, April, 1894.) 


Songs of sequence of the Navajos. 

(In Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 
vii. No. xxvi. pp. 185-194, Boston and 
New York, July-September, 1894.) 

A vigil of the gods — a Navajo cere- 
mony. (In American Anthropologist, 
vol. ix. No. 2, pp. 50-57, Washington, 
February, 1896.) 

3 2 4- 

Mindeleff, Victor. A study of pueblo 

architecture: Tusayan and Cibola. j (In 

eighth annual report of the Bureau of 

Ethnology, pp. 3-228, Washington, 1891.) 

Morgan, Lewis Henry. Ancient Society 
or researches in the lines of human pro- 
gress from savagery, through barbarism 
to civilization, New York, 1877. 


Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California. 
(Contributions to North American Eth- 
nology, vol. III., Washington, 1877.) 


Bibliographic Notes. 

3 2 7- 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Information 

respecting the history, condition and 

prospects of the Indian tribes of the 

United States, part iv. Philadelphia, 1854. 

Simpson, James H. Report of an expedi- 
tion into the Navajo country in 1S49. 

(In senate ex. doc. 64, 31st cong., 1st 

sess.. Washington, 1850.) 

3 2 9- 
Stephen, A. M. The Navajo. (In 
American Anthropologist, vol. vi. No. 
4, pp. 345-362, Washington, October, 


Recorded on the phonograph by Washington Matthews, and noted from 
the cylinders by John C. Fillmore. 

1 See Note 272. 



No. 1. 




* • W~T 


ttrt— \r 


Ttf~M ^g £icigri 

Li/f cr 1 

W~P fi C - 




1 V~T 


ll«J M '^ ' 1 I i'i 



No. 2. 



# — 0- 

— •- 


%-* k 




— — 0- 

— — •- 


E fiT-g-S^^E^E^g^ ^ 

282- Melodies. 

No. 3. 


I vl/ m m- 

-0- -0- -•- 



3 1 \r-A =X 

A— =1- 

L-J -4 =^-1 

L# — « — # 3 L * 

a— %■ 



cr . m . .0. .g. .0. -± .0. 



r* • • • • — f — •- 

3 33- 

Four times. 




3 s 


-•-••- -9-00-0-0-0 


-N— =i- 

-•- f -•- 




N— =}- 

-A— =t- 


-•- -•- -•- -•- 


Four times. 



A— =t- 

A— =)- 


-4- -.-- f --,- 

:j=^z1zr.j=z|z:^=! T- fr ^— ^j 

im rr^^mtr 

-fT]l * 'Jja+jQ Q ' i-Jr 




No. 4. 


3: -*-*-j*- -P- 

BpdBBS t-« «-»-« — ^0-0-0-0-0-0 - — *- t H-r|— F — [b^Fu-*— 




.^- -£. Trem. jt_ 

-M— -NH .-#-#--1 — — b~#- — !-•-•-• - •-!—•-# 



ih£J=£^ EiPp*E£ 

lb J JJV-j] ^ 



— sW- -• •— •- s )- !: l — •—•—•-•-•- -#-#-«-#-3- s * 

0-0-0-0-0-0-0 — si- 

he e hock ! he e hock ! he e hock ! 


0-0-0-0-0-0-0 — =1- - 00-0-0-0-0-0 1 I 





^___ , ZW Segno. I 

- <—#—•-< — g^ - j • •-• — ^- —\ -0-0-0 — 0—0 — 0— 1 


2 (Spoken. 


i-0-0-0-0^-^- -& — 1 x 1 : f^t-#-#— #=f : »-#-»-# — =1- =!=•-# 






: B 


-•-« — • — # 




-•—•—•-• — h 


0-0-0 — 1- 

-1 — •-•-• 




•-•-• — 0-0 








he e, he e hock ! 



No. 5. 


Composed by Thomas Torlino. 

Falsetto and Tremolo. 

: fr 1 pes t 

-& — P-m- 



d d \ d d d H 







f=TI-4 Q * i Q 

b I l— =t 

• — m •- 


* ai 1 j — j 


#- — *-#- 

dH^ F"^ 

-P— TTf-i" 



4 e> HE 

i— I — I- 



:£ *! Ml E 



-i-«— C— f 


eh hump! eh hump! 


^ 1 H 


A f- 

* d 4 \ d d m 


&= L±jd4d d±i 




-f— • 

(i r c 

g -jt_ C3=fc =F 


- d — sE 

> . g j h-i— *—*—*- 

- *—*—•*-» — *■ 

-u £- 


e - e - e eh, eh, huh! 

No. 6. 








JTT^iT ^- 


-•- -J- -•- -•- 



^= gF f-1-FB=g£Bj 

-•--•- -•--•- -#• -•- -•--•- -•--•- -0--0- -0- 



B B J — fi 

o . # . .^- .#. -# 



^ Si _i >— rg =Eq-=_c s 

• — #- 

-• — •- 

O -f- -f 



P^j -^TJT^ =J=J 








*j .0. 


-0- -•- 

*J -0- -4- -4- -0- -0- -0-0- -0-0- -0- -0- -0-0- -0-0- -0- -4- -0-0- -0-0 

kT .0-0. .MT 


■0-0- -0-0- -0- -0- -0-0- -0-0- -0- -0- -0-0-0-0- -0- -d 


0. .0. .0. .0. +. .0L Zg. 


0. .0. .0. 




286 Melodies. 

No. 7. 




i S * 1 

■#■ -^ 

/77«r times. 


lil t 1 

*—* *— #" 


J J * * = 


=t=i=r— t 

• — * — • — *- 

4 { r "P = l 

Four times. 


4 1 h^ -I — -I i 3 j ■ I i -1 i- 

III. flWrt' IV. rtr^ exactly the same, and so is V., except that it ends thus : 

\S — r—^ — r~i 
+>- — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 

T *— 4 — *— # 

~N— ^~ 

-+-4 — ■— *— c i— • — 4— + 



Four times. 

Five verses in all. 

• r\ ri 

^-•-* — »-* 

■#- * 


N — *- 


-#- # 

-#— • — *— *- 


Final ending thus 



1 — J J 'j 




No. 8. 





■ *-*-*- 


- * — # - 

^ *- 


-•- -#- -•- -•- -•- 

g==±=z1 fiz z 

■* ■ *. ■ * ■ 



-•- -•- » # » 




-•- -•- -•-■ 




*- ijr 

T*\ pmFt- rn ft: 

^ — d 

-a a 1 

-•- -•- -•- -«- -•- 


^"z> times. 




-e- -•- -#--«--«- -•- 

--fTn =3 


j^->-# — #- 



CSIZ 1 — 8 * — L # » 



• >— H 1- 





= N- 

-•- -•- -0- -0- -•- -•- 

—A — bv — n- 

-— 1 1 1 — 

-*- -•--•--•--•- -•- -•- -•- 

Six times. 

'- l—m -a 


1 — _J -A 1 — -4- 

-0- *m- -0- 

" — *- 

-i- -#. -«- .0. 


•- -•- -•- -•- 


E^k-# z *-H — I — I — k — = — P--— — t-MfJ — =^-fn— h=i-====1==^===^^| 




.0. . # . ->. .0. .0. -». ^. .«- 


This song offers some very curious metrical problems. 



No. 9. 





tr — •- 

-* — « 

- — — s- 

-4 — r 


* • # * • » 



3 — «■, — —— Kj — p5) *__ 

F-3 — I— H - — — ^j— 5 i . ; — 

./ 1 n. "1 1— 1 (-1 P^ ^C! [■ 1 1 n. *1 1 1 n "1 

-<B 1 - " ^ — H^ I. 5 •■ -J — 1 — ^ — 1 — 1 — s 

*-& — :j— * — d L * ^/'- *-•' * * ' • * *~4 S 4 ' 




Trr 8 *- 

-j 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — h— ' — 1 — - — < — 1 — 1 — P 1 — n -i ■ 

d d d d' l — * — r-V- 1 -* — # — d^-d d d- d ' j. .J. jr*' 



-* # *- 

S> S *• d 



I 1 E 

* — * — #- 


-* — #- 

1 I fr =± 

* — * — # s- s 0- 


-N— ^ 

-• * #" 



< . » g 





—i — h — 1- — 1- 
3 -3- v -# 



ii d 


* tt 

l~Xi L -j j j J-^-j 


^/ ,, 4 ^ 4^-4 4 *-*— 4 4 ^ tf-^ 4 


4000 * d • ' • 




-g — * — J "-■< — * — * 



No. 10. 



Slide, Howl. 



— ■ !-• -> f 

* — 3 — ■!— # 

N—N *— 





*-+-*-- H#-* , 

-* — * — ^r-#- 

-#■ -+ 


=1 — — P=> — ■ I ~~ 1 — £h= = 

•■ * — •— -H — ! — (-• — • — • 

«r.q rn p*==fc* 

4 j J J 'J Tt TO 



Repeat eight times. 


:rz ±-0—.0— 9 zi2- 


ft 1 fr 

tf — *-* * S~ 

-* — # #- 


#-* 9- 

-N — 3- 

* — * — * — *- 





-I ■£■ 

-#- : #- 

#-* — if — * ' s — # — * — *- 

Seven times. 




-* — *-# 

-* — # 

* — 4 — it 



•*-* — i* — #- 


£)*' ^ « j < i 7 

|5=H=te— ^ 



iFrt — 4 — 3- 



4 9 W-r-J 

This Indian howls so that it is much more difficult than usual to be sure of the pitch-relations. 
Also it is hard to tell, in many places, whether he means a double or a triple rhythm. 



No. 11. 


-I -El 

J ^ f^ - 


-. < 

d-d— d j - j - 


d d d d d 


3 -A *■ 


-d d d- 


d d d 

t — N 


% I 1 ! : 

-*— * * *- 

-M— I- 


p t^T^ 

7>» /ww^j. 

3 J J 1 1 J== i=3 

■ 1 


*— tf-i * 




Eight times, 

y- 3 — F -3 ^ * ' d -* i d ' d — =5 

-=1 — 



o» /^\ 


d i 

*"! *" 



Ablutions, 69, 73, &$, 212. 

Accouchement, 106, 231. 

Adultery, 64, 66, 67. 

Adultery, punishment for, 143, 144, 240. 

Aga/a (district), 154, 157, 242. 

A^oafise/i, see Nfl/inesAfcani. 

Akanlnili, messenger, 207. 

Aku/anas/ani (sacred mountain), Hosta 

Butte, N. Mex., 79, 222. 
Alphabet, 54. 
Alviso, Jesus, 39. 
Amarantaceae, 250. 
Amulets, or talismans, 249, 250. 
Anaye, alien gods, cannibals, monsters, 37, 

81, 91, 123, 126, 212. 
Anaye, blood of, produces monsters, 81, 234. 
Anaye, born of women, 218. 
Anaye, changed to stone, 119. 
Anaye, destroyed by storm, 129. 
Anaye, outwitted, 92, 119. 
Ant Peoples, 53. 
Antelope farm, 185, 248. 
Antidotes, 192, 193. 
Apaches, 18, 32, 145, 146, 156, 157. 
Apaches, Jicarilla, 154. 
Arabis holbollii, 235. 
Archaisms, 25. 

Armor, 113, 116, 232, 233, 234. 
Arrow-case, ancient, 140, .239. 
Arrows, 18, 142, 218. 
Arrow-snakes, 200, 250. 
Ascension, of Na/mes/^ani, 194. 
Atsa'lei, first dancers, 205, 251. 
A-rihi, Salt People (gens), 30, 158. 
Ajihi Estsan (Salt Woman), 236. 
A^ahyitsoi, home of Leyaneyani, 103. 
Athapascan, or Dene, 9, 211. 
Atsa (game), 219. 
Atse Estsan (goddess), 126. 
Atsosi ^a/a/, rite of, 194. 
Atsosidze ^a/a/, feather ceremony, 53, 194, 


Baby-case, 12, 231. 

Badger, creation of, 71, 76. 

Ball, game of, 86. 

Barthelmess, Christian, 258. 

Baskets, 18, 19, 178, 210, 211. 

Bat, 84, 126. 

Bat Woman, 120. 

Baths, ceremonial, 184, 204, 21 r, 212, 226, 

Bead chant, see yoidze /iaSa/. 
Bean, 183. 
Bear, sacred animal, 186, 249. 

Bear-maiden, 99, 100. 

Bear that Pursues (anaye), 124. 

Bears, pet names of, 187, 249, 

Beaver, 168. 

Beetle Peoples, 63. 

Beggar, 196. 

Begging, 22. 

Bekotrit/i, moon-bearer, god of Americans, 

86, 226. 
Bela//atfni, prophet, 53. 
Berdache, see Hermaphrodites. 
Bickford, F. T., 195, 223. 
Big Snake (pueblo chief), 200. 
Bike^alzi'n, home of Teelget, 117. 
Blnaye Ahani (anaye), 108, 113, 123, 124, 

Bird monsters, see Tse'na'hale. 
BitaAotsi, Sunset Peak, 153, 242. 
Bi/ani, Brow of Mountain People (gens), 30, 

Bi/a'ni, Folded Arms People (gens), 30, 148, 

150, 153, 159, 242. 
Bitsis DotW'z, Blue Body (god), 68, 73, 78. 
Bitsis Zakai, White Body (god), 68, 73, 

104, 216. 
Bitsis ZItsoi, Yellow Body (god), 68. 
Bitsis Zizi'n, Black Body (god), 68. 
Blackbird, 79. 

Black Mountain, Arizona, see Dsi//fei'n. 
Black Thunder (sun-youth), m, 232, 233. 
Black under the Rock (anaye), 126. 
Blankets, 21, 141. 
Blankets, sacred, 136. 
Blue Fox (pueblo chief), 200. 
Blue P'ox People, 192. 
Blue Heron (chief in first world), 63, 64. 
Blue Sky People, 104. 
Blue Thunder, m, 232, 233. 
Blue under the Rock (anaye), 126. 
Blue Water (lake near 7o'jato), 114. 
Bluebird, 28, 79. 
Blushing, 175. 
Borrowing of rites, 41. 
Bourke, J. G., 32, 212, 294. 
Breath of gods, magical, 1 29, 228. 
Breath or wind, spirit of life, 69, 78. 
Bow of Darkness, 86. 
Bows, 18, 142. 
Bow-symbol, 253. 

Boy Who Produces Goods, 79, 222. 
Brennan, G. A., 238. 
Buckskin, sacred, 46, 69, 214, 220, etc. 
Bumblebees, war with eagles, 201-204. 
Bundle, magical, 97. 
Buteo borealis, 250. 



Butterfly Goddess, 46. 
Buzzard, spy for anaye, 107. 

Cabezon Peak, head of Yeitso, 234. 

Cactus, 102, 107, no, 229. 

Cannel coal, 237. 

Cannibal wizard, 187. 

Captives, ancestors of gentes, 146. 

Carnelian Girl, 79. 

Carrizo Mountains, see Dsi/naodsi/. 

Caterpillar, 112. 

Cedar-bark, 161, 175. 

Census, Eleventh, 7, 252. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, 231. 

Ceremonies, in general, 40, 41, 241. 


Chaco Canyon, 81, 140, 195. 

Chanter, 40. 

Charens Station, 243. 

Charms, 109, 192, 249, 250. 

Chelly Canyon, 36, 206, 257. 

Chenopodiaceae, 250. 

Chicken hawks, 88. 

Chinlee Valley, 238. 

Chronology of legend, 137, 239. 

Chusca Knoll, see Tjuskai. 

Cigarettes, sacred, 42, 170, 185, 191, 193, 194, 

212, 248, 249, 254. 
Circle of branches, ceremonial, 206, 241. 
Circuit, ceremonial, 99, 181, 213, 216. 
Cliff-dwellers, 37, 40. 
Cliff-houses, 21, 142. 
Cliff Swallow People, 65, 99, 216. 
Clothing, ancient, 141, 161, 175, 240. 
Clown, in rites, 167, 229, 23a 
Cobero (town), 206. 
Colaptes mexicanus, 245. 
Cold, goddess of, 130. 
Color, symbolic scheme of, 65, 67, 215, 216, 

217, 218, 219, 221, 236, 243, 245. 
Colors, sacred, five, 1S9. 
Corn, four kinds of, 181. 
Corn, manner of cooking, 183, 248. 
Corn meal, ceremonial, 69. 
Corn, planting of, 173. 
Corn, Pueblo, superior, why, 78. 
Corn, sacred, 137, 140, etc. 
Corpse-demon, 38. 
Cosmography, 05, 113, 114. 
Cowania mexicana, a cliff-rose, 12, 248. 
Coyote, 71, 216, 218, 219, 222, 226, 249, 

Coyote and Badger, children of sky, 71. 
Coyote and Hawks (tale), 88. 
Coyote and Otters (tale), 98. 
Coyote and Spiders (tale), 98. 
Coyote and Water Monster (tale), 74, 75. 
Coyote and Wolf (tale), 87. 
Coyote and Ye/apahi (tale), 92, 93. 
Cranes, or swans, 218. 

Dances, 48, 50, 83, 144, 225, 227, 230. 

Darkness, see TVa/yeV. 

Dawn Boy and Girl, 220. 

Daylight People, 87, 104. 

Dead, belonging to Sun and Moon, 223. 

Dead, to behold, dangerous, 78. 

Death, house abandoned after, 17, 102, 229. 

Decoration, 78, 79, 174, 177. 

Deer farm, 185, 186. 

Deer masks, 70, 71, 154, 217. 

Deer Raiser, 184-192. 

Deer Spring (place), 155, 242. 

Defiance, Fort, n, 212, 214. 

Deluges, 64, 74, 77, 217, 219. 

Demonolatry, 39, 40. 

Demons, cannibal, see Anaye. 

Z?epe'ntsa, San Juan Mountains, 78,81, 130, 

135, 219, 222. 
Z>esuini, Red Streak People (gens), 30, 146, 

Devil, 37, 97. 

Devils, chief of, see Estsan Na/a«. 
Digging animals, 217. 
Dlgmi, holy ones, jj, 39, 164, 230. 
Z?ilko« (game), 219. 
jDini' t/igini, Holy People, 140, 145, 230, 

2 39- 
Z>ine' Na^otloni (far-off kin), 154, 242. 
ZHne' Naki(/a/a, Twelve People, 149, 226. 
Z>me', Navahoes, 9, 210. 
Disease, 178, 205, 247. 
Z>itn'n, Hunger (anaye), 131. 
Z?okoslu/, San Francisco Mountain, 3, 78, 

x 34, 153. 22I > 2 3 8 - 
Domestic animals, creation of, 86. 
Z>oniki (prophet), 198. 
Dove Song, 27, 258. 
Dragon-fly Peoples, 53. 
Drowning, treatment for, 170. 
Drumstick, 229. 

Dry-paintings, 39, 43, 45, 49, 245, 250. 
Dsahaofoldza, Fringe Mouths, 170, 245. 
Dsi'A/asdsi'ni (place), 131. 
DsI//IzTn, Black Mountain, Ariz., 134, 238. 
Dsi/naodsi/, Carrizo Mountains, 159, 211, 

Dsi/naotf/, sacred mountain, 108, 222, 230, 

Dsi/nao/T/ni (gens), 30, 140, 141. 
Dsl/tla', Base of Mountain (place), 142. 
DsuVa'ni (gens), 30, 142, 145, 157. 
Dsl/yfdze Aati/, mountain chant, 27, 144, 

206, 207, 211, 226, 227, 241, 257. 
Dsi'/yi' Neyani (prophet), 46, 235. 

Eagle, creation of, 120. 

Eagle-robe, 199. 

Eagle trapping, 232. 

Eagles, 120, 196, 203, 204, 205. 

Earth from sacred mountains, 75. 

Earth-Mother, see Naestsan. 

Embroidery, 18. 

Emergence, story of 51, 63. 

Equisetum hiemale, 250. 

Estsanatlehi, the Woman Who Changes 

(chief goddess), 27, 34, 106, 134, 137, 148, 

230, 237, etc. 
Estsanatlehi, trail of, 148. 
Estsan Na^a«, Woman Chief, chief of 

witches, 40, 220. 
Ethics, of shamans, 58. 

Famine, in Zuni, 158. 

Farming, ancient Navaho, 172, 183. 

Fawn-cheese, 182. 

Feather ceremony, see Atsosidze h&tvl. 

Feather-dress, magical, 109, 199. 



Feathers, ceremonial use of, 42. 

Fendleria rupicola, 173. 

Fifth World, 76. 

Figures of speech, 27. 

Fillmore, J. C, 254, 257. 

Fire arrows, 198. 

Fire-drill, 169, 202, 246. 

Fire god, see Zfastfesini. 

Fires, 138, 141. 

First Man and Woman, 38, 69, 70, 76,77, 

78, 80, 216, 218, 230, 234. 
First world, 63-65. 
Fish, tabooed, 239. 
Flagstaff, Ariz., 221. 
Flocks, and herds, 5. 

Food, ancient, 139, 153, 156, 162, 196, 239. 
Forestiera neo-mexicana, 214. 
Fort Defiance, 228. 
Fort Wingate, 227. 
Four directions, 63, etc. 
Four rivers, 76. 
Fourth world, 67. 
Fringe Mouths, see Dsahaorblcfea. 
Frog, 64, 168, 170. 

Gambling, 82, 86. 

Games, 77, 90, 97, 219, 240. 

Ganasku/i, Mountain Sheep People, divini- 
ties, 37, 166, 170, 206, 244, 245, 246. 

Gardens, of divinities, 24S. 

Garments, ancient, 141. 

Gentes, list of, 29, 30. 

Giants, see Anaye. 

Giants, powers of drinking, 115. 

Girl Who Produces Goods, 79. 

Girl Who Produces Jewels, 79. 

God, no supreme, 33. 

Gods, calls of, 47,* 68, 73, 82, 135, 136, 163, 
187, 217. 

Gods, homes of, 70, 164. 

Gods of mountains, 220. 

Gods of springs, 237. 

G6ntso or Big Knee (chief), 143, 144, 146, 

147. 155- 
Gopher, 83, 118. 
Grant's (station), 233. 
Grasshopper Girl, 79, 104, 137. 
Grasshoppers, 66, 67, 79. 
Grease-wood, 173. 
Great Hawk, 75. 

Great shell of KTWo/Iis, 206, 207. 
Great shell of Kintyel, 53, 195, 206, 207. 
Great Snake, 83. 
Great Wolf, 203. 
Grebes, 76. 

Ground-heat Girl, 137. 
Ground Squirrel, 118. 
Gutierrezia euthamiae, 244. 

Hair, of anaye, 122. 

Hair, of gods, color, 228. 

Haliotis shell, 79. 

Zfaltso, Yellow Bodies (gens), 30, 147, 241. 

Harmonic melody, 256. 

Harvest God, see GawaskM. 

.//ajkan/fcatso, Much Yucca People (gens), 

30, 140, 239. 
flajli'zni, Mud People (gens), 30, 148, 150, 

*52, 155- 

Hzstsehogaa. (house god), 36, 70, 83, 170, 

225, etc. 
J/astsehsi, Red God, god of racing, 252, 254. 
Jfastseoltoi, divine huntress, 37, 244, 246, 

Jfastseyalti, talking god, 36, 68, 82, 104, 

l 3S>, l6 3> 224, etc. 
/jfastfeyalri, mask of, 47. 
^Tastsezmi, Black God, god of fire, 37, 68, 

169, 170, 219, 246. 
IfaisJ, chant, 214. 
Ha/a/i, chanter, priest, 40. 
Ha/a/i Natloi, Smiling Chanter, 57, 215. 
HatklS. Nez, Tall Chanter, 50, 51, 58, 215, 

223, 235. 
Hatdastsisi (god), 251. 
Headdress, ancient, 184. 
Hermaphrodites, 70, 77, 217, 220. 
Hermaphrodites, authors of inventions, 70. 
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1, 239. 
Hogans, huts, 115. 
Holy ones, see ZJigi'ni. 
Holy people, see 2?ine' d\gm\. 
Zfonaga'ni, Place of Walking People (gens), 

Hoops, magical, 108, 128, 201, 266. 
Horns, demonic, 117, 235. 
Horse, 233. 

Hosta Butte, see Aki</anas/ani. 
Hostodi (bird), 124, 236. 
Hottentot apron, 236. 
Houses, summer, 15. 
ffozom hat&l (rite), 58, 218, 220, 232, 235. 
Hummingbirds, 88. 
Hunger, see ZXtri'n. 
Hunt, methods of, 89, 239. 
Hunting-masks, 191, 193, 217. 
Husband, follows wife, 1 50. 
HyieVyesi (place), 143, 146. 

Idols or images, 104. 
Illegitimacy, 107. 
Incense, "177, 247. 
Incest, 187. 
Indigo, 44. 
Irrigation, 70. 
Island Lake, Colo., 219. 

Jake the silversmith, ri, 19, 50. 
Jelly of yucca fruit, 229. 
Jemez (pueblo), 145, 158. 
Jewels, inkli'z, 133, 147, 222. 

Kesitre (game), 141, 240. 

Kethawns, 39, 42, 43, 117, 213. 

Ki/tsoi (tribe), 150. 

Kiwaa'ni, People of the High Standing 

House (gens), 30, 150, 158, 242, 243. 
Ki'n<fbrtiz (town), 82, 167, 195, 196, 206, 207, 

237. 245. 
Kindred, forbidden degrees of, 33. 
Kiwniki, Chief of Eagles, 198. 
Kinship, terms of, sign of amity, 65, 131, 

156, 198. 
Kintyel (place), 81, 87, 140, 195, 196, 205, 

200, 207. 
Kintyel, how built, 82. 
Kisani, Pueblos, 10, 68, 70, 77, 78, 195, 197, 

198, 226. 



Kit-fox, 226. 

Kledzi hatkl, or night chant, 35, 37, 53, 229, 

2 43. 2 S U 
Klehanoai (moon-bearer) 80, 226. 
Klogi, name of old pueblo, 30. 
Knife Boy, 101. 
Knitting, 21. 
Knives, ancient, 233. 

Language, mixed, 143. 

Lava, blood of giants, 116, 234. 

Legends, different versions, many, 50. 

Legends, local, abundant, 38. 

Legerdemain, 48, 241. 

Letherman, Ur. J., 22, 23, 276. 

Leyancyani, Reared Below Ground (hero), 

101, 103, 124, 126, 236, 237. 
Life-feather, or breath-feather, of eagle, 

magical, 109, ill, 231. 
Life principle, concealed, 91, 94, 102, 217. 
Life token, 122. 
Lightning, 80, 115, 119, 165, 200, 245, 246, 

250, 252. 
Lightning arrows, 101, 1 15-120, 125, 126. 
Lightning, crooked, 165, 166. 
Lightning, sheet, 80. 
Lightning, straight, 165, 166. 
Lightnings, sentinel, in. 
Little bird, transformations of feathers of 

Tse'na'hale, 1 21. 
Locust People, 53, 74, 76, 218. 
Zokaadiklri (mythic place), no. 
Loom, 20, 23, 25. 

Magpie, spy of anaye, 108. 

Maid Who Becomes a Bear, see T.rike Sas 

MaiAS', Coyote Water (spring), 152. 
Mai/oV/ine', Coyote People (gens), 30, 152, 

Male and female gender, how applied, 42, 

113, 137,211, 235,243. 
Maledictions, 144. 
Mammilaria, round cactus, 231. 
Mancos Canyon, 238. 
Mandans, 16, 225. 
Manuelito, 3, II. 
Mariano, 4,11. 
Marsh Pass, Ariz., 238. 
Masks, 46, 70, 191, 213, 252, etc. 
McElmo Canyon, 238. 
Medicine, 59, 100, 176, 195, 247, 250. 
Medicine-lodge, 15, 16, 205, 214, 241. 
Medicine-men, see Shamans. 
Melodies, 279. 
Melons, 150, 183. 
Mescal, creation of, 125. 
Mexicans, creation of, 87. 
Mine, The Lost Adam (legendary), 2. 
Minor ceremonies, 41. 
Mirage Boy, 137. 
Mirage People, 69, 142, 238. 
Mirage Stone, 79, 221. 
Mirage Stone People, 104.. 
Moccasins, 190. 
Mohaves, 158. 
Moki, 41, 216. 
Moon, creation of, 80. 
Moon-bearer, see Bekotri</i. 

Morgan, H. L., Dr., 31. 
Mountain chant, see Dsl/yi'dze fatal. 
Mountain mahogany, 214, 231, 235, 248. 
Mountains, sacred, seven, 36, 71, 220, 22i„ 

Mount Taylor, see Tsotsi/. 
Music, Navaho, 22, 29, 254, 258, 279. 

NabinfiVahi (chief), 141. 

Naestsan, Woman Horizontal, Earth Mo- 
ther, 230. 

Na/zopa, Brown Horizontal Streak (place), 

Na^opani (gens), 30, 141, 157. 

Nahika'i (rite), 241. 

Nahoditahe (hero), 196, etc. 

Naif/ikui, name of Tb'badsTstfini, 1 16. 

Nalkenaas (divine couple), 136. 

Nansoz (game), 84, 97, 141, 226. 

Nastje Estsan, Spider Woman, 109, no, 
119, 201-203, 232, 250. 

Na/i'nes//*ani, He Who Teaches Himself 
(hero), 53, 58, 160-194, 243, 248, etc. 

Na/i'nesiVianini (Na/I'nes//*ani dead), 187, 

Natsi'd, ceremony, 146, 147, 241. 

Natsisaan, Navaho Mountain, 123, 154, 236. 

Navaho country and people, 1-22. 

Navaho Springs, Ariz., 224. 

Naye'nezgani, Slayer of the Alien Gods (war 
god), 34, 106-134, 165, 231, 233, 236,253. 

Nayenezgani, wife of, 244. 

Nicotiana, various species of, 247. 

Night chant, see Kledsi Aatal. 

Ni ltri, Wind (god), 83, 101, 113, 127, 137, 
225, etc. 

Nl'ltri Z»flk6hi, Smooth Wind, 76. 

Ninoka/zTne', People upon the Earth, In- 
dians, 176, 247. 

Niyol, Whirlwind (god), 101, 103. 

No/ioilpi, He Who Wins Men at Play (gam- 
bling god, god of the Mexicans), 82-87. 

Notes, character of, 56. 

Nubility, ceremony of, 238. 

Obstacles, supernatural, no, 113, 232. 

Oceans, four, 63. 

Old Age Water, see Sa//bifo'. 

Old Age, see Saw. 

Opuntia arborescens, 229. 

Oraibes, 154. 

Origin Legend, 1—51, 6S-159. 

Otter, 97-100, 168, 170. 

Otter, cigarette of, yellow, 170. 

Owl, creation of, 120, 236. 

Pahutes, creation of, 123, 236. 

Palettes, 44. 

Paradise, Navaho, 216. 

Pastora Peak, 211. 

Pathology, 178, 247. 

Pelado Peak, N. Mex., see Tsisnadzi'ni. 

Pemmican, 184, 192, 248. 

Pes/Ttri, Red Knife (place), 134. 

Pet animals, 149, 153, 164. 

Phragmites communis, 42. 

Phratries, 32. 

Pictures, ceremonial, 43, 49. 

Pigments, five, 44. 


Pvibiio'tfine', Deer Spring People, (gens), 

30, 155, 242. 
Pi'wuVani, Deer Raiser (god), 184, 191, 192. 
Pi«h7ani-bitsi, 184. 
Pipes, 175, 176, 177, 246. 
Place of Emergence, //adzinai, 76, 135, 147, 

214, 219. 
Planting stick, 173, 246. 
Poetry, 22. 
Poison, 178-180. 

Pollen, 41, 45, 109, 183, 214, 232, 233. 
Pollen Boy, 79, 104. 
Porcupine, 87, 149, 153. 
Portraits, 11. 
Potatoes, wild, 2. 
Pottery, 18. 

Pottery, invention of, 70. 
Poverty, see Tiei«. 
Powers, Stephen, 60. 
Prayer, 49, 109, 192, 26J-275. 
Preludes, of songs, 25. 
Priest, see Shaman. 
Pronunciation, 55. 
Pueblo Chettro Kettle, 224. 
Pueblo Grande, 224. 
Pueblos, see Kisani. 
Puma, 77, 149, 153, 200. 
Puma People, 192. 
Pumpkin, 173, etc. 

Queue, symbolic, 254. 

Races, ceremonial, 106, 134. 

Racing, god of, see //astre/tri. 

Rafts, 161. 

Rain ceremonies, 41. 

Rain, male and female, 78, 79, 106, 166. 

Rain, form of Yo/kai Estsan, 139. 

Rain god, see Tonenili. 

Rainbows, 129, 168, 185, 231, 245. 

Rainbow apotheosized, 244. 

Rainbow arrows, 233. 

Rainbow bridge, 96, 228. ^ 

Rainbow trail, 164, 230. 

Raven, spy of anaye, 107. 

Reanimation, 91, 93, 95, 103. 

Reared beneath the Earth, see Zeyaneyani. 

Red God, see /rastre/tri. 

Red Lake, 39. 

Red Wind, 67. 

Refrains of songs, 25. 

Religion, 23. 

Rhyme, 28, 29. 

Rhythm, 255. 

Rio Grande, Tb'baad, Female Water, 87, 

210, 235. 
Rio San Jose, 7b'baka, Male Water, 210, 

Rite, medicinal, 205. 
Rite-myths, 50. 
Rites, antiquity of, 45. 
Ritual chants, see J/ataJ. 
Rock Crystal Boy and Girl, 79, 1 36. 
Rocks, heads of giants, 1 16. 
Rock People, see Tsevftne'. 
Rocks That Crush (anaye), 109. 
Rocky Mountain sheep, 96, 185, 244. 
Ropes, of rainbow, etc., 106, 165, 208. 
Ruins, 195. 

Sacred articles, eighteen, 163, 243. 

Sacrifices, 42, 223. 

.Saibe/^o^an (old pueblo), 15S. 

.Saitad, land of rising sand, no. 

Salt, used to blind anaye, 123. 

Salt Woman (goddess), 229, 236. 

Saw, Old Age (anaye), 130. 

Sa«bi/o', Old Age Water, San Juan River, 

36, 53, 134, 141-145, 155-157, 161, 211, 

235, 238, 241, 244. 
San Juan Mountains, see Ztepe'ntsa. 
San Juan River, see Sa«bifo' 
San Juan Valley, 52, 238. 
San Mateo Mountains, see Tsotsi/. 
San Miguel Lake and River, 218. 
San Rafael, see To's&to. 
Sandals, 161. 
Sand-altars, 44. 

Sand-paintings, see Dry-paintings. 
Santa Fe, N. Mex., 87, 142. 
Sarcasm, 249. 
.Sajnalkahi, Bear that Pursues (god), 124, 

187, 189. 
Sciurus aberti, 22, 34. 
Scourging, 106. 
Scrofula, 8. 

Seats, refused by hero, 127. 
Seeds, magical growth of, 74. 
Sentinels, before house of Sun, in. 
Second world, blue in color, 65. 
Sexes, quarrel of, 72, 73. 
Shamans, 26, 49, 56-59, 205. ^ 
Shells, sacred, 83, 86, 226. 
Shells, white magical, 73, 152. 
She-rain, 166. 
Ship Rock, see Tse'bi/ai. 
Shooting deity, see HzsXsio\to\. 
Silver Lake, Colo., 219. 
Simpson, J. H., 220, 223, 234. 
Sinew (so called), 240. 
Sky, houses in, 86. 
Sky, of four colors, 92. 
Sky, poles or supports of, 113, 223. 
Sky Father, see Ykdilyil. 
Sky-hole, 66, 113, 200, 204, 205, 233. 
Slavery, 86, 146, 241. 
Slaves, descendants from gens, 146. 
Smell, discovery of hero by, 94. 
Snake-skin, assumed, 188. 
Snow buntings, couriers, 130. 
Song of the Approach, 35. 
Song of the Eagles, 257. 
Song of the Ascension, 257. 
Song of Estsanatlehi, 124, 261. 
Songs of the Log, 266. 
Songs, sacred, 24-28, 166, 167, 199. 
Spider People, 98. 
Spider Woman, see Nastre Estsan. 
Spiders, 98-100, 228, 231. 
Sporobolus cryptandrus, 162. 
Squash, 183, etc. 
Squirrels, 74. 

Stars, Creation of, 80, 223, 224. 
Stephen, A. M., 41, 212. 
Sticks, sacrificial, 42. 
Store-houses, 142, 240. 
Storm-cloud, in decoration, 244. 
Storm-raising, see Hoops. 
Storms, northern, once women, 144. 



Sudatory, 16, 112. 

Suds, 163, 204. 

Sun, as god, 86, 223. 

Sun, creation of, 80. 

Sun, homes of, in, 127, 133, 232. 

Sunbeams, 117. 

Sunbeams on rain, 231. 

Sun-bearer, see Tjohanoai. 

Sun-children, go in quest of their father, 

110-113, 232. 
Sunflowers, 202, 235. 
Sun-god, 33. 
Sun-maidens, in, 232. 
Sun-weapons, 113. 
Sunset Peak, Ariz., 242. 
Swallow People, 65, 216. 
Symbols, in body-painting, 253. 

Taboo, 142, 239. 

Talismans, 82, 128, 237. 

7anapa, 6, 12. 

Tapeworm (disease), 247. 

Tarantula?, 228, 231. 

7Helge7 (anaye), 80, 107, 113, 116-124, 235. 

Texts, how obtained, 54. 

Z/fca'neza', Among the Scattered Hills 

(place), 142. 
7%a'neza'ni (gens), 30, 142, 143, 157. 
72a'paha (gens), 30, 143-M7, 1 57» 240. 
7%a'paha-,£alkai, 142, 145. 
T&a'trini (gens), 30, 145, 158. 
Thirteen chips, game of, 83. 
Three lights (white, morning, blue, day, yel- 
low, evening), 63. 
Three-sticks, game of, 77. 
Throat disease, 8. 
Tieholtsodi (water god), 63, 64, 73, 74, 77, 

126, 168-170, 212, 219, 220, 232. 
Tieholtsodi, of upper world, 126. 
Tiefw (Poverty), 131. 
Tielfw, sentinels of water god, 168, 246. 
Tinneh, 12. 
Title of Book, I. 
Tlastn'ni (gens), 30, 146, 158. 
Tlo'ayuin/i'tigi, great fish, 168. 
Tobacco, sacred, 42, 176-178, 214, 247. 
Tb'badzistrini, Child of the Water (war 

god), 34-36, 116, 122, 124, 126-128, 134, 

165, 234, 246, 252-254. 
7b'bi///askiVi (Centre of First World), 63. 
To'dltsini (gens), 30, 148, 150, 155. 157. 
7bVoko«zi (place), 139, 152. 
To'dokonzi (gens), 30, 152, 239. 
T6'/5ani (gens), 30, 145, 157. 
7bhe (magic cry), 93, 226. 
7b1'nrtbtsos (place), 87, 142. 
7"6'nenili, Water Sprinkler, rain-god, 37, 68, 

126, 166-170, 252. 
7b'nihili« (whirling lake), 194. 
Torlino (priest), 57, 58, 231. 
7b'sa/o, Warm Spring, San Rafael, N. Mex., 

114, 232. 233. 
Totemism, 31, 239. 
7o'tso, Great Water (place), 159. 
7b'tsoni (gens), 30, 159. 
7b'ye'tli, Meeting Waters, home of war 

gods, 30, 146, 154, 165, 238. 
Trails, or paths, holy, 104, 109, 134, 168, 


Transformation, 103, 112, etc 
Translation of legends, 53. 
Transportation, miraculous, 165. 
Travelling Stone, anaye, 125. 
Trials, of hero, in, 113, 179. 
Tribal organization, 29. 
Trophies, 116, 118, 123, 126, 132. 
Trout Lake, 218. 
Tra/yeV, Darkness, 83, 101. 
Tsa'olga^asze (place), 139, 140. 
Tsasitsozsaka*/ (place), home of /TaA/artsisi, 

Tse'a/fcalzTni, Rock with Black Hole (home 

of Binaye A^ani), 81, 123, 124. 
Tse'bahastsit, Rock tnat Frightens, 124. 
Tse'bi/ai, Winged Rock, home of Tse'na'- 

hale, 119, 120, 235. 
Tje'dani, expression of contempt, 236. 
Tse'deza', Standing Rock (place), 195-197. 
Tse'dine', Rock People, 156. 
Tse'dzmki'ni (gens), 29, 138, 158, 239. 
Tse'espai (place), 125. 
Tse'gihi (home of yei), 87, 136, 166, 238, 

Tselnliw Valley, 240. 
TseVakafia (place), 81, 104, 137, 138. 
Tse'nagahi, Travelling Stone (anaye), 125. 
Tse'na'hale (winged monsters, anaye), 80, 

107, 113, 1 19-124, 126, 235, 236. 
Tse'nahapi'/ni (gens), 30, 156, 157. 
Tse'tatii (home of a'lgini), 164, 166. 
Tse7a/*otril/a7i, He Who Kicks People 

Down the Cliff (anaye), 81, 107, 122, 124, 

Tse'tlani (gems), 29, 139. 
Tse'zftWiai (gens), 30, 145, 241. 
Ts!das/6i (bird), 249. 
Tsidas/6i Z>ine', mythic people, 191, 193 
Tsi'di Beze (birds, mythic), 89. 
Tsidi//6i (Bird), 124, 236. 
Tsi'di Sisi (birds, mythic), 89, 90. 
Trike Nazi'li, Young Woman who Rattles, 

Tjike Sas Natlehi, 229. 
Tsflka/i (a bird), 84. 
TsinadzT'-ni (gens), 30, 141-143, 146. 
Tfi'ndi (devil), 37. 
Tsisnadzi'ni, Pelado Peak, N. Mex., 71, 220, 

Tjohanoai, sun-bearer (god), 80, in, 112, 

113, 126, 127, 132, 133, 252. 
Tfohhi (sacred mountain), 78, 79, 105, 133, 

TsotsT/ (Mount Taylor), 200, 205-207. 
Trozga/i (a bird), 79, 222. 
Tsowenatlehi, Changing Grandchild (war 

god), 124, 236, 237. 
Tjuj-kai, 39, 212. 

Tuintsa, Abundant Water, Tuincha Moun- 
tains, N. Mex., 134, 210. 
Turkey, why tail-feathers pale, 218. 
Turkeys, pet, 164, 171-175, 180, 244. 
Turquoise, 80, 104, in, 185, etc. 

Underworld, 185. 
Unkt^hi, Dakota god, 212. 
Utes, 18, 30, 146. 

Verbesina enceloides, 248. 



Vision of the war gods, 127. 
Vomiting, 227. 

Wallascheck, Richard, 255, 257. 

Wands, magic, 150-153, 221. 

War Gods, see Nayenezgani and 7b'badsls- 

War gods, apparitions of, 238. 
Water bottle, invention of, 70. 
Water, causes conception, 105. 
Water, four kinds of, 80, 218, 223. 
Water god, burned, 170. 
Water god, see Tieholtsodi. 
Water made to spring up, 151. 
Water of Old Age, see San Juan River. 
Water People, sacred, 169. 
Water, sacred, 222. 
Water Sprinkler, see 7o'nenili. 
Waters, house under the, 73. 
Weapons, divine, 113, 132, 233. 
Weasels, 74. 
Weaving, 19. 
Western immigrants, so called, see ZTine' 

White Corn, symbolism of, 217. 
White Corn Boy, 79, 105. 
White House, home of yei, Chelly Canyon, 

36, 251. 
White Mountain Thunder (god), 64. 
White people (not Caucasians), 249. 
White shell beads, 163. 
White Shell Woman, see Yo/kai Estsan. 
White under the Rock (anaye), 126. 
Whirlwinds, 101, 202, 251. 
Wind, gives life, 69. 
Wind, see Nil'tei. 
Wind, trail of, on finger-tips, 69. 
Wind People, 177, 179, 184. 
Winds, four, 165, 166, 219. 
yWitchcraft and witches, 40, 70, 187, 220, 249. 
Witches, chieftainess of, see Estsan Natan. 

Wolf, 77, 87, 200. 
Wolf People, 192. 
Woman Who Rejuvenates Herself, see Es 

Women, social position of, 10, 240. 
Woodpeckers, red-shafted, 245. 
Wood-rats, 160-162. 
World, edge of, 65, 80, 113. 
World, how enlarged, 223. 
Worlds, five, 65-76. 

Ykdilyil, Sky Father (god), 230. 

Yazoni, beautiful, good, 247. 

Yebaad, female yei, 37, 243. 

Yebaka, male yei, 252. 

Yebitrai, maternal grandfather, name of 

JJastseyalti, 224. 
Yei, gods, 35-38, 93, 106, 217, 231, 234, 254. 
Yei, in kledzi hatdJ, list of, 252. 
Yeitso (anaye), 108, 113, 114-116, 231, 234. 
Ye/apahi (anaye), 91-94, 226. 
Yellow Corn Girl, 79, 105, 136. 
Yellow Fox People, 192. 
Yellow Light People, 104. 
Yellow under the Rock (anaye), 126. 
Yellow Warbler, 79. 
Yoi hataJ, 53, 195, 250. 
Yoidze haikl, bead chant, 53, 250, 267. 
Yo/kai Estsan, White Shell Woman (go( 

dess), 34, 105, 135, 230, 231, etc. 
Young Woman Who Rattles, see Tjik 

Yucca, 102, 103, 125, 212, 228, 229. 
Yucca-fibre, 161. 

Yucca People (gens), 30, 140, 239. 
Yucca suds, 163, 184, 227. 
YiWi (goods), 222. 

Zenith and nadir, 216. 

Zoolatry, 38. 

Zuni, 2, 10, 22, 36, 145, 158, 242. 



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